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Sexual selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341390/building-a-new-research-framework-for-social-evolution-intralocus-caste-antagonism
#1
Tanya M Pennell, Luke Holman, Edward H Morrow, Jeremy Field
The breeding and non-breeding 'castes' of eusocial insects provide a striking example of role-specific selection, where each caste maximises fitness through different morphological, behavioural and physiological trait values. Typically, queens are long-lived egg-layers, while workers are short-lived, largely sterile foragers. Remarkably, the two castes are nevertheless produced by the same genome. The existence of inter-caste genetic correlations is a neglected consequence of this shared genome, potentially hindering the evolution of caste dimorphism: alleles that increase the productivity of queens may decrease the productivity of workers and vice versa, such that each caste is prevented from reaching optimal trait values...
January 16, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338784/advancing-sti-priorities-in-the-sdg-era-priorities-for-action
#2
EDITORIAL
Matthew F Chersich, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Greg Martin, Helen Rees
The Sustainable Development Goals present an opportunity to reimagine and then reconfigure the approach to controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The predilection of STIs for women and for vulnerable populations means that services that ameliorate STIs, by their nature, enhance equity, a key focus of the goals. Given the considerable breadth and depth of the goals, it is important to locate points of convergence between the SDGs and STIs, further craft synergies with HIV and select a few population groups and settings to prioritise...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337356/stabilizing-selection-on-sperm-number-revealed-by-artificial-selection-and-experimental-evolution
#3
Silvia Cattelan, Andrea Di Nisio, Andrea Pilastro
Sperm competition is taxonomically widespread in animals and is usually associated with large sperm production, being the number of sperm in the competing pool the prime predictor of fertilization success. Despite the strong postcopulatory selection acting directionally on sperm production, its genetic variance is often very high. This can be explained by trade-offs between sperm production and traits associated with mate acquisition or survival, that may contribute to generate an overall stabilizing selection...
January 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336511/differential-visual-ornamentation-between-brood-parasitic-and-parental-cuckoos
#4
Masaru Hasegawa, Emi Arai
The evolution of brood parasitism should affect adult phenotypic traits due to sexual selection as well as the parasite-host interactions, though it is rarely focused on. Sexual selection theory predicts extravagant secondary sexual characteristics in brood parasites while immature-like modest sexual characteristics in parental species. This is because juvenile-like immature traits can attract mates by exploiting parental care for young (i.e. attraction to young), and because the good parent process, which favors traits that signal parental care ability, would constrain the evolution of costly secondary sexual characteristics due to evolutionary tradeoffs between parental investment and sexually selected traits...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336195/is-aspiration-and-sclerotherapy-treatment-for-hydroceles-in-the-aging-male-an-evidence-based-treatment
#5
W St J Taylor, J Cobley, W Mahmalji
Symptomatic hydroceles are commonly treated with surgical repair. They are associated with sexual dysfunction in the aging male. Patients who are not fit for surgery often undergo aspiration and sclerotherapy of the hydrocele. There is a range of sclerosing agents used in the literature. I performed a literature search to assess whether one sclerosant was better than the others. STDS is the sclerosing agent with the best cure rate after a single injection and low side effect rates. The cure rates of sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STDS) after a single aspiration and injection were 76%...
January 16, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335580/widespread-bone-based-fluorescence-in-chameleons
#6
David Prötzel, Martin Heß, Mark D Scherz, Martina Schwager, Anouk Van't Padje, Frank Glaw
Fluorescence is widespread in marine organisms but uncommon in terrestrial tetrapods. We here show that many chameleon species have bony tubercles protruding from the skull that are visible through their scales, and fluoresce under UV light. Tubercles arising from bones of the skull displace all dermal layers other than a thin, transparent layer of epidermis, creating a 'window' onto the bone. In the genus Calumma, the number of these tubercles is sexually dimorphic in most species, suggesting a signalling role, and also strongly reflects species groups, indicating systematic value of these features...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335373/ectothermic-telomeres-it-s-time-they-came-in-from-the-cold
#7
REVIEW
Mats Olsson, Erik Wapstra, Christopher Friesen
We review the evolutionary ecology and genetics of telomeres in taxa that cannot elevate their body temperature to a preferred level through metabolism but do so by basking or seeking out a warm environment. This group of organisms contains all living things on earth, apart from birds and mammals. One reason for our interest in this synthetic group is the argument that high, stable body temperature increases the risk of malignant tumours if long, telomerase-restored telomeres make cells 'live forever'. If this holds true, ectotherms should have significantly lower cancer frequencies...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334549/cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-strategies-for-provision-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#8
Rui Fu, Douglas K Owens, Margaret L Brandeau
BACKGROUND: Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been recommended as a means of HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID) but, at current prices, is unlikely to be cost-effective for all PWID. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for enrolling PWID in PrEP. DESIGN: Dynamic network model that captures HIV transmission and progression among PWID in a representative US urban center. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV infections averted, discounted costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331637/development-of-a-multi-dimensional-scale-to-measure-trauma-associated-with-child-sexual-abuse-mscsa-and-its-ramifying-impacts-on-children-a-pilot-study
#9
Vandana Choudhary, Sujata Satapathy, Rajesh Sagar
BACKGROUND: With the rising incidence of CSA in India and absence of culturally competent tool to assess the impact of trauma, there is a dire need for development of a comprehensive scale to assess the impact of trauma on children. Thus, the present study aims to develop a multi-dimensional CSA tool for children aged between 7 and 13 years. METHOD: Qualitative research method of FGD/Key Interviews with 4 group participants (Parents, counsellors, mental health and medical professionals) and in-depth interview with children having history of CSA was conducted along with item pooling from existing scales...
January 4, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331019/cis-regulator-runaway-and-divergence-in-asexuals
#10
Frédéric Fyon, Thomas Lenormand
With the advent of new sequencing technologies, the evolution of gene expression is becoming a subject of intensive genomic research, with sparking debates upon the role played by these kinds of changes in adaptive evolution and speciation. In this paper, we model expression evolution in species differing by their reproductive systems. We consider different rates of sexual versus asexual reproduction and the different type of parthenogenesis (apomixis and the various modes of automixis). We show that competition for expression leads to two selective processes on cis-regulatory regions that act independently to organism-level adaptation...
January 13, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330348/weak-epistasis-may-drive-adaptation-in-recombining-bacteria
#11
Brian J Arnold, Michael U Gutmann, Yonatan H Grad, Samuel K Sheppard, Jukka Corander, Marc Lipsitch, William P Hanage
The impact of epistasis on the evolution of multilocus traits depends on recombination. While sexually-reproducing eukaryotes recombine so frequently that epistasis between polymorphisms is not considered to play a large role in short-term adaptation, many bacteria also recombine, some to the degree that their populations are described as 'panmictic' or 'freely recombining'. However, whether this recombination is sufficient to limit the ability of selection to act on epistatic contributions to fitness is unknown...
January 12, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330019/parental-decisional-regret-and-views-about-optimal-timing-of-female-genital-restoration-surgery-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#12
Konrad M Szymanski, Benjamin Whittam, Martin Kaefer, Heather Frady, Jessica T Casey, Vi T Tran, Mark P Cain, Richard C Rink
PURPOSE: The role of female genital restoration surgery (FGRS) in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is controversial, with no long-term parent-reported outcomes available. Decisional regret (DR) affects most parents after their children's treatment of pediatric conditions, including hypospadias. We aimed to assess parental DR after FGRS in infancy or toddlerhood and explore optimal timing for surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred and six parents of females with CAH undergoing FGRS before 3 years old and followed at our institution (1999-2017) were invited to enroll online...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329436/development-of-the-place-based-adelante-social-marketing-campaign-for-prevention-of-substance-use-sexual-risk-and-violence-among-latino-immigrant-youth
#13
E L Andrade, W D Evans, N D Barrett, S D Cleary, M C Edberg, R D Alvayero, E C Kierstead, A Beltran
Immigrant Latino youth represent a high-risk subgroup that should be targeted with health promotion efforts. However, there are considerable barriers to engagement in health-related programming. Little is known about the engagement possibilities of social marketing campaigns and digital strategies for traditionally 'hard-to-reach' immigrants, underscoring the importance of testing these techniques with immigrant Latino adolescents. We developed and piloted a place-based social marketing campaign in coordination with the branded, Positive Youth Development-based (PYD) Adelante intervention targeting risk factors for co-occurring youth substance abuse, sexual risk and violence...
January 9, 2018: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329426/a-practical-guide-to-estimating-the-heritability-of-pathogen-traits
#14
Venelin Mitov, Tanja Stadler
Pathogen traits, such as the virulence of an infection, can vary significantly between patients. A major challenge is to measure the extent to which genetic differences between infecting strains explain the observed variation of the trait. This is quantified by the trait's broad-sense heritability, H2. A recent discrepancy between estimates of the heritability of HIV-virulence has opened a debate on the estimators' accuracy. Here, we show that the discrepancy originates from model limitations and important lifecycle differences between sexually reproducing organisms and transmittable pathogens...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329082/the-domestic-fowl-gallus-gallus-domesticus-embryo-as-an-alternative-for-mammalian-experiments-validation-of-a-test-method-for-the-detection-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#15
Luzie Jessl, Jessica Scheider, Jörg Oehlmann
In recent decades the embryo of Gallus g. domesticus has been widely used as a model for the study of early sexual development and the potential impact of substances affecting development, including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Since there is no standardized procedure available for experiments with the chicken embryo, the objective of our project is to expedite the protocol to assess the potential effects of EDCs on early sexual differentiation. The main aim of the present study was to systematically investigate the natural variability of individual developmental and histological key parameters in untreated and solvent-treated control groups, since this has been insufficiently addressed so far...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328538/conflict-between-heterozygote-advantage-and-hybrid-incompatibility-in-haplodiploids-and-sex-chromosomes
#16
Ana-Hermina Ghenu, Alexandre Blanckaert, Roger K Butlin, Jonna Kulmuni, Claudia Bank
In many diploid species the sex chromosomes play a special role in mediating reproductive isolation. In haplodiploids, where females are diploid and males haploid, the whole genome behaves similarly to the X/Z chromosomes of diploids. Therefore, haplodiploid systems can serve as a model for the role of sex chromosomes in speciation and hybridization. A previously described population of Finnish Formica wood ants displays genome-wide signs of ploidally and sexually antagonistic selection resulting from hybridization...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326184/assessing-the-effectiveness-of-a-patient-centred-computer-based-clinic-intervention-health-e-you-salud-itu-to-reduce-health-disparities-in-unintended-pregnancies-among-hispanic-adolescents-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-control-trial
#17
Kathleen P Tebb, Felicia Rodriguez, Lance M Pollack, Sang Leng Trieu, Loris Hwang, Maryjane Puffer, Sally Adams, Elizabeth M Ozer, Claire D Brindis
INTRODUCTION: Teen pregnancy rates in the USA remain higher than any other industrialised nation, and pregnancies among Hispanic adolescents are disproportionately high. Computer-based interventions represent a promising approach to address sexual health and contraceptive use disparities. Preliminary findings have demonstrated that the Health-E You/Salud iTu, computer application (app) is feasible to implement, acceptable to Latina adolescents and improves sexual health knowledge and interest in selecting an effective contraceptive method when used in conjunction with a healthcare visit...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325831/sexual-dysfunction-among-young-men-overview-of-dietary-components-associated-with-erectile-dysfunction
#18
Ioannis Mykoniatis, Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Emmanouil Bouras, Efthalia Karampasi, Aikaterini Tsionga, Athanasios Kogias, Ioannis Vakalopoulos, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Michael Chourdakis
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is relatively common in young men, presenting in diverse manifestations, including erectile dysfunction (ED), for which dietary modifications, including increased intake of dietary antioxidants, have been suggested as promising and cost-efficient approaches. AIM: To assess the consumption of selected dietary antioxidants, in particular flavonoids, in relation to ED symptoms in young men. METHODS: Men 18 to 40 years old were invited to complete an anonymous web-based questionnaire for this case-control study...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325549/does-exposure-to-interparental-violence-increase-women-s-risk-of-intimate-partner-violence-evidence-from-nigeria-demographic-and-health-survey
#19
Bola Lukman Solanke
BACKGROUND: Exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) has been identified as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV). However, studies in Nigeria have rarely and specifically examined exposure to interparental violence as a predictor of IPV. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between exposure to interparental violence and women's experience of intimate partner violence. METHODS: The 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) women recode dataset was analysed...
January 11, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321911/low-genetic-variation-of-invasive-fallopia-spp-in-their-northernmost-european-distribution-range
#20
Anne-Kari Holm, Abdelhameed Elameen, Benedikte W Oliver, Lars O Brandsæter, Inger S Fløistad, May B Brurberg
Knowledge about the reproduction strategies of invasive species is fundamental for effective control. The invasive Fallopia taxa (Japanese knotweed s.l.) reproduce mainly clonally in Europe, and preventing spread of vegetative fragments is the most important control measure. However, high levels of genetic variation within the hybrid F. × bohemica indicate that hybridization and seed dispersal could be important. In Norway in northern Europe, it is assumed that these taxa do not reproduce sexually due to low temperatures in the autumn when the plants are flowering...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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