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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922719/markov-mixed-effects-modeling-using-electronic-adherence-monitoring-records-identifies-influential-covariates-to-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#1
Kumpal Madrasi, Ayyappa Chaturvedula, Jessica E Haberer, Mark Sale, Michael J Fossler, David Bangsberg, Jared M Baeten, Connie Celum, Craig W Hendrix
Adherence is a major factor in the effectiveness of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Modeling patterns of adherence helps to identify influential covariates of different types of adherence as well as to enable clinical trial simulation so that appropriate interventions can be developed. We developed a Markov mixed-effects model to understand the covariates influencing adherence patterns to daily oral PrEP. Electronic adherence records (date and time of medication bottle cap opening) from the Partners PrEP ancillary adherence study with a total of 1147 subjects were used...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920970/a-review-and-treatment-selection-model-for-individuals-with-developmental-disabilities-who-engage-in-inappropriate-sexual-behavior
#2
Tonya N Davis, Wendy Machalicek, Rachel Scalzo, Alicia Kobylecky, Vincent Campbell, Sarah Pinkelman, Jeffrey Michael Chan, Jeff Sigafoos
Some individuals with developmental disabilities develop inappropriate sexual behaviors such as public masturbation, disrobing, and touching others in an unwanted sexual manner. Such acts are problematic given the taboo nature of the behaviors and the potential for significant negative consequences, such as restricted community access, injury, and legal ramifications. Therefore, it is necessary to equip caregivers and practitioners with effective treatment options. The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have evaluated behavioral treatments to reduce inappropriate sexual behavior in persons with developmental disabilities...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920507/men-s-preferences-for-the-treatment-of-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-associated-with-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#3
Colette Mankowski, Divine Ikenwilo, Sebastian Heidenreich, Mandy Ryan, Jameel Nazir, Cathy Newman, Verity Watson
OBJECTIVE: To explore and quantify men's preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for attributes of medications for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia using a discrete choice experiment. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Men in the UK aged ≥45 years with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia (based on self-reported International Prostate Symptom Score ≥8) were recruited. An online discrete choice experiment survey was administered...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920386/does-eutrophication-driven-evolution-change-aquatic-ecosystems
#4
REVIEW
Timothy J Alexander, Pascal Vonlanthen, Ole Seehausen
Eutrophication increases primary production and changes the relative abundance, taxonomic composition and spatial distribution of primary producers within an aquatic ecosystem. The changes in composition and location of resources alter the distribution and flow of energy and biomass throughout the food web. Changes in productivity also alter the physico-chemical environment, which has further effects on the biota. Such ecological changes influence the direction and strength of natural and sexual selection experienced by populations...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920380/genetic-architecture-of-age-at-maturity-can-generate-divergent-and-disruptive-harvest-induced-evolution
#5
Anna Kuparinen, Jeffrey A Hutchings
Life-history traits are generally assumed to be inherited quantitatively. Fishing that targets large, old individuals is expected to decrease age at maturity. In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it has recently been discovered that sea age at maturity is under strong control by a single locus with sexually dimorphic expression of heterozygotes, which makes it less intuitive to predict how life histories respond to selective fishing. We explore evolutionary responses to fishing in Atlantic salmon, using eco-evolutionary simulations with two alternative scenarios for the genetic architecture of age at maturity: (i) control by multiple loci with additive effects and (ii) control by one locus with sexually dimorphic expression...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917752/genetic-and-environmental-factors-in-invasive-cervical-cancer-design-and-methods-of-a-classical-twin-study
#6
Dorothy A Machalek, John D Wark, Sepehr N Tabrizi, John L Hopper, Minh Bui, Gillian S Dite, Alyssa M Cornall, Marian Pitts, Dorota Gertig, Bircan Erbas, Suzanne M Garland
BACKGROUND: Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary prerequisite for development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). However, HPV infection is not sufficient to drive this process, and genetic and environmental factors may also play a role. METHODS/DESIGN: The Cervical Cancer, Genetics and Environment Twin Study was established to investigate the environmental and genetic influences on variation in susceptibility to cervical pre-cancer in 25- to 69-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins recruited through the Australian Twin Registry...
December 5, 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917558/multivariate-sexual-selection-on-male-tegmina-in-wild-populations-of-sagebrush-crickets-cyphoderris-strepitans-orthoptera-haglidae
#7
G D Ower, J Hunt, S K Sakaluk
Although the strength and form of sexual selection on song in male crickets have been studied extensively, few studies have examined selection on the morphological structures that underlie variation in males' song, particularly in wild populations. Geometric morphometric techniques were used to measure sexual selection on the shape, size and symmetry of both top and bottom tegmina in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, a species in which nuptial feeding by females imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915258/testing-and-testing-positive-childhood-adversities-and-later-life-hiv-status-among-kenyan-women-and-their-partners
#8
Michael L Goodman, Lauren Raimer-Goodman, Catherine X Chen, Astrid Grouls, Stanley Gitari, Philip H Keiser
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences are a critical feature of lifelong health. No research assesses whether childhood adversities predict HIV-testing behaviors, and little research analyzes childhood adversities and later life HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We use regression models with cross-sectional data from a representative sample (n = 1974) to analyze whether adverse childhood experiences, separately or as cumulative exposures, predict reports of later life HIV testing and testing HIV+ among semi-rural Kenyan women and their partners...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915088/exploring-awareness-and-help-seeking-intentions-for-testicular-symptoms-among-heterosexual-gay-and-bisexual-men-in-ireland-a-qualitative-descriptive-study
#9
Mohamad M Saab, Margaret Landers, Josephine Hegarty
BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant and benign testicular disorders among young men is on the rise. Evidence from three reviews suggest that men's knowledge of these disorders is lacking and their help-seeking intention for testicular symptoms is suboptimal. Qualitative studies have addressed men's awareness of testicular cancer, with none exploring their awareness of non-malignant diseases such as epididymitis, testicular torsion, and varicocele and none including sexual minorities...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914874/transmission-networks-and-risk-of-hiv-infection-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-a-community-wide-phylogenetic-study
#10
Tulio de Oliveira, Ayesha B M Kharsany, Tiago Gräf, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Anneke Grobler, Adrian Puren, Savathree Madurai, Cheryl Baxter, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of HIV infection in young women in Africa is very high. We did a large-scale community-wide phylogenetic study to examine the underlying HIV transmission dynamics and the source and consequences of high rates of HIV infection in young women in South Africa. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional household survey of randomly selected individuals aged 15-49 years in two neighbouring subdistricts (one urban and one rural) with a high burden of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
November 30, 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914561/standards-for-clinical-trials-in-male-and-female-sexual-dysfunction-i-%C3%A2-phase-i-to-phase-iv-clinical-trial-design
#11
William A Fisher, Ilan Gruenwald, Emmanuele A Jannini, Ahinoam Lev-Sagie, Lior Lowenstein, Robert E Pyke, Yakov Reisman, Dennis A Revicki, Eusebio Rubio-Aurioles
This series of articles outlines standards for clinical trials of treatments for male and female sexual dysfunctions, with a focus on research design and patient-reported outcome assessment. These articles consist of revision, updating, and integration of articles on standards for clinical trials in male and female sexual dysfunction from the 2010 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine developed by the authors as part of the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine. We are guided in this effort by several principles...
December 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912243/vomeronasal-receptors-in-vertebrates-and-the-evolution-of-pheromone-detection
#12
Liliana Silva, Agostinho Antunes
Pheromones were identified as chemical signals used for intraspecific communication in insects (e.g., sexual attraction) in the 1950s. However, only almost 40 years later the vomeronasal receptors type-1 (V1R) and type-2 (V2R) were identified, usually associated with the presence of a vomeronasal organ (VNO). VRs are widespread in amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but birds lost the VNO. Similarly, fishes lack VRs and a VNO but can still detect pheromones, instead using the olfactory receptors related to class A and class C G protein-coupled receptors...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911018/sperm-competition-and-the-evolution-of-precopulatory-weapons-testis-size-and-amplexus-position-but-not-arm-strength-affect-fertilization-success-in-a-chorusing-frog
#13
Bruno A Buzatto, Evan M Thyer, J Dale Roberts, Leigh W Simmons
Trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory traits influence their evolution, and male expenditure on such traits is predicted to depend on the number of competitors, the benefits from investing in weapons, and the risk and intensity of sperm competition. Males of the chorusing frog Crinia georgiana use their arms as weapons in contest competition. Previously, we showed that increased numbers of rivals elevated the risk and intensity of sperm competition due to multimale amplexus, and caused a reversal in the direction of precopulatory selection on arm girth...
December 2, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910886/sequential-information-in-a-great-ape-utterance
#14
Pawel Fedurek, Klaus Zuberbühler, Christoph D Dahl
Birdsong is a prime example of acoustically sophisticated vocal behaviour, but its complexity has evolved mainly through sexual selection to attract mates and repel sexual rivals. In contrast, non-human primate calls often mediate complex social interactions, but are generally regarded as acoustically simple. Here, we examine arguably the most complex call in great ape vocal communication, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) 'pant hoot'. This signal consists of four acoustically distinct phases: introduction, build-up, climax and let-down...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909455/salivary-testosterone-levels-under-psychological-stress-and-its-relationship-with-rumination-and-five-personality-traits-in-medical-students
#15
Reza Afrisham, Sahar Sadegh-Nejadi, Omid SoliemaniFar, Wesam Kooti, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Fatima Alamiri, Mohammad Aberomand, Sedigheh Najjar-Asl, Ali Khaneh-Keshi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. METHODS: A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905937/impact-of-tailored-blogs-and-content-on-usage-of-web-cipher-an-online-platform-to-help-policymakers-better-engage-with-evidence-from-research
#16
Steve R Makkar, Megan Howe, Anna Williamson, Frances Gilham
BACKGROUND: There is a need to develop innovations that can help bridge the gap between research and policy. Web CIPHER is an online tool designed to help policymakers better engage with research in order to increase its use in health policymaking. The aim of the present study was to test interventions in order to increase policymakers' usage of Web CIPHER. Namely, the impact of posting articles and blogs on topics relevant to the missions and scope of selected policy agencies in the Web CIPHER community...
December 1, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905874/are-sexually-selected-traits-affected-by-a-poor-environment-early-in-life
#17
Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
BACKGROUND: Challenging conditions experienced early in life, such as a restricted diet, can detrimentally affect key life-history traits. Individuals can reduce these costs by delaying their sexual maturation, albeit at the price of the later onset of breeding, to eventually reach the same adult size as individuals that grow up in a benevolent environment. Delayed maturation can, however, still lead to other detrimental morphological and physiological changes that become apparent later in adulthood (e...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905469/selection-for-predation-not-female-fecundity-explains-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-the-orchid-mantises
#18
Gavin J Svenson, Sydney K Brannoch, Henrique M Rodrigues, James C O'Hanlon, Frank Wieland
Here we reconstruct the evolutionary shift towards floral simulation in orchid mantises and suggest female predatory selection as the likely driving force behind the development of extreme sexual size dimorphism. Through analysis of body size data and phylogenetic modelling of trait evolution, we recovered an ancestral shift towards sexual dimorphisms in both size and appearance in a lineage of flower-associated praying mantises. Sedentary female flower mantises dramatically increased in size prior to a transition from camouflaged, ambush predation to a floral simulation strategy, gaining access to, and visually attracting, a novel resource: large pollinating insects...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904639/effect-of-self-care-training-program-based-on-orem-s-model-on-the-behaviors-leading-to-sexually-transmitted-disease-in-vulnerable-women
#19
Zahra Baghersad, Nasrollah Alimohammadi, Zahra Boroumandfar, Parastoo Golshiri
BACKGROUND: Vulnerable women are prone to sexually transmitted diseases due to their high-risk behaviors. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of self-care training program based on Orem's model on the behaviors leading to sexually transmitted diseases in vulnerable women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This field trial was initially conducted on 100 women covered under health services and welfare organization in Isfahan city, who were selected by rationing ssampling...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903871/decline-and-recovery-of-a-large-carnivore-environmental-change-and-long-term-trends-in-an-endangered-brown-bear-population
#20
Isabel Martínez Cano, Fernando González Taboada, Javier Naves, Alberto Fernández-Gil, Thorsten Wiegand
Understanding what factors drive fluctuations in the abundance of endangered species is a difficult ecological problem but a major requirement to attain effective management and conservation success. The ecological traits of large mammals make this task even more complicated, calling for integrative approaches. We develop a framework combining individual-based modelling and statistical inference to assess alternative hypotheses on brown bear dynamics in the Cantabrian range (Iberian Peninsula). Models including the effect of environmental factors on mortality rates were able to reproduce three decades of variation in the number of females with cubs of the year (Fcoy), including the decline that put the population close to extinction in the mid-nineties, and the following increase in brown bear numbers...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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