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Sexual selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820721/risk-factors-associated-with-blood-exposure-for-sporadic-hepatitis-e-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#1
Hossain M S Sazzad, Stephen P Luby, Alain B Labrique, Saleem Kamili, Tonya M Hayden, Nourine A Kamili, Chong-Gee Teo, Emily S Gurley
Fecal contamination of drinking water is associated with large hepatitis E virus (HEV) outbreaks of genotypes 1 and 2 in endemic areas. Sporadic transmission of HEV genotypes 3 and 4 in high-income countries has been associated with exposure to blood and animal contact. The objective of the study was to identify the risk factors for hepatitis E and the genotype(s) causing sporadic hepatitis E in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We selected, from a diagnostic center in Dhaka between November 2008 and November 2009, cases presenting with jaundice and anti-HEV IgM antibodies and age-matched controls were defined as those with no history of jaundice and normal blood test results...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818500/cryptic-sexual-dimorphism-in-spatial-memory-and-hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#2
Marissa A Rice, Lauren E Hobbs, Kelly J Wallace, Alexander G Ophir
Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically...
August 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818420/predicting-sexual-assault-perpetration-in-the-u-s-army-using-administrative-data
#3
Anthony J Rosellini, John Monahan, Amy E Street, Maria V Petukhova, Nancy A Sampson, David M Benedek, Paul Bliese, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
INTRODUCTION: The Department of Defense uses a universal prevention framework for sexual assault prevention, with each branch implementing its own branch-wide programs. Intensive interventions exist, but would be cost effective only if targeted at high-risk personnel. This study developed actuarial models to identify male U.S. Army soldiers at high risk of administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration. METHODS: This study investigated administratively recorded sexual assault perpetration among the 821,807 male Army soldiers serving 2004-2009...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815592/sexual-selection-on-male-body-size-genital-length-and-heterozygosity-consistency-across-habitats-and-social-settings
#4
Megan L Head, Andrew T Kahn, Jonathan M Henshaw, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
1. Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). 2. How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also unclear how sexual selection is affected by interactions between the OSR and environmental factors, such as habitat complexity, that alter key male-female interactions such as mate encounter rates...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814121/perceptions-of-iranian-female-drug-users-toward-hiv-testing-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#5
Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh, Effat Merghati Khoie, Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Afsaneh Keramat, Mohammad Hassan Emamian
BACKGROUND: Drug-dependent women are the vulnerable population deprived of access to health services and also have particular relevance to public health perspective because they are important bridge population for driving HIV/AIDS epidemic. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perception of drug-dependent women regarding HIV testing. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we approached 23 women with substance use disorders in 2 of the selected drop-in centers in the south Tehran...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812713/female-plasticity-tends-to-reduce-sexual-conflict
#6
David V McLeod, Troy Day
Sexual conflict is the divergence of evolutionary interests between the sexes. A neglected aspect of sexual conflict theory is that the conflict often occurs within the female's body, which can lead to a power asymmetry between the sexes. In particular, the female may often be able to respond flexibly to the actions of the male, and so exhibits plasticity. Here, we consider the implications of female plasticity, and find that it tends to result in lower levels of sexual conflict. We then relate our results to a comparison of pre- versus post-copulatory sexual conflict, and we also show that this asymmetry between males and females reduces the likelihood of runaway selection, preventing co-evolutionary arms races...
February 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812603/climate-change-upends-selection-on-ornamentation-in-a-wild-bird
#7
Simon R Evans, Lars Gustafsson
Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the study, a reversal that is accounted for by rising spring temperatures at the breeding site: highly ornamented males were selectively favoured following cold breeding seasons but selected against following warm breeding seasons...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812569/the-transcriptional-architecture-of-phenotypic-dimorphism
#8
REVIEW
Judith E Mank
The profound differences in gene expression between the sexes are increasingly used to study the molecular basis of sexual dimorphism, sexual selection and sexual conflict. Studies of transcriptional architecture, based on comparisons of gene expression, have also been implemented for a wide variety of other intra-specific polymorphisms. These efforts are based on key assumptions regarding the relationship between transcriptional architecture, phenotypic variation and the target of selection. Some of these assumptions are better supported by available evidence than others...
January 4, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812445/-half-a-woman-half-a-man-that-is-how-they-make-me-feel-a-qualitative-study-of-rural-jordanian-women-s-experience-of-infertility
#9
Mayada A Daibes, Reema R Safadi, Tarek Athamneh, Iman F Anees, Rose E Constantino
Infertility is a health problem encompassing physical, psychological and social consequences that may threaten women's quality of life. Few studies have been conducted in Jordan examining rural women's experiences of infertility. This study aimed to explore responses to infertility and its consequences in the Jordanian rural sociocultural context. Using a descriptive qualitative design, data were collected between April and September 2016 from a fertility clinic in a military hospital in Northern Jordan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 purposively selected Jordanian women...
August 16, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811877/alternative-reproductive-strategies-and-the-maintenance-of-female-color-polymorphism-in-damselflies
#10
Rosa A Sánchez-Guillén, Maren Wellenreuther, Jesús R Chávez-Ríos, Christopher D Beatty, Anais Rivas-Torres, María Velasquez-Velez, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
Genetic polymorphisms are powerful model systems to study the maintenance of diversity in nature. In some systems, polymorphisms are limited to female coloration; these are thought to have arisen as a consequence of reducing male mating harassment, commonly resulting in negative frequency-dependent selection on female color morphs. One example is the damselfly Ischnura elegans, which shows three female color morphs and strong sexual conflict over mating rates. Here, we present research integrating male tactics, and female evolutionary strategies (female mating behavior and morph-specific female fecundity) in populations with different morph-specific mating frequencies, to obtain an understanding of mating rates in nature that goes beyond the mere measure of color frequencies...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811831/potent-phosphodiesterase-inhibition-and-nitric-oxide-release-stimulation-of-anti-impotence-thai-medicinal-plants-from-manosroi-iii-database
#11
Aranya Manosroi, Theeraphong Tangjai, Charinya Chankhampan, Worapaka Manosroi, Yaravee Najarut, Worapong Kitdamrongtham, Jiradej Manosroi
Seven plants in the top rank were selected from the "MANOSROI III" database using the two Thai keywords which meant impotence and sexual tonic. Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. extract [EDP1-001(1)] gave the highest PDE inhibition activity of 4.36-fold sildenafil, a standard anti-impotence drug. Plumbago indica Linn. extract [EDP2-001(1)] exhibited the highest NO release stimulation activity of 666.85% which was 1.50-fold acetylcholine, a standard drug. Most selected plant extracts were nontoxic to EA.hy926 cells at 1...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810709/parallel-evolution-of-sperm-hyper-activation-ca2-channels
#12
Jacob C Cooper, Nitin Phadnis
Sperm hyper-activation is a dramatic change in sperm behavior where mature sperm burst into a final sprint in the race to the egg. The mechanism of sperm hyper-activation in many metazoans, including humans, consists of a jolt of Ca2+ into the sperm flagellum via CatSper ion channels. Surprisingly, all nine CatSper genes have been independently lost in several animal lineages. In Drosophila, sperm hyper-activation is performed through the cooption of the polycystic kidney disease 2 (pkd2) Ca2+ channel. The parallels between CatSpers in primates and pkd2 in Drosophila provide a unique opportunity to examine the molecular evolution of the sperm hyper-activation machinery in two independent, nonhomologous calcium channels separated by > 500 million years of divergence...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810270/the-personal-antipsychotic-choice-index
#13
Floor van Dijk, Iris de Wit, Matthijs Blankers, Iris Sommer, Lieuwe de Haan
Introduction We present an online decision aid to involve patients with a psychotic disorder in shared decision-making concerning the selection of antipsychotic medication. Method Patients selected effectiveness and adverse effects criteria from the Subject's Response to Antipsychotics-34 questionnaire. Numerical data from meta-analyses, clinical trial data, receptor affinities and expert opinions were used to rank antipsychotics on each criterion. When using the the tool, patients indicate on a 5-point Likert scale how they value each (adverse) effect...
August 15, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809923/generalized-structural-equations-improve-sexual-selection-analyses
#14
Sonia Lombardi, Giacomo Santini, Giovanni Maria Marchetti, Stefano Focardi
Sexual selection is an intense evolutionary force, which operates through competition for the access to breeding resources. There are many cases where male copulatory success is highly asymmetric, and few males are able to sire most females. Two main hypotheses were proposed to explain this asymmetry: "female choice" and "male dominance". The literature reports contrasting results. This variability may reflect actual differences among studied populations, but it may also be generated by methodological differences and statistical shortcomings in data analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809767/using-reported-rates-of-sexually-transmitted-diseases-to-illustrate-potential-methodological-issues-in-the-measurement-of-racial-and-ethnic-disparities
#15
Harrell W Chesson, Chirag G Patel, Thomas L Gift, Kyle T Bernstein, Sevgi O Aral
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in the burden of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been documented and described for decades. Similarly, methodological issues and limitations in the use of disparity measures to quantify disparities in health have also been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use historic STD surveillance data to illustrate four of the most well-known methodological issues associated with the use of disparity measures. METHODS: We manually searched STD surveillance reports to find examples of racial/ethnic distributions of reported STDs that illustrate key methodological issues in the use of disparity measures...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808560/exploring-the-relationship-between-tychoparthenogenesis-and-inbreeding-depression-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#16
Chelsea J Little, Marie-Pierre Chapuis, Laurence Blondin, Elodie Chapuis, Hélène Jourdan-Pineau
Tychoparthenogenesis, a form of asexual reproduction in which a small proportion of unfertilized eggs can hatch spontaneously, could be an intermediate evolutionary link in the transition from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction. The lower fitness of tychoparthenogenetic offspring could be due to either developmental constraints or to inbreeding depression in more homozygous individuals. We tested the hypothesis that in populations where inbreeding depression has been purged, tychoparthenogenesis may be less costly...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808540/who-s-my-daddy-considerations-for-the-influence-of-sexual-selection-on-multiple-paternity-in-elasmobranch-mating-systems
#17
Kady Lyons, Chris L Chabot, Christopher G Mull, Corinne N Paterson Holder, Christopher G Lowe
Polyandry resulting in multiply-sired litters has been documented in the majority of elasmobranch species examined to date. Although commonly observed, reasons for this mating system remain relatively obscure, especially in batoids. The round stingray (Urobatis halleri) is an abundant, well-studied elasmobranch distributed throughout the northeastern Pacific that we used to explore hypotheses regarding multiple paternity in elasmobranchs. Twenty mid- to late-term pregnant females were sampled off the coast of southern California and their litters analyzed for the occurrence of multiple paternity using five nuclear microsatellite loci...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807464/sex-estimation-using-dimensions-around-the-nutrient-foramen-of-the-long-bones-of-the-arm-and-forearm-in-south-africans
#18
Palesa Mokoena, Brendon K Billings, Mubarak A Bidmos, Pedzisai Mazengenya
South Africa has had an increase in rates of crime, interpersonal violence and homicide since the introduction of democracy in 1994. Forensic osteological standards was lacking for South Africans of different population groups necessitating the generation of new standards for forensic identification of individuals from skeletal remains. For these reasons, there is a concerted demand for methods of identifying skeletal remains with sex being amongst the most important of the biological characteristics required...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806919/integrated-analysis-of-mrna-seq-and-mirna-seq-reveals-the-potential-roles-of-sex-biased-mirna-mrna-pairs-in-gonad-tissue-of-dark-sleeper-odontobutis-potamophila
#19
Cheng Zhao, Guosong Zhang, Shaowu Yin, Zecheng Li, Qintao Wang, Shuqiao Chen, Guoqin Zhou
BACKGROUND: The dark sleeper (Odontobutis potamophila) is an important commercial fish species which shows a sexually dimorphic growth pattern. However, the lack of sex transcriptomic data is hindering further research and genetically selective breeding of the dark sleeper. In this study, integrated analysis of mRNA and miRNA was performed on gonad tissue to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in the dark sleeper. RESULTS: A total of 143 differentially expressed miRNAs and 16,540 differentially expressed genes were identified...
August 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806288/acellular-dermal-matrix-in-immediate-expander-implant-breast-reconstruction-a-multicenter-assessment-of-risks-and-benefits
#20
Michael Sorkin, Ji Qi, Hyungjin M Kim, Jennifer B Hamill, Jeffrey H Kozlow, Andrea L Pusic, Edwin G Wilkins
INTRODUCTION: Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has gained widespread acceptance in immediate expander/implant reconstruction due to perceived benefits, including improved expansion dynamics and superior aesthetic results. Although previous investigators have evaluated its risks, few studies have assessed the impact of ADM on other outcomes, including patient-reported measures. METHODS: The Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium (MROC) Study used a prospective cohort design to evaluate patients undergoing post-mastectomy reconstruction from 10 centers and 58 participating surgeons between 2012 and 2015...
August 3, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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