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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780324/intercalated-disk-extracellular-nanodomain-expansion-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Tristan B Raisch, Matthew S Yanoff, Timothy R Larsen, Mohammed A Farooqui, D Ryan King, Rengasayee Veeraraghavan, Robert G Gourdie, Joseph W Baker, William S Arnold, Soufian T AlMahameed, Steven Poelzing
Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Previous evidence in animal models suggests that the gap junction (GJ) adjacent nanodomain - perinexus - is a site capable of independent intercellular communication via ephaptic transmission. Perinexal expansion is associated with slowed conduction and increased ventricular arrhythmias in animal models, but has not been studied in human tissue. The purpose of this study was to characterize the perinexus in humans and determine if perinexal expansion associates with AF...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778854/proposed-stages-of-myocardial-phenotype-development-in-fabry-disease
#2
Sabrina Nordin, Rebecca Kozor, Katia Medina-Menacho, Amna Abdel-Gadir, Shanat Baig, Daniel M Sado, Ilaria Lobascio, Elaine Murphy, Robin H Lachmann, Atul Mehta, Nicola C Edwards, Uma Ramaswami, Richard P Steeds, Derralynn Hughes, James C Moon
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to explore the Fabry myocardium in relation to storage, age, sex, structure, function, electrocardiogram changes, blood biomarkers, and inflammation/fibrosis. BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, x-linked lysosomal storage disorder. Mortality is mainly cardiovascular with men exhibiting cardiac symptoms earlier than women. By cardiovascular magnetic resonance, native T1 is low in FD because of sphingolipid accumulation. METHODS: A prospective, observational study of 182 FD (167 adults, 15 children; mean age 42 ± 17 years, 37% male) who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance including native T1, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and extracellular volume fraction, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and blood biomarkers (troponin and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide)...
May 11, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778748/protein-kinases-are-involved-in-the-cardioprotective-effects-activated-by-platelet-glycoprotein-iib-iiia-inhibitor-tirofiban-at-reperfusion-in-rats-in-vivo
#3
Shih-Tai Chang, Ya-Ting Yang, Chi-Ming Chu, Kuo-Li Pan, Jen-Te Hsu, Ju-Feng Hsiao, Yu-Sheng Lin, Chang-Min Chung
The thrombolytic effect of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors) in myocardial infarction has been well established. Nevertheless, data on the mechanism of the cardioprotective effect of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in ischemic-reperfusion injury (IR) are lacking. Sprague-Dawley rats received 120min of coronary ischemia and 180min of reperfusion. A GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor was given via continuous intravenous infusion at a rate of 2 ug/kg/min 30min prior to reperfusion with/without inhibitors of PKCε (chelerythrine), PI3 kinase and Akt (wortmannin), p38 MAPK (SB203582), p42/44 MAPK (PD98059) and ERK1/2 (u0126) 15min prior to the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778719/effect-of-heptanol-and-ethanol-on-excitation-wave-propagation-in-a-neonatal-rat-ventricular-myocyte-monolayer
#4
A D Podgurskaya, V A Tsvelaya, S R Frolova, I Y Kalita, N N Kudryashova, K I Agladze
In this work, the action of heptanol and ethanol was investigated in a two-dimensional (2D) model of cardiac tissue: the neonatal rat ventricular myocyte monolayer. Heptanol is known in electrophysiology as a gap junction uncoupler but may also inhibit voltage-gated ionic channels. Ethanol is often associated with the occurrence of arrhythmias. These substances influence sodium, calcium, and potassium channels, but the complete mechanism of action of heptanol and ethanol remains unknown. The optical mapping method was used to measure conduction velocities (CVs) in concentrations of 0...
May 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776422/beating-the-odds-programming-proliferation-in-the-mammalian-heart
#5
Rajan Jain, Andrey Poleshko, Jonathan A Epstein
The heart is one of the least regenerative organs in the human body; adult cardiac myocytes divide at extremely low frequency. Therefore, meaningful induction of cardiac regeneration requires in-depth understanding of myocyte cell-cycle control. Recent insights into how myocytes can be coaxed into duplicating in vivo might inform emerging therapeutics.
May 18, 2018: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776409/calcitriol-downregulates-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-through-histone-deacetylase-activation-in-hl-1-atrial-myocytes
#6
Ting-Wei Lee, Ting-I Lee, Yung-Kuo Lin, Yu-Hsun Kao, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). FGF-2 was reported to induce cardiac hypertrophy through activation of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). Multiple laboratory findings indicate that calcitriol may be a potential treatment for CVDs. In this study, we attempted to investigate whether calcitriol regulates FGFR1 expression to modulate the effects of FGF-2 signaling in cardiac myocytes and explored the potential regulatory mechanism...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774530/cardiomyocyte-programmed-necrosis-mitochondria-death-receptor-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Junxia Zhang, Dairu Liu, Mao Zhang, Yan Zhang
Excessive death of cardiac myocytes leads to multiple cardiac diseases, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. For the last several decades, most work on cell death has focused on apoptosis, which is generally considered as the only form of regulated cell death, whereas necrosis has been regarded to be an unregulated process. Recent findings reveal that necrosis also occurs in a regulated manner and that it is closely related to the physiology and pathophysiology of multiple organs, including the heart...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772546/gpcr-autoantibodies-in-chronic-heart-failure
#8
Valerie Boivin-Jahns, Roland Jahns
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a syndrome characterized by shortness of breath, fluid retention, and a progressive reduction in cardiac function. More than 60% of the cases are ischemic in origin (i.e., due to myo-cardial infarction) and about 30% are caused by non-ischemic myocardial damage (i.e., due to genetic or non-genetic causes like myocardial inflammation). Because of alterations in both cellular and humoral immunity patients with non-ischemic CHF often develop abnormal or misled immune responses, including cross-reacting antibodies and/or autoantibodies to various cardiac anti-gens...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769426/effect-of-the-intracellular-calcium-concentration-chelator-bapta-acetoxy-methylester-on-action-potential-duration-in-canine-ventricular-myocytes
#9
B Horvath, N Szentandrassy, R Veress, D Baranyai, K Kistamas, J Almassy, A Toth, J Magyar, T Banyasz, P P Nanasi
Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i ) is often buffered by using the cell-permeant acetoxy-methylester form of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (BAPTA-AM) under experimental conditions. This study was designed to investigate the time-dependent actions of extracellularly applied BAPTA-AM on action potential duration (APD) in cardiac cells. Action potentials were recorded from enzymatically isolated canine ventricular myocytes with conventional sharp microelectrodes. The effect of BAPTA-AM on the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr ) was studied using conventional voltage clamp and action potential voltage clamp techniques...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769316/the-serine-threonine-protein-kinase-endoribonuclease-ire1%C3%AE-protects-the-heart-against-pressure-overload-induced-heart-failure
#10
DeAnna Steiger, Tomohiro Yokota, Jin Li, Shuxun Ren, Susumu Minamisawa, Yibin Wang
Heart failure is associated with induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). The serine/threonine protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1α is a key protein in ER stress signal transduction. IRE1α activity can induce both protective UPR and apoptotic downstream signaling events, but the specific role for IRE1α activity in the heart is unknown. A major aim of this study was to characterize the specific contribution of IRE1α in cardiac physiology and pathogenesis. We used both cultured myocytes and a transgenic mouse line with inducible and cardiomyocyte-specific IRE1α overexpression as experimental models to achieve targeted IRE1α activation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765066/loss-of-cenp-f-results-in-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-severe-disruption-of-cardiac-myocyte-architecture
#11
Annabelle Manalo, Alison K Schroer, Aidan M Fenix, Zoe Shancer, John Coogan, Tanner Brolsma, Dylan T Burnette, W David Merryman, David M Bader
Centromere-binding protein F (CENP-F) is a very large and complex protein with many and varied binding partners including components of the microtubule network. Numerous CENP-F functions impacting diverse cellular behaviors have been identified. Importantly, emerging data have shown that CENP-F loss- or gain-of-function has critical effects on human development and disease. Still, it must be noted that data at the single cardiac myocyte level examining the impact of CENP-F loss-of-function on fundamental cellular behavior is missing...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758700/memory-induced-nonlinear-dynamics-of-excitation-in-cardiac-diseases
#12
Julian Landaw, Zhilin Qu
Excitable cells, such as cardiac myocytes, exhibit short-term memory, i.e., the state of the cell depends on its history of excitation. Memory can originate from slow recovery of membrane ion channels or from accumulation of intracellular ion concentrations, such as calcium ion or sodium ion concentration accumulation. Here we examine the effects of memory on excitation dynamics in cardiac myocytes under two diseased conditions, early repolarization and reduced repolarization reserve, each with memory from two different sources: slow recovery of a potassium ion channel and slow accumulation of the intracellular calcium ion concentration...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757281/analyses-of-mitochondrial-calcium-influx-in-isolated-mitochondria-and-cultured-cells
#13
Joshua T Maxwell, Chin-Hsien Tsai, Tahmina A Mohiuddin, Jennifer Q Kwong
Ca2+ handling by mitochondria is a critical function regulating both physiological and pathophysiological processes in a broad spectrum of cells. The ability to accurately measure the influx and efflux of Ca2+ from mitochondria is important for determining the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in these processes. In this report, we present two methods for the measurement of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling in both isolated mitochondria and cultured cells. We first detail a plate reader-based platform for measuring mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake using the Ca2+ sensitive dye calcium green-5N...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755362/the-interplay-of-rogue-and-clustered-ryanodine-receptors-regulates-ca-2-waves-in-cardiac-myocytes
#14
Xudong Chen, Yundi Feng, Yunlong Huo, Wenchang Tan
Ca2+ waves in cardiac myocytes can lead to arrhythmias owing to delayed after-depolarisations. Based on Ca2+ regulation from the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR), a mathematical model was developed to investigate the interplay of clustered and rogue RyRs on Ca2+ waves. The model successfully reproduces Ca2+ waves in cardiac myocytes, which are in agreement with experimental results. A new wave propagation mode of "spark-diffusion-quark-spark" is put forward. It is found that rogue RyRs greatly increase the initiation of Ca2+ sparks, further contribute to the formation and propagation of Ca2+ waves when the free Ca2+ concentration in JSR lumen ([Ca2+ ]lumen ) is higher than a threshold value of 0...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748369/calcium-signaling-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-mitochondria
#15
REVIEW
Edoardo Bertero, Christoph Maack
In heart failure, alterations of Na+ and Ca2+ handling, energetic deficit, and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes are important pathophysiological hallmarks. Mitochondria are central to these processes because they are the main source for ATP, but also reactive oxygen species (ROS), and their function is critically controlled by Ca2+ During physiological variations of workload, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is required to match energy supply to demand but also to keep the antioxidative capacity in a reduced state to prevent excessive emission of ROS...
May 11, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747745/the-potential-effect-of-garlic-extract-and-curcumin-nanoparticles-against-complication-accompanied-with-experimentally-induced-diabetes-in-rats
#16
Afaf D Abdel-Mageid, Mohamed E S Abou-Salem, Nancy M H A Salaam, Hoda A S El-Garhy
BACKGROUND: Modified herbal medicines implicate the combination of several therapeutic practices of native systems of medicine that may extend many earlier generations, which frequently afford valuable therapeutic benefits. PURPOSE: In this study, the role of nano-curcumin and aged garlic extract (AGE) as two modified phytomedicines on alleviating both of advanced glycation end products (AGEPs) and oxidative stress (OS) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats were investigated during this study...
April 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743542/disruption-of-neonatal-cardiomyocyte-physiology-following-exposure-to-bisphenol-a
#17
Manelle Ramadan, Meredith Sherman, Rafael Jaimes, Ashika Chaluvadi, Luther Swift, Nikki Gillum Posnack
Bisphenol chemicals are commonly used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics, polyvinyl chloride plastics, resins, and thermal printing applications. Humans are inadvertently exposed to bisphenols through contact with consumer products and/or medical devices. Recent reports have shown a link between bisphenol-a (BPA) exposure and adverse cardiovascular outcomes; although these studies have been limited to adult subjects and models. Since cardiac physiology differs significantly between the developing and adult heart, we aimed to assess the impact of BPA exposure on cardiac function, using a neonatal cardiomyocyte model...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743299/the-akap-cypher-zasp-contributes-to-%C3%AE-adrenergic-pka-stimulation-of-cardiac-ca-v-1-2-calcium-channels
#18
Haijie Yu, Can Yuan, Ruth E Westenbroek, William A Catterall
Stimulation of the L-type Ca2+ current conducted by CaV 1.2 channels in cardiac myocytes by the β-adrenergic/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway requires anchoring of PKA to the CaV 1.2 channel by an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). However, the AKAP(s) responsible for regulation in vivo remain unknown. Here, we test the role of the AKAP Cypher/Zasp in β-adrenergic regulation of CaV 1.2 channels using physiological studies of cardiac ventricular myocytes from young-adult mice lacking the long form of Cypher/Zasp (LCyphKO mice)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741915/the-role-of-microrna-1-targeting-mapk3-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-undergoing-sevoflurane-preconditioning-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#19
Yun-Ling Hao, Hong-Cheng Fang, Hong-Lei Zhao, Xiao-Li Li, Ying Luo, Bao-Quan Wu, Ming-Jie Fu, Wei Liu, Jin-Jie Liang, Xie-Hui Chen
Recent studies have uncovered the vital roles played by microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating cardiac injury. Amongst them, the cardiac enriched microRNA-1 (miR-1) has been extensively studied and proven to be detrimental to cardiac myocytes. Hence, the current study aims to explore whether miR-1 affects myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats undergoing sevoflurane preconditioning and the underlying mechanism. After successful model establishment, rats with MIRI were transfected with mimics or inhibitors of miR-1, or siRNA against MAPK3, and then were injected with sevoflurane...
May 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740331/voltage-gated-sodium-channel-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-1b-subunits-regulate-cardiac-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#20
REVIEW
Nnamdi Edokobi, Lori L Isom
Cardiac myocyte contraction is initiated by a set of intricately orchestrated electrical impulses, collectively known as action potentials (APs). Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV s) are responsible for the upstroke and propagation of APs in excitable cells, including cardiomyocytes. NaV s consist of a single, pore-forming α subunit and two different β subunits. The β subunits are multifunctional cell adhesion molecules and channel modulators that have cell type and subcellular domain specific functional effects...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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