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Healthy snacks

S Nicole Fearnbach, Travis D Masterson, Haley A Schlechter, Amanda J Ross, Michael J Rykaczewski, Eric Loken, Danielle S Downs, David Thivel, Kathleen L Keller
BACKGROUND: Exercise not only has a direct effect on energy balance through energy expenditure (EE), but also has an indirect effect through its impact on energy intake (EI). This study examined the effects of acute exercise on daily ad libitum EI in children at risk for becoming overweight due to family history. METHODS: Twenty healthy-weight children (ages 9-12 years, 12 male/8 female) with at least one overweight biological parent (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) participated...
October 21, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Rachel G Lucas-Thompson, Dan J Graham, Emily Ullrich, David MacPhee
Past research has demonstrated that parenting style is related to children's health and eating patterns, and that parenting can vary across time and context. However, there is little evidence about similarities and differences between general, self-reported parenting style and observed parenting during grocery shopping. The goals of this study were to investigate links between general parenting style, parental warmth and limit setting (important dimensions of parenting style) during grocery shopping, and the healthfulness of foods chosen...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone
This cross-sectional study examined how energy density (ED) in meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, BMI and waist circumference (WC). On the basis of the data from 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years. Irrespective of the definition of meals and snacks, both meal ED and snack ED (kJ/g; calculated on the basis of solid food only) were inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the healthy diet indicator (regression coefficient (β)=-0·29 to -0·21 and -0·07 to -0·04, respectively) and Mediterranean diet score (β=-0·43 to -0·30 and -0·13 to -0·06, respectively) in both sexes (P≤0·002), although the associations were stronger for meal ED...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Sabine Sonnentag, Alexander Pundt, Laura Venz
This study aimed at examining predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. As proximal predictors we looked at food-choice motives (health motive, affect-regulation motive); as distal predictors we included organizational eating climate, emotional eating, and self-control demands at work. We collected daily survey data from 247 employees, over a period of 2 workweeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that organizational eating climate predicted health as food-choice motive, whereas emotional eating and self-control demands predicted affect regulation as food-choice motive...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
Geneviève Painchaud Guérard, Simone Lemieux, Éric Doucet, Sonia Pomerleau, Véronique Provencher
Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three ("healthy" versus "diet" (i.e., satiating) versus "hedonic") by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18-65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Benjamin P Green, Emma J Stevenson, Penny L S Rumbold
Comprising of two experiments, this study assessed the metabolic, endocrine and appetite-related responses to acute and chronic milk consumption in adolescent males (15-18 y). Eleven adolescents [mean ± SD age: 16.5 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 23.3 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)] participated in the acute experiment and completed two laboratory visits (milk vs. fruit-juice) in a randomized crossover design, separated by 7-d. Seventeen adolescents [age: 16.1 ± 0.9 y; BMI: 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)] completed the chronic experiment...
September 26, 2016: Appetite
Chantel L Martin, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Whitney R Robinson, Julie L Daniels, Eliana M Perrin, Alison M Stuebe
BACKGROUND: Child obesity is a major problem in the United States. Identifying early-life risk factors is necessary for prevention. Maternal diet during pregnancy is a primary source of fetal energy and might influence risk of child obesity. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively investigated the influence of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy on child growth in the first 3 y of life in 389 mother-child pairs from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study. METHODS: Dietary patterns were derived with the use of latent class analysis (LCA) based on maternal diet, collected with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire at 26-29 wk gestation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Lorraine N Bandelli, Heewon Lee Gray, Rachel C Paul, Isobel R Contento, Pamela A Koch
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevention is a pressing issue. Understanding the relationships among eating and physical activity behaviors and potential psychosocial determinants of behavior will help us design more effective interventions. This study aimed to examine such relationships in a large sample of urban elementary school children. METHODS: Fifth grade students in 20 recruited New York City public schools completed a validated questionnaire on six "do more" (fruits and vegetables and physical activity) and "do less" (sweetened beverages, processed packaged snacks, fast food and sedentary behavior) energy balance related behaviors (EBRBs) and psychosocial determinants of behavior from social cognitive and self-determination theories...
September 24, 2016: Appetite
Gert-Jan de Bruijn, Minh Hao Nguyen, Ryan E Rhodes, Liesbeth van Osch
Evidence to date suggests heterogeneity in the effects of implementation intentions on health behaviour, including diet. Additional variables and study designs may impact on their effectiveness. Preparatory action, such as making sure fruits are available for consumption, may be an important additional variable. Likewise, most implementation intention research has focused on changes in general intake, yet implementation intention instructions typically require participants to consider behaviour in specific situations...
September 23, 2016: Appetite
Eleshia J Morrison, Matthew M Clark, Mark L Wieland, Jennifer A Weis, Marcelo M K Hanza, Sonja J Meiers, Christi A Patten, Jeff A Sloan, Paul J Novotny, Leslie A Sim, Julie A Nigon, Irene G Sia
Immigrants experience an escalation of negative health behaviors after arrival to the United States. Negative mood is associated with poorer health behaviors in the general population; however, this relationship is understudied in immigrant populations. Adolescent (n = 81) and adult (n = 70) participants completed a health behavior survey for immigrant families using a community-based participatory research approach. Data was collected for mood, nutrition, and physical activity. Adolescents with positive mood drank less regular soda, and demonstrated more minutes, higher levels, and greater social support for physical activity (all ps < ...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Isabel Iguacel, Juan M Fernández-Alvira, Karin Bammann, Bart De Clercq, Gabriele Eiben, Wencke Gwozdz, Dénes Molnar, Valeria Pala, Stalo Papoutsou, Paola Russo, Toomas Veidebaum, Maike Wolters, Claudia Börnhorst, Luis A Moreno
Socio-economic inequalities in childhood can determine dietary patterns, and therefore future health. This study aimed to explore associations between social vulnerabilities and dietary patterns assessed at two time points, and to investigate the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and dietary patterns. A total of 9301 children aged 2-9 years participated at baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS study...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Leah E Robinson, Kara K Palmer, Kristen L Bub
Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Nurul-Fadhilah Abdullah, Pey Sze Teo, Leng Huat Foo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the ethnic differences in dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. METHODS: A population-based study of 454 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years was included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns and three dietary patterns were identified based on the principal component analysis method. RESULTS: Malay adolescents had significantly higher scores for the Western-based food pattern and local-based food pattern, whereas Chinese adolescents showed higher scores for the healthy-based food pattern...
2016: Nutrients
Christopher J Bryan, David S Yeager, Cintia P Hinojosa, Aimee Chabot, Holly Bergen, Mari Kawamura, Fred Steubing
What can be done to reduce unhealthy eating among adolescents? It was hypothesized that aligning healthy eating with important and widely shared adolescent values would produce the needed motivation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment with eighth graders (total n = 536) evaluated the impact of a treatment that framed healthy eating as consistent with the adolescent values of autonomy from adult control and the pursuit of social justice. Healthy eating was suggested as a way to take a stand against manipulative and unfair practices of the food industry, such as engineering junk food to make it addictive and marketing it to young children...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
N De Cock, J Van Camp, P Kolsteren, C Lachat, L Huybregts, L Maes, B Deforche, R Verstraeten, J Vangeel, K Beullens, S Eggermont, W Van Lippevelde
BACKGROUND: A short, reliable and valid tool to measure snack and beverage consumption in adolescents, taking into account the correct definitions, would benefit both epidemiological and intervention research. The present study aimed to develop a short quantitative beverage and snack food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to assess the reliability and validity of this FFQ against three 24-h recalls. METHODS: Reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of the FFQ administered 14 days apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2) in a convenience sample of 179 adolescents [60...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Andrea Charvet, Kathryn Brogan Hartlieb, Yulyu Yeh, K-L Catherine Jen
BACKGROUND: Obesity disproportionately affects children from low-income families and those from racial and ethnic minorities. The relationship between snacking and weight status remains unclear, although snacking is known to be an important eating episode for energy and nutrient intake particularly in young children. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the snack intake of minority preschool children enrolled in the Head Start Program in four centers in Detroit, Michigan, and investigate differences by child weight status...
2016: BMC Obesity
Tuki Attuquayefio, Richard J Stevenson, Robert A Boakes, Megan J Oaten, Martin R Yeomans, Mehmet Mahmut, Heather M Francis
Animal data indicate that greater intake of fats and sugars prevalent in a Western diet impairs hippocampal memory and tests of behavioral inhibition known to be related to hippocampal function (e.g., feature negative discrimination tasks). It has been argued that such high-fat high-sugar diets (HFS) impair the hippocampus, which then becomes less sensitive to modulation by physiological state. Thus retrieval of motivationally salient memories (e.g., when seeing or smelling food) occurs irrespective of state...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
You Jin Choi, Eun Kyo Ha, Su Jin Jeong
PURPOSE: To identify the relationship between dietary habits and childhood gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in preschool children. METHODS: We performed a questionnaire study to analyze the relationship between dietary habits and GERD in 85 preschool children with GERD and 117 healthy children of the same age. RESULTS: Irregular and picky eating were more p-revalent in the GERD group than in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 4.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Marjanne Senekal, Gabrielle L Lasker, Lindsay van Velden, Ria Laubscher, Norman J Temple
BACKGROUND: Female university students are at risk for weight gain and use of inappropriate weight-loss strategies. By gaining a greater understanding of the weight-loss strategies used by and weight management related characteristics of these students, effective weight management interventions for this vulnerable group can be developed. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty female students from South Africa universities, aged 18-25 years, participated in this cross-sectional study; 162 attempted weight loss during the year preceding the study (dieters) and 88 were non-dieters...
2016: BMC Public Health
Sherly Parackal
BACKGROUND: South Asians (SA) have a four to five fold higher risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in comparison to other Asian migrant groups. Dietary patterns have been attributed as an important independent modifiable risk factor. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to document the dietary patterns of SA migrants in Western countries and to summarize the evidence for the association of dietary patterns with T2DM and its pre-disposing factors. METHODS: Using key search words articles from 1990 onwards were sourced from MEDLINE ProQuest and PubMed (not MEDLINE) databases for this narrative review...
August 31, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
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