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Sexual selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448163/the-interplay-between-feelings-and-beliefs-about-condoms-as-predictors-of-their-use
#1
Erin M Ellis, Rekha Rajagopal, Marc T Kiviniemi
OBJECTIVE: Negative feelings about condoms are a key barrier to their use. Using the behavioural affective associations model, we examined the joint effects of affective associations and cognitive beliefs about condoms on condom use. DESIGN: In Study 1 (N = 97), students completed measures of their affective associations and cognitive beliefs about sex and condoms, sexual activity and condom use. In Study 2 (N = 171), a measure of behavioural intentions and condom selection task were added...
April 27, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447138/-endocrine-disruptors-evidence-from-epidemiological-studies-necessitates-a-critical-review-of-model-systems
#2
REVIEW
M Hoffmann, S Gebauer, M Nüchter, R Baber, J Ried, M von Bergen, W Kiess
Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) cause adverse health effects through interaction with endocrine systems. They are classified by chemical structure, effects on specific endocrine systems, bioaccumulation, persistence in the environment, or clinically observable effects. For research of the complex mechanisms of action in the human body, only in vitro model systems have so far been available, that have insufficient high-throughput capacity, which makes risk evaluation more difficult. In addition, in industrial nations, living people are often exposed to mixtures of substances, with various effects...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445349/surgical-determinants-of-patient-reported-outcomes-following-postmastectomy-reconstruction-in-women-with-breast-cancer
#3
Ranjeet Jeevan, John P Browne, Carmel Gulliver-Clarke, Jerome Pereira, Christopher M Caddy, Jan H P van der Meulen, David A Cromwell
BACKGROUND: This national prospective cohort study compared the patient-reported outcomes of breast cancer patients undergoing postmastectomy autologous reconstruction to those who had breast implants, in terms of aesthetic appearance; levels of psychological, physical, and sexual well-being; and overall satisfaction. METHODS: Of 5063 women who underwent immediate reconstruction (n = 3349) or delayed reconstruction (n = 1714) between January 1, 2008, and March 31, 2009, in England, 2923 women who gave informed consent were sent validated, procedure-specific, 18-month follow-up questionnaires...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444897/aging-asexual-lineages-and-the-evolutionary-maintenance-of-sex
#4
E K H Ho, A F Agrawal
Finite populations of asexual and highly selfing species suffer from a reduced efficacy of selection. Such populations are thought to decline in fitness over time due to accumulating slightly deleterious mutations or failing to adapt to changing conditions. These within-population processes that lead non-recombining species to extinction may help maintain sex and outcrossing through species level selection. Although inefficient selection is proposed to elevate extinction rates over time, previous models of species selection for sex assumed constant diversification rates...
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443146/can-it-wait-a-systematic-review-of-immediate-vs-delayed-surgical-repair-of-penile-fractures
#5
Nathan Colin Wong, Shawn Dason, Rahul K Bansal, Timothy O Davies, Luis H Braga
INTRODUCTION: Penile fractures have classically been thought to require immediate surgical intervention; however, recent series have described acceptable outcomes with delayed repair. In this systematic review, we compared complication rates between immediate and delayed repair of penile fractures. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, and Web of Science was performed with predefined search terms between 1974 and 2015. Titles and abstracts were screened prior to full-text review and quality appraisal by two independent investigators...
January 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442800/what-puts-them-at-risk-a-cross-sectional-case-control-survey-of-demographic-profile-and-sexual-behavior-of-patients-with-sexually-transmitted-infections-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#6
Rama Raj, Vishal Gupta, Mona Pathak, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Seema Sood, Sarman Singh, Kaushal K Verma, Neena Khanna, Bimal K Das, Somesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem in developing nations. Identification of risk factors can help in formulating effective strategies against them. The present study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in North India over 1 year to identify the risk factors associated with STIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional case-control survey was conducted where participants answered questions on demographic details, sexual behavior, and awareness of STIs...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440870/intensity-of-male-male-competition-predicts-morph-diversity-in-a-colour-polymorphic-lizard
#7
Guillem Pérez I de Lanuza, Miguel A Carretero, Enrique Font
Sexual selection is one of the main processes involved in the emergence and maintenance of heritable colour polymorphisms in a variety of taxa. Here we test whether the intensity of sexual selection, estimated from population sex ratio, predicts morph diversity in Podarcis muralis, a colour polymorphic lizard with discrete white, yellow, orange, white-orange, and yellow-orange male and female phenotypes (i.e. morphs). In a sample of 116 Pyrenean populations and 5421 lizards, sex ratios (m/f) vary from 0.29 to 2...
April 25, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440839/refugee-health-and-rehabilitation-challenges-and-response
#8
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya
BACKGROUND: The current global refugee crisis poses major challenges in providing effective healthcare to refugees, particularly for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) management and disability. This article provides an overview of refugee health and potential challenges from the rehabilitation perspective. METHODS: A literature search (both academic and grey literature) was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases and internet search engines (2001-2016)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439922/illicit-drug-use-among-new-zealand-gay-and-bisexual-men-prevalence-and-association-with-sexual-health-behaviours
#9
Peter Saxton, David Newcombe, Arslan Ahmed, Nigel Dickson, Anthony Hughes
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Data are lacking on drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand. We establish a baseline estimate of drug use and investigate associations with sexual health and HIV risk. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of GBM was conducted in gay community settings and online. Participants were asked their frequency of using nine drugs (poppers, cannabis, ecstasy, methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, LSD, gamma hydroxybutyrate and ketamine) in the previous 6 months...
April 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439726/a-pilot-study-of-patient-centered-outcome-assessment-using-promis-for-patients-undergoing-colorectal-surgery
#10
Traci L Hedrick, Amy M Harrigan, Robert H Thiele, Charles M Friel, Benjamin D Kozower, George J Stukenborg
PURPOSE: Few studies have assessed patient-reported outcomes following colorectal surgery. The absence of this information makes it difficult to inform patients about the near-term effects of surgery, beyond outcomes assessed by traditional clinical measures. This study was designed to provide information about the effects of colorectal surgery on physical, mental, and social well-being outcomes. METHODS: The NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Assessment Center was used to collect patient responses prior to surgery and at their routine postoperative visit...
April 24, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438692/temporal-variation-in-the-operational-sex-ratio-and-male-mating-behaviours-in-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus
#11
Robert B Weladji, Guillaume Body, Øystein Holand, Xiuxiang Meng, Mauri Nieminen
In polygynous species, sexual selection is mostly driven by male ability to monopolize access to females in oestrous. In ungulates, the operational sex ratio (OSR), i.e. the proportion of males to individuals ready to mate, varies throughout the peak rut, resulting from the temporal variation in the number of females in oestrous. But the way males adjust their mating tactics to maximise their access to females in oestrous (i.e. as OSR varies) is yet to be investigated. Using 15 years of behavioural observations in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), we compared the relative importance of time within the rutting season (days to the peak-rut) and the OSR to explain the variation in the propensity (i...
April 21, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437167/the-fgvps39-fgvam7-fgsso1-complex-mediates-vesicle-trafficking-and-is-important-for-the-development-and-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#12
Bing Li, Luping Liu, Ying Li, Xin Dong, Haifeng Zhang, Huaigu Chen, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
Vesicle trafficking is an important event in eukaryotic organisms. Many proteins and lipids transported between different organelles or compartments are essential for survival. These processes are mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes such as class C core vacuole or endosome tethering and homotypic fusion or vacuole protein sorting (HOPS). Our previous study has demonstrated that FgVam7, which encodes a SNARE protein involving in vesicle trafficking, plays crucial roles in growth, asexual or sexual development, deoxynivalenol production, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436019/antibiotic-therapy-for-pelvic-inflammatory-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ricardo F Savaris, Daniele G Fuhrich, Rui V Duarte, Sebastian Franik, Jonathan Ross
BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection that affects 4% to 12% of young women, and is one of the most common causes of morbidity in this age group. The main intervention for acute PID is the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics which cover Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and anaerobic bacteria, administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or orally. In this review, we assessed the optimal treatment regimen for PID. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens used to treat pelvic inflammatory disease...
April 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434197/multi-modal-signalling-in-estrildid-finches-song-dance-and-colour-are-associated-with-different-ecological-and-life-history-traits
#14
Ana Cristina R Gomes, Caterina Funghi, Masayo Soma, Michael D Sorenson, Gonçalo C Cardoso
Sexual traits (e.g., visual ornaments, acoustic signals, courtship behaviour) are often displayed together as multi-modal signals. Some hypotheses predict joint evolution of different sexual signals (e.g., to increase the efficiency of communication), or that different signals trade-off with each other (e.g., due to limited resources). Alternatively, multiple signals may evolve independently for different functions, or to communicate different information (multiple message hypothesis). We evaluated these hypotheses with a comparative study in the family Estrildidae, one of the largest songbird radiations, and one that includes many model species for research in sexual selection and communication...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432791/immediate-versus-delayed-postpartum-insertion-of-contraceptive-implant-for-contraception
#15
REVIEW
Jen Sothornwit, Yuthapong Werawatakul, Srinaree Kaewrudee, Pisake Lumbiganon, Malinee Laopaiboon
BACKGROUND: The spacing of pregnancies has a positive impact on maternal and newborn health. The progestin contraceptive implant, which is a long-acting, reversible method of contraception, has a well-established low failure rate that is compatible with tubal sterilization. The standard provision of contraceptive methods on the first postpartum visit may put some women at risk of unintended pregnancy, either due to loss to follow-up or having sexual intercourse prior to receiving contraception...
April 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425158/sexual-colouration-and-sperm-performance-in-the-australian-painted-dragon-lizard-ctenophorus-pictus
#16
Callum S McDiarmid, Christopher R Friesen, Cissy Ballen, Mats Olsson
Theory predicts trade-offs between pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits. This relationship may be mediated by the degree to which males are able to monopolise access to females, as this will place an upper limit on the strength of postcopulatory selection. Furthermore, traits that aid in mate monopolization may be costly to maintain and may limit investment in postcopulatory traits, such as sperm performance. Australian painted dragons are polymorphic for the presence or absence of a yellow gular patch ('bibs'), which may aid them to monopolise access to females...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424494/predictable-phenotypic-but-not-karyotypic-evolution-of-populations-with-contrasting-initial-history
#17
Pedro Simões, Inês Fragata, Sofia G Seabra, Gonçalo S Faria, Marta A Santos, Michael R Rose, Mauro Santos, Margarida Matos
The relative impact of selection, chance and history will determine the predictability of evolution. There is a lack of empirical research on this subject, particularly in sexual organisms. Here we use experimental evolution to test the predictability of evolution. We analyse the real-time evolution of Drosophila subobscura populations derived from contrasting European latitudes placed in a novel laboratory environment. Each natural population was sampled twice within a three-year interval. We study evolutionary responses at both phenotypic (life-history, morphological and physiological traits) and karyotypic levels for around 30 generations of laboratory culture...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424072/prevalence-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-its-association-with-symptoms-of-depression-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-a-female-population-sample-in-sweden
#18
Solveig Lövestad, Jesper Löve, Marjan Vaez, Gunilla Krantz
BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence targeting women. IPV includes acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors and these forms of violence often coexist in the same relationship. Living with IPV is associated with serious mental health outcomes such as depression and depressive symptoms. Few population based studies from Sweden have investigated the relationship between different forms of IPV and women's depressive symptoms and even fewer used controlling behavior as an independent variable in such studies...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423044/the-long-term-outcome-of-micturition-defecation-and-sexual-function-after-spinal-surgery-for-cauda-equina-syndrome
#19
Nina S Korse, Anna B Veldman, Wilco C Peul, Carmen L A Vleggeert-Lankamp
BACKGROUND: Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic complication of lumbar herniated disc for which emergency surgical decompression should be undertaken. Despite the common belief that the restoration of functions that are affected by CES can take several years postoperatively, follow up seldom exceeds the first year after surgery. Long term outcome of especially micturition, defecation and sexual function-which are by definition affected in CES-are unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate 1) postoperative long term outcome of micturition, defecation and sexual function in CES patients 2) attitude of patients towards received hospital care with regard to (recovery of) these functions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420377/the-association-between-child-maltreatment-and-emotional-cognitive-and-physical-health-functioning-in-vietnam
#20
Nhu K Tran, Sheila R Van Berkel, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Lenneke R A Alink
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on correlates of child maltreatment in limited-resource countries with a relatively high tolerance of harsh discipline. This Vietnamese study aimed to investigate associations between different types of child maltreatment and child emotional, cognitive, and physical health functioning as well as moderation effects of gender and ethnicity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1851 randomly selected students aged 12-17 years...
April 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
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