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Sexual selection

Darryl T Gwynne
In a role-reversed beetle, in which sexual selection acts primarily on females, females evolved to more rapidly court and copulate after many generations of experimentally increased female sexual competition.
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Taejun Yoo, Byeongjin Ye, Jung-Il Kim, Siwoo Park
OBJECTIVE: The present study analyzed relationship of workplace violence and perpetrators of violence on sleep disturbance among wage workers in Korea. METHODS: The present study used data from the 4th Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) of 2014 in selecting a total of 25,138wage workers as the study population, which excluded those who failed or refused to respond to questions required for the present study. The workplace violence experience group included people who satisfied at least one of six relevant criteria (verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threatening or humiliating behavior, physical violence, bullying/harassment, and sexual harassment) and the group was divided according to whether the perpetrator of violence was a client or colleague...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Michael J Wade, Devin M Drown
We use population genetic models to investigate the cooperative and conflicting synergistic fitness effects between genes from the nucleus and the mitochondrion. By varying fitness parameters, we examine the scope for conflict relative to cooperation among genomes and the utility of the "gene's eye view" analytical approach, which is based on the marginal average fitness of specific alleles. Because sexual conflict can maintain polymorphism of mitochondrial haplotypes, we can explore two types of evolutionary conflict (genomic and sexual) with one epistatic model...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Ariel F Kahrl, Christian L Cox, Robert M Cox
Sexual selection reflects the joint contributions of precopulatory selection, which arises from variance in mating success, and postcopulatory selection, which arises from variance in fertilization success. The relative importance of each episode of selection is variable among species, and comparative evidence suggests that traits targeted by precopulatory selection often covary in expression with those targeted by postcopulatory selection when assessed across species, although the strength and direction of this association varies considerably among taxa...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Elizabeth J Geller, Emma Babb, Andrea G Nackley, Denniz Zolnoun
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess incidence and risk factors for pelvic pain after pelvic mesh implantation. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of women with no baseline pelvic pain who underwent surgery with mesh implant for the treatment of prolapse and/or incontinence at least one year prior to study period. DESIGN: Classification: Canadian Task Force Level II-2 SETTING: Single university hospital PATIENTS: Women who have undergone surgery with pelvic mesh implant for treatment of pelvic floor disorders including prolapse and incontinence INTERVENTIONS: Telephone interviews to assess pain, sexual function and general health...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Lies Hendrickx, Luk Gijs, Erick Janssen, Paul Enzlin
INTRODUCTION: Although impaired sexual function is relatively common, not all sexual impairments are associated with distress. To date, most studies on protective and risk factors for sexual distress have asked about distress in a more general manner and have failed to distinguish different dimensions of sexual distress. AIM: To examine the association of several intra- and interpersonal factors with personal, perceived partner, and interpersonal distress due to an impairment in sexual functioning in women...
November 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Landon W Trost, Ricardo Munarriz, Run Wang, Allen Morey, Laurence Levine
INTRODUCTION: The field of sexual medicine is continuously advancing, with novel outcomes reported on a regular basis. Given the rapid evolution, updated guidelines are essential to inform practicing clinicians on best practices. AIM: To summarize the current literature and provide clinical guidelines on penile traction therapy, vacuum erection devices, and penile revascularization. METHODS: A consensus panel was held with leading sexual medicine experts during the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (ICSM)...
November 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Pheak Chhoun, Khuondyla Pal, Chanrith Ngin, Sok Chamreun Choub, Carinne Brody
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among key populations in Cambodia continues to rise. To address this issue, KHANA, the largest national HIV organization in the country developed and implemented the Sustainable Action against HIV and AIDS in Communities (SAHACOM) project. This study aims to determine the impacts of the SAHACOM on sexual behaviors and the uptake of HIV/STI services among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Cambodia. METHODS: We compared outcome indicators at midterm (n = 352) and endline (n = 394)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Mulugeta Dile Worke, Lealem Meseret Bezabih, Mulat Adefris Woldetasdik
BACKGROUND: Contraception helps to prevent unplanned pregnancies among human immune virus positive women. The contraceptive utilization status and associated factors were not well addressed in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess utilization of contraceptives and associated factors among human immune virus positive reproductive age group women appearing at anti-retroviral therapy clinic at the University of Gondar Hospital, North West Ethiopia. METHOD: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 397 systematically selected HIV positive reproductive age women who visited ART unit of the University of Gondar teaching referral hospital from January 8-20, 2014...
October 21, 2016: BMC Women's Health
Daniel B Schwab, Armin P Moczek
The elaboration of exaggerated, sexually selected weapons and ornaments often comes at a cost to other traits. For instance, by sustaining the growth of an exaggerated weapon during development, shared and limited resources such as morphogens, growth factors, and nutrients may become depleted and limit the size to which other structures can grow. Such interactions are characteristic of resource allocation trade-offs, which can constrain the production of phenotypic variation and bias evolutionary trajectories...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Natalia Lifshitz, Colleen Cassady St Clair
Growth in human populations causes habitat degradation for other species, which is usually gauged by physical changes to landscapes. Corresponding habitat degradation to air and water is also common, but its effects on individuals can be difficult to detect until they result in the decline or disappearance of populations. More proactive measures of pollution usually combine abiotic samples of soil, water or air with invasive sampling of expendable species, but this approach sometimes creates ethical dilemmas and has limited application for threatened species...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Michael Leapman, Seyed Behzad Jazayeri, Maria Katsigeorgis, Adele Hobbs, David B Samadi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the patient's perceived causes of PCa and relation to treatment satisfaction an internet based survey study was designed. Prostate cancer (PCa) is a profoundly personal disease considering the location and common sequelae of treatment. Deeply held patient self-perceptions regarding the etiology of a patient's PCa may generate lasting beliefs that impact satisfaction with treatment selection. METHODS: Third-party web-based surveys were sent to patients receiving radical prostatectomy for clinically localized PCa...
October 17, 2016: Urology
Mojgan Aminnejad, Massimo Cogliati, Shuyao Duan, Michael Arabatzis, Kathrin Tintelnot, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazéra, Aristea Velegraki, David Ellis, Tania C Sorrell, Wieland Meyer
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα)...
2016: PloS One
Peter Giovannini, Melanie-Jayne R Howes, Sarah E Edwards
The data described in this article is related to the review article "Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review" (Giovannini et al., 2016) [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Stefania Casagrande, Rianne Pinxten, Erika Zaid, Marcel Eens
Song is a sexually selected trait that is thought to be an honest signal of the health condition of an individual in many bird species. For species that breed opportunistically, the quantity of food may be a determinant of singing activity. However, it is not yet known whether the quality of food plays an important role in this respect. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the role of two calorie-free nutrients (lutein and cholesterol) in determining the expression of a sexually selected behavior (song rate) and other behaviors (locomotor activity, self-maintenance activity, eating and resting) in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
2016: PeerJ
Zhongzhen Wu, Jintian Lin, He Zhang, Xinnian Zeng
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most destructive pests throughout tropical and subtropical regions in Asia. This insect displays remarkable changes during different developmental phases in olfactory behavior between sexually immature and mated adults. The olfactory behavioral changes provide clues to examine physiological and molecular bases of olfactory perception in this insect. We comparatively analyzed behavioral and neuronal responses of B. dorsalis adults to attractant semiochemicals, and the expression profiles of antenna chemosensory genes...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Jeni Staykova, Tanja Belovska, Ayla Murad, Sevinch Kakid, Aneta Nacheva, Evelina Shikova
AIM: Although sexually transmitted viral infections are significant and increasing public health concern, little is known about their prevalence among Bulgarian women. The aim of this study was to investigate cervical viral infections in asymptomatic women. METHODS: The study group included 52 randomly selected asymptomatic female volunteers from Bulgarian border town Kardzhali. Cervical specimens were tested by real-time PCR for human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Karla Zanolla Dias de Souza, Fabiene Bernardes Castro Vale, Selmo Geber
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Tribulus terrestris for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and evaluate its effect on the serum levels of testosterone. METHODS: We performed a prospective randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, during 18 months. A total of 45 healthy sexually active postmenopausal women reporting diminished libido were selected to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to receive 750 mg/d of T terrestris or placebo for 120 days...
October 10, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Francisco Javier Del Río, Francisco Cabello-Santamaría, Marina A Cabello-García, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela
BACKGROUND: The impact of pain in sexuality, couple relationships and the quality of life is very well known. OBJECTIVES: The relationship between substance abuse and the presence of sexual pain disorder is assessed, together with anxiety and sexual attitudes . METHOD: Two samples were selected. One sample for women with a history of substance abuse (n = 129), and another one of women nonconsumers (n = 129). The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Louise M Alissa, Danilo G Muniz, Glauco Machado
When there is a temporal trade-off between mating effort and parental care, theoretical models predict that intense sexual selection on males leads to reduced paternal care. Thus, high-quality males should invest more in mating effort because they have higher chances of acquiring mates, whereas low-quality males should bias their investment toward parental care. Once paternal care has evolved, offspring value should also influence males' decisions to invest in offspring attendance. Here we performed a manipulation under field conditions to investigate the factors that influence male allocation in either mating effort or parental care...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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