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Dale Fisher, Paul Wicks, Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
The development of new therapies has a rich history, evolves quickly with societal trends, and will have an exciting future. The last century has seen an exponential increase in complex interactions between medical practitioners, pharmaceutical companies, governments and patients. We believe technology and societal expectations will open up the opportunity for more individuals to participate as information becomes more freely available and inequality less acceptable. Corporations must recognize that usual market forces do not function ideally in a setting where health is regarded as a human right, and as modern consumers, patients will increasingly take control of their own data, wellbeing, and even the means of production for developing their own treatments...
October 25, 2016: BMC Medicine
Alfred Maroyi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crinum macowanii is a deciduous bulbous plant which grows in east, central and southern Africa. Crinum macowanii has been used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of east and southern Africa has for several centuries. The bulb, leaves and roots of C. macowanii are reported to possess diverse medicinal properties and used to treat or manage various human and animal diseases and ailments throughout its distributional range. Crinum macowanii is used traditionally as a remedy for boils, diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, respiratory system problems, skin rashes, tuberculosis, wounds and urinary tract problems...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jeremiah Seni, Enock Sweya, Amri Mabewa, Stephen E Mshana, Japhet M Gilyoma
BACKGROUND: Secondary peritonitis is a common surgical emergence with deadly outcomes when not timely and promptly intervened. The emergence of Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria (ESBL) poses treatment challenge at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC); hence a need to evaluate the magnitude of ESBL so as to guide specific therapy. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at BMC from May 2014 to April 2015 involving patients with secondary peritonitis...
October 21, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
David Faraoni, Simon Thomas Schaefer
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for clinical research, thus having a high impact on clinical guidelines and our daily patients' care. However, various treatment strategies which we consider "evidence based" have never been subject to a prospective RCT, as we would rate it unethical to withheld an established treatment to individuals in an placebo controlled trial.In a recent BMC Anesthesiology publication, Trentino et al. analyzed the usefulness of observational studies in assessing benefit and risk of different transfusion strategies...
October 21, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Jessalyn M Ubellacker, Sandra S McAllister
Systemic factors including cytokines, cell-free nucleic acids, microvesicles, and platelets are appreciated as important regulators of adenocarcinoma progression. Research findings using pre-clinical mouse models have revealed that many such systemically acting factors are either secreted by or responsive to peripheral tumors and impact bone and bone marrow (collectively referred to as the bone microenvironment) to initiate processes that ultimately govern disease progression, even in the absence of detectable bone metastases...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
L Naffaa, M Rubin, A C Stamler, M Haddad, C Saade
AIM: To investigate the frequency of sonographic findings that required neurosurgical consultation for all referred outpatients suspected to have benign macrocrania (BMC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed from September 2011 until June 2015 for all outpatients referred to the ultrasound (US) department for BMC. Electronic medical records, US images, and reports were reviewed in conjunction with follow-up imaging. Each review consisted of gender, specialty of referring physician, first head circumference, head circumference at or closest to the time of the head US, the last head circumference, and any neurological issue prior to the US, at the time of US, or following the US, and clinical outcomes...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Radiology
Jason Reich, Ling Guo, Julia Hall, Ashley Tran, Janice Weinberg, Jacob Groshek, Tanya E Rowell, Jack A DiPalma, Francis A Farraye
BACKGROUND: With the recent increase in the use of social media, patients with chronic illnesses are using the Internet as a resource for disease management. As the peak incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occurs in patients between the ages of 15 and 30, IBD is a suitable condition to study social media use. The aim of this study was to assess social media usage and preferences in patients with IBD. METHODS: We administered a survey to 118 patients with IBD at our outpatient practice at the Boston Medical Center (BMC), Center for Digestive Disorders, and the University of Southern Alabama (USA) between November 1, 2015, and March 9, 2016...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Domenic V Cicchetti, Ami Klin, Fred R Volkmar
Cohen's (Educ Psychol Meth. 1960;23:37-40) kappa statistic has been criticized recently for providing low chance-corrected coefficients (<0.40) despite high levels of examiner agreement (e.g., ≥85%). The AC1 statistic (Series. 2002;2:1-9; BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:61), the alpha statistic (J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:775-782), the B statistic (BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013;13:97), and the delta statistic (Commun Statist Theory Meth. 2008;37:760-772) were developed to "correct" this "problem." Each of these statistics produces inaccurate results because they either derive from levels of chance agreement that are incorrect (Gwet's AC1 statistic) or fail to correct for chance levels of agreement (the alpha, B, and delta approaches)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Miguel A Martínez-González
Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A landmark randomized trial (PREDIMED) together with many well-conducted long-term observational prospective cohort studies support this causal effect.A new, large British cohort study by Tong et al. assessing the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease was recently published in BMC Medicine...
October 14, 2016: BMC Medicine
A Ireland, R F Capozza, G R Cointry, L Nocciolino, J L Ferretti, J Rittweger
: Fibula response to disuse is unknown; we assessed fibula bone in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and able-bodied counterparts. Group differences were smaller than in the neighbouring tibia which could not be explained by bone geometry. Differential adaptation of the shank bones may indicate previously unknown mechanoadaptive behaviours of bone. INTRODUCTION: The fibula supports only a small and highly variable proportion of shank compressive load (-8 to +19 %), and little is known about other kinds of stresses...
October 12, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Mustapha Bouhrara, Richard G Spencer
A number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases exhibit changes in myelin content and magnetic resonance longitudinal, T1, and transverse, T2, relaxation times, which therefore represent important biomarkers of CNS pathology. Among the methods applied for measurement of myelin water fraction (MWF) and relaxation times, the multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) approach is of particular interest. mcDESPOT permits whole brain mapping of multicomponent T1 and T2, with data acquisition accomplished within a clinically realistic acquisition time...
October 8, 2016: NeuroImage
Hsi-Hsien Lin, Martin Stacey
As the largest receptor gene family in the human genome, with >800 members, the signal-transducing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in nearly all conceivable physiological processes, ranging from the sensing of photons and odorants to metabolic homeostasis and migration of leukocytes. Unfortunately, an exhaustive review of the several hundred GPCRs expressed by myeloid cells/macrophages (P.J. Groot-Kormelink, L .Fawcett, P.D. Wright, M. Gosling, and T.C. Kent, BMC Immunol 12:57, 2012, doi:10...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Alexis J Feuer, Ashley Thai, Ryan T Demmer, Maria Vogiatzi
Importance: Murine studies reveal that sympathetic nervous system activation leads to decreased bone mass. Stimulant medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increase sympathetic tone and may affect bone remodeling. Because bone mass accrual is completed by young adulthood, assessing stimulant effects on bone density in growing children is of critical importance. Objective: To investigate associations between stimulant use and bone mass in children and adolescents...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Steven C Myers, Joshua D Safer
OBJECTIVE: According to the CDC, while 68% of adult smokers nationally desire to quit, only 6.2% successfully quit in a given year. Transgender women seen for hormone therapy at Boston Medical Center (BMC) are strongly advised to quit smoking before the start of treatment, not only due to general health benefits, but also because of the concern for increased thromboembolic events with estrogen therapy. Transgender men are given the same recommendation regarding tobacco as any patient...
September 28, 2016: Endocrine Practice
Min-Ho Woo, Kyu-Ho Yoon, Kwan-Soo Park, Jae-An Park
Bifid mandibular condyle (BMC) is an uncommon morphological variant of the mandibular condyle. Although authors have proposed various etiologies for BMC, no consensus has emerged. In addition, varying findings have been reported regarding the epidemiological parameters of BMC (e.g., prevalence, gender ratio, and age), possibly due to its low incidence. BMC is occasionally associated with symptoms of the temporomandibular joint, such as ankylosis, pain, and trismus; however, it is difficult to detect this condition on conventional radiographs...
September 2016: Imaging Science in Dentistry
Stefano Stagi, Loredana Cavalli, Tiziana Cavalli, Maurizio de Martino, Maria Luisa Brandi
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography provides an automatical scan analysis of trabecular and cortical bone compartments, calculating not only their bone mineral density (BMD), but also bone geometrical parameters, such as marrow and cortical Cross-Sectional Area (CSA), Cortical Thickness (CoTh), both periosteal and endosteal circumference, as well as biomechanical parameters like Cross-Sectional Moment of Inertia (CSMI), a measure of bending, polar moment of inertia, indicating bone strength in torsion, and Strength Strain Index (SSI)...
September 26, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Claudia Harper, Andrea L Pattinson, Hamish A Fernando, Jessica Zibellini, Radhika V Seimon, Amanda Sainsbury
BACKGROUND: New evidence suggests that obesity is deleterious for bone health, and obesity treatments could potentially exacerbate this. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This narrative review, largely based on recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, synthesizes the effects on bone of bariatric surgery, weight loss pharmaceuticals and dietary restriction. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All three obesity treatments result in statistically significant reductions in hip bone mineral density (BMD) and increases in bone turnover relative to pre-treatment values, with the reductions in hip BMD being strongest for bariatric surgery, notably Roux-en Y gastric bypass (RYGB, 8%-11% of pre-surgical values) and weakest for dietary restriction (1%-1...
September 26, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Zhongjian Cheng, Venkata Garikipati, Emily Nickoloff, Chunlin Wang, David J Polhemus, Jibin Zhou, Cynthia Benedict, Mohsin Khan, Suresh K Verma, Joseph E Rabinowitz, David Lefer, Raj Kishore
BACKGROUND: -Bone marrow cell-based treatment for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetic patients yielded a modest therapeutic effect due to cell dysfunction. Therefore, approaches that improve diabetic stem/progenitor cell functions may provide therapeutic benefits. Here, we tested the hypotheses that restoration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production in diabetic bone marrow cells (BMCs) improves their reparative capacities. METHODS: -Mouse BMCs were isolated by density-gradient centrifugation...
September 22, 2016: Circulation
Luke Alphey
Release of sterile insects, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), can be an extremely effective and precise method of pest control. A study in BMC Biology from the New World screwworm SIT program and others shows that modern genetic methods can provide major improvements even to this well-established and highly successful SIT program.See research article:
2016: BMC Biology
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