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Sexual selection

M McGowan, M K Holland, G Boe-Hansen
This review focuses on current understanding of prenatal, prepubertal and post-pubertal development of the male reproductive system of cattle. The critical developmental events occur during the first 3 to 4 months of gestation and the first ~6 to 9 months after birth. The Wilms Tumor-1 and SRY proteins play critical roles in early development and differentiation of the fetal testis, which in turn drives gestational development of the entire male reproductive system. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures earlier in the bovine fetus than other domestic species with descent of the testes into the scrotum occurring around the 4th month of gestation...
March 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jessie P Buckley, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Susan L Teitelbaum, Antonia M Calafat, Mary S Wolff, Stephanie M Engel
BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate exposures may alter immune or inflammatory responses leading to respiratory and allergic disease. OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations of prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate biomarkers with respiratory and allergic outcomes among children in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study. METHODS: We quantified urinary biomarkers of benzophenone-3, bisphenol A, paradichlorobenzene (as 2,5-dichlorophenol), triclosan, and 10 phthalate metabolites in third trimester maternal samples and assessed asthma, wheeze, and atopic skin conditions via parent questionnaires at ages 6 and 7 years (n = 164 children with 240 observations)...
March 15, 2018: Environment International
Pia Bornefeld-Ettmann, Regina Steil, Klara A Lieberz, Martin Bohus, Sophie Rausch, Julia Herzog, Kathlen Priebe, Thomas Fydrich, Meike Müller-Engelmann
BACKGROUND: Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Amanda D Castel, Arpi Terzian, Jenevieve Opoku, Lindsey Powers Happ, Naji Younes, Michael Kharfen, Alan Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Triangulation of data from multiple sources such as clinical cohort and surveillance data can help improve our ability to describe care patterns, service utilization, comorbidities, and ultimately measure and monitor clinical outcomes among persons living with HIV infection. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether linkage of clinical cohort data and routinely collected HIV surveillance data would enhance the completeness and accuracy of each database and improve the understanding of care patterns and clinical outcomes...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Laura Jayne Broome, Cristina Izura, Nuria Lorenzo-Dus
Within the literature individuals who use the internet to facilitate the sexual abuse of a minor are generally classified as being fantasy or contact driven. Classification is based upon the intended location for sexual climax: fantasy driven individuals aim to reach sexual climax online, whereas contact driven individuals target minors to achieve physical sex offline. This review systematically investigates whether there is an empirical basis for the distinction between these two proposed discrete types. Comparison of tactics and behaviour are considered to examine whether the contact vs...
March 12, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Jessica A Haines, David W Coltman, Ben Dantzer, Jamieson C Gorrell, Murray M Humphries, Jeffrey E Lane, Andrew G McAdam, Stan Boutin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Ecology
Cmg van Driel, A S Stuursma, M J Schroevers, Mje Mourits, G H de Bock
BACKGROUND: During menopause women experience vasomotor and psychosexual symptoms that cannot entirely be alleviated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Besides, HRT is contraindicated after breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in reducing symptoms associated with menopause in natural or treatment-induced menopausal women. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and AMED were searched until June 2017...
March 15, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Nathan J Butterworth, Phillip G Byrne, Paul A Keller, James F Wallman
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an important role as contact pheromones in insects, particularly in flies. However, for many fly taxa our understanding of the importance of CHCs in sexual communication is limited. Within the family Calliphoridae (blowflies), sex-specific differences in CHCs have been reported for several species, but there is no evidence that CHCs facilitate sexual behavior. In order to elucidate the function of CHCs in Calliphoridae, studies combining behavioral and chemical analyses are required...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Jéssica Cumpian-Silva, Ana Elisa Madalena Rinaldi, Camila Medeiros da Silva Mazzeti, Wolney Lisboa Conde
The study aims to describe body phenotypes estimated by multivariate technique for the assessment of nutritional status in adolescence during the process of sexual maturation. The sample consisted of 833 schoolchildren 10 to 15 years of age, selected by complex sampling in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Body phenotypes were defined by principal components analysis (PCA) based on anthropometric data (body mass, height, skinfolds, and waist circumference), body composition (phase angle measurement by bioelectric impedance), biochemical parameters (triglycerides, glucose, total/LDL cholesterol ratio, hemoglobin), and sexual maturation (self-classification of stages of pubic hair and breasts or genitals)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Thomas C A Royle, Dionne Sakhrani, Camilla F Speller, Virginia L Butler, Robert H Devlin, Aubrey Cannon, Dongya Y Yang
Pacific salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) remains are routinely recovered from archaeological sites in northwestern North America but typically lack sexually dimorphic features, precluding the sex identification of these remains through morphological approaches. Consequently, little is known about the deep history of the sex-selective salmonid fishing strategies practiced by some of the region's Indigenous peoples. Here, we present a DNA-based method for the sex identification of archaeological Pacific salmonid remains that integrates two PCR assays that each co-amplify fragments of the sexually dimorphic on the Y chromosome (sdY) gene and an internal positive control (Clock1a or D-loop)...
2018: PloS One
Giuseppe Magistro, Philipp Weinhold, Christian G Stief, Christian Gratzke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The main objective of novel minimally invasive treatment options is to provide relief of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) equally effective to current standard techniques, but with a more favorable safety profile. Here we present the first clinical experience with the prostatic urethral lift (Urolift) and the convective water vapor energy ablation (Rezūm). RECENT FINDINGS: Urolift offers rapid and durable relief of LUTS with complete preservation of sexual function...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Clarence S Yah, Geoffrey S Simate, Percy Hlangothi, Benesh M Somai
Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse...
April 2018: Annals of African Medicine
Burak M Gönültaş, Bahadir Sahin
A great deal of attention has been devoted to sexual molestation cases, both in theory and in practice. Child molesters are versatile and are not easily identified. Various theories and tactics, the most contemporary of which is environmental criminology, have been developed to find those criminals. Locations of victims, crime scenes, and distances among them as well as other situational variables are used to predict possible future offences in environmental criminology. This study applies the theory to sexual molestation crimes in Istanbul...
April 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Diego Hojsgaard
Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced) and rare (unreduced) gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Steven Arnocky
Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Longzheng Chen, Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Jing Ding, Xianbin Gu, Yanjun Li, Tingting Gu, Ren Wang, Xinchun Lin, Ziniu Deng, Richard J McAvoy, Frederick G Gmitter, Zhanao Deng, Yunde Zhao, Yi Li
Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants...
2018: Horticulture Research
Roman Yukilevich, Luana S Maroja, Kim Nguyen, Syed Hussain, Preethi Kumaran
The rapid evolution of sexual isolation in sympatry has long been associated with reinforcement (i.e., selection to avoid maladaptive hybridization). However, there are many species pairs in sympatry that have evolved rapid sexual isolation without known costs to hybridization. A major unresolved question is what evolutionary processes are involved in driving rapid speciation in such cases. Here, we focus on one such system; the Drosophila athabasca species complex, which is composed of three partially sympatric and interfertile semispecies: WN, EA, and EB...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Nancy Tyler Burley, Elnaz Hamedani, Cole Symanski
An important and understudied question in sexual selection is how females evaluate information from multiple secondary sexual traits (SSTs), particularly when expression of traits is phenotypically uncorrelated. We performed mate choice experiments on zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata castanotis Gould) to evaluate two hypotheses: preference shifts (obstacles to choice using one trait increase chooser reliance on others) and trait synergisms (choice based on the sum/product of two or more independently varying traits)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Piyush Pathak, Sevann Helo, Kevin T McVary
Management of benign prostatic hyperplasia focuses on relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs), improvement of quality of life, and prevention of symptom progression. Minimally invasive surgical treatments (MISTs) offer potential for rapid symptomatic relief, medication independence, and less perioperative risk. The Rezūm system is a novel MIST that uses water vapor thermal therapy to ablate obstructive prostate tissue. In this review, we summarize the data revealing that water vapor thermal therapy provides clinically meaningful, rapid, and durable relief of LUTSs in both storage and voiding functions while providing a minimal impact on sexual function...
March 9, 2018: European Urology Focus
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