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Sexual dimorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334875/white-matter-changes-in-paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-monophasic-demyelinating-disorders
#1
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, E Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331580/environmental-enrichment-sexual-dimorphism-and-brain-size-in-sticklebacks
#2
Elisavet A Toli, Kristina Noreikiene, Jacquelin DeFaveri, Juha Merilä
Evidence for phenotypic plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain parts is widespread, but experimental investigations into this effect remain scarce and are usually conducted using individuals from a single population. As the costs and benefits of plasticity may differ among populations, the extent of brain plasticity may also differ from one population to another. In a common garden experiment conducted with three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) originating from four different populations, we investigated whether environmental enrichment (aquaria provided with structural complexity) caused an increase in the brain size or size of different brain parts compared to controls (bare aquaria)...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330571/use-of-3d-orbital-reconstruction-in-the-assessment-of-orbital-sexual-dimorphism-and-its-pathological-consequences
#3
N Graillon, C Boulze, P Adalian, A Loundou, L Guyot
INTRODUCTION: Surrounded by a variety of structures including the facial sinuses and the brain, the human orbit displays unique anatomical features. It is known that orbital volume correlates with age and sex. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual dimorphism of orbital volume relative to the size of the skull, and to establish criteria for gender determination. METHODS: Orbital volume was measured from 3D models of the orbits. The volumes were expressed in relation to the centroid size of the skull, to ensure that any sexual dimorphism in orbital volume was not simply due to a difference in skull size...
February 2017: J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325789/sex-specific-differences-in-mitochondria-biogenesis-morphology-respiratory-function-and-ros-homeostasis-in-young-mouse-heart-and-brain
#4
Abdel Rahman M Khalifa, Engy A Abdel-Rahman, Ali M Mahmoud, Mohamed H Ali, Maha Noureldin, Saber H Saber, Mahmoud Mohsen, Sameh S Ali
Sex-specific differences in mitochondrial function and free radical homeostasis are reported in the context of aging but not well-established in pathogeneses occurring early in life. Here, we examine if sex disparity in mitochondria function, morphology, and redox status starts early and hence can be implicated in sexual dimorphism in cardiac as well as neurological disorders prevalent at young age. Although mitochondrial activity in the heart did not significantly vary between sexes, female brain exhibited enhanced respiration and higher reserve capacity...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323953/activation-of-male-liver-chromatin-accessibility-and-stat5-dependent-gene-transcription-by-plasma-growth-hormone-pulses
#5
Jeannette Connerney, Dana Lau-Corona, Andy Rampersaud, David J Waxman
Sex-differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion (pulsatile in males vs near continuous/persistent in females) impart sex-dependent expression to hundreds of genes in adult mouse liver. STAT5, a GH-activated transcription factor that is essential for liver sexual dimorphism, is dynamically activated in direct response to each male plasma GH pulse. However, the impact of GH-induced STAT5 pulses on liver chromatin accessibility and downstream transcriptional events is unknown. Here, we investigate the impact of a single pulse of GH given to hypophysectomized mice on local liver chromatin accessibility [DNase hypersensitive site analysis], transcription rates [hnRNA analysis], and gene expression [quantitative PCR and RNA-Seq] determined 30, 90 or 240 min later...
February 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321205/sexual-dimorphism-in-digit-ratios-derived-from-dorsal-digit-length-among-adults-and-children
#6
Sanjay Kumar, Martin Voracek, Maharaj Singh
Sexual dimorphism in ventrally measured digit ratios (2D:4D and other) has been related to prenatal sex-hormone levels. In the present series of three studies, we measured all digit lengths (excluding the thumb) on the dorsal, rather than the ventral, side of left and right hands and investigated the sexual dimorphism in digit ratios in three independent samples, two of them comprising adults (Study I, N = 104; Study II, N = 154), and one further, comprising kindergarten children (Study III, N = 64)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318293/yawning-and-social-styles-different-functions-in-tolerant-and-despotic-macaques-macaca-tonkeana-and-macaca-fuscata
#7
Alessandra Zannella, Roscoe Stanyon, Elisabetta Palagi
Yawning is a multifunctional behavior with a role in social communication. In Old World monkeys, the "tension yawn" is often used as a threat, allowing individuals to completely expose their canines. To explore the role of this phenomenon, we selected 2 closely related species-Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and Tonkean macaques (M. tonkeana)-which differ primarily in terms of their tolerance levels. Japanese macaques are classified as despotic; Tonkean macaques are classified as tolerant. Both species live in multimale-multifemale societies, show a high level of sexual dimorphism, and have comparable yawning repertoires that include displaying a covered teeth yawn and an uncovered gums yawn...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317246/brain-gene-expression-is-influenced-by-incubation-temperature-during-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius-development
#8
Maria Michela Pallotta, Mimmo Turano, Raffaele Ronca, Marcello Mezzasalma, Agnese Petraccioli, Gaetano Odierna, Teresa Capriglione
Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315977/seasonal-expression-of-arginine-vasotocin-mrna-and-its-correlations-to-gonadal-steroidogenic-enzymes-and-sexually-dimorphic-coloration-during-sex-reversal-in-the-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata
#9
José J Reyes-Tomassini, Ten-Tsao Wong, Yonathan Zohar
Arginine vasotocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus of teleost fish that has been shown to regulate gonad development and sexual behavior. To study the role of arginine vasotocin in the gonadal cycle of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, we cloned the seabream arginine vasotocin (avt) complementary DNA (cDNA). We investigated the expression of brain avt throughout the gonad cycle using real-time quantitative PCR and compared its expression levels to the expression levels of two key gonadal steroidogenic enzymes, cyp19a1a and cyp11b2...
March 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315859/heteromorphism-of-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-in-two-anole-species-squamata-dactyloidae-revealed-by-synaptonemal-complex-analysis
#10
Artem P Lisachov, Vladimir A Trifonov, Massimo Giovannotti, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Pavel M Borodin
Iguanians (Pleurodonta) are one of the reptile lineages that, like birds and mammals, have sex chromosomes of ancient origin. In most iguanians these are microchromosomes, making a distinction between the X and Y as well as between homeologous sex chromosomes in other species difficult. Meiotic chromosome analysis may be used to elucidate their differentiation, because meiotic prophase chromosomes are longer and less condensed than metaphase chromosomes, and the homologues are paired with each other, revealing minor heteromorphisms...
March 18, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314159/aging-alters-the-molecular-dynamics-of-synapses-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-pattern-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Elif Tugce Karoglu, Dilara Ozge Halim, Bahriye Erkaya, Ferda Altaytas, Ayca Arslan-Ergul, Ozlen Konu, Michelle M Adams
The zebrafish has become a popular model for studying normal brain aging due to its large fecundity, conserved genome, and available genetic tools; but little data exists about neurobiological age-related alterations. The current study tested the hypothesis of an association between brain aging and synaptic protein loss across males and females. Western blot analysis of synaptophysin (SYP), a presynaptic vesicle protein, and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) and gephyrin (GEP), excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic receptor-clustering proteins, respectively, was performed in young, middle-aged, and old male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brains...
February 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304393/the-effects-of-oestrogens-and-their-receptors-on-cardiometabolic-health
#12
REVIEW
Eugenia Morselli, Roberta S Santos, Alfredo Criollo, Michael D Nelson, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in developed countries. The incidence of CVD is sexually dimorphic, and research has focused on the contribution of sex steroids to the development and progression of the cardiometabolic syndrome, which is defined as a clustering of interrelated risk factors that promote the development of atherosclerosis (which can lead to CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data are inconclusive as to how sex steroids and their respective receptors increase or suppress the risk of developing the cardiometabolic syndrome and thus CVD...
March 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304076/sexual-dimorphism-in-laryngeal-muscle-fibers-and-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-the-adult-rat
#13
Charles Lenell, Aaron M Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The human voice is sexually dimorphic in obvious ways, such as differences in fundamental frequency and gross laryngeal anatomy, but also in less apparent ways, such as in the prevalence and types of voice disorders and the manifestation of voice changes in advanced age. Differences between males and females are rarely explored, however, in mechanistic animal studies. The goal of this study was to explore sexual dimorphism in laryngeal function and structure in adult rats by examining ultrasonic vocalization acoustics and muscle fiber size and type in the thyroarytenoid muscle...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303909/sprint-interval-training-induces-a-sexual-dimorphism-but-does-not-improve-peak-bone-mass-in-young-and-healthy-mice
#14
Kathrin Koenen, Isabell Knepper, Madlen Klodt, Anja Osterberg, Ioannis Stratos, Thomas Mittlmeier, Tina Histing, Michael D Menger, Brigitte Vollmar, Sven Bruhn, Brigitte Müller-Hilke
Elevated peak bone mass in early adulthood reduces the risk for osteoporotic fractures at old age. As sports participation has been correlated with elevated peak bone masses, we aimed to establish a training program that would efficiently stimulate bone accrual in healthy young mice. We combined voluntary treadmill running with sprint interval training modalities that were tailored to the individual performance limits and were of either high or intermediate intensity. Adolescent male and female STR/ort mice underwent 8 weeks of training before the hind legs were analyzed for cortical and trabecular bone parameters and biomechanical strength...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303195/sexual-selection-constrains-the-body-mass-of-male-but-not-female-mice
#15
James S Ruff, Douglas H Cornwall, Linda C Morrison, Joseph W Cauceglia, Adam C Nelson, Shannon M Gaukler, Shawn Meagher, Lara S Carroll, Wayne K Potts
Sexual size dimorphism results when female and male body size is influenced differently by natural and sexual selection. Typically, in polygynous species larger male body size is thought to be favored in competition for mates and constraints on maximal body size are due to countervailing natural selection on either sex; however, it has been postulated that sexual selection itself may result in stabilizing selection at an optimal mass. Here we test this hypothesis by retrospectively assessing the influence of body mass, one metric of body size, on the fitness of 113 wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus) residing within ten replicate semi-natural enclosures from previous studies conducted by our laboratory...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298376/floral-size-and-shape-evolution-following-the-transition-to-gender-dimorphism
#16
Ambika Kamath, Rachel A Levin, Jill S Miller
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Floral morphology is expected to evolve following the transition from cosexuality to gender dimorphism in plants, as selection through male and female function becomes dissociated. Specifically, male-biased dimorphism in flower size can arise through selection for larger flowers through male function, selection for smaller flowers through female function, or both. The evolutionary pathway to floral dimorphism can be most effectively reconstructed in species with intraspecific variation in sexual system...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297189/pelvic-inlet-shape-is-not-as-dimorphic-as-previously-suggested
#17
Hillary Delprete
It is well known that there are significant differences in the pelves of males and females due, in part, to differing constraints. The male and female pelves must be suitable for upright posture and locomotion, but the female pelvis must also be suitable for reproduction. These differing requirements lead to differences in the shape and size of various pelvic dimensions. These differences are reflected in the pelvic inlet, midplane, and outlet. Current research has documented dimorphisms in the posterior and anterior spaces in all three of these planes...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297185/allometry-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-the-human-pelvis
#18
Barbara Fischer, Philipp Mitteroecker
Sexual dimorphism in the human pelvis has evolved in response to several jointly acting selection regimes that result from the pelvis' multiple roles in locomotion and childbirth, among others. Because human males are, on average, taller than females, some aspects of sexual dimorphism in pelvis shape might result from allometry, the association between stature and pelvis shape across individuals. In this study, they aimed to disentangle and quantify the two components contributing to pelvic sex differences: the allometric component, which emerges as a consequence of dimorphism in stature, and the remaining non-allometric sexual dimorphism component...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297178/morphological-integration-of-the-human-pelvis-with-respect-to-age-and-sex
#19
Angela M Mallard, Kristen R R Savell, Benjamin M Auerbach
Considerable research has shown that modern human pelvic dimensions, especially of the birth canal, are sexually dimorphic. Studies also suggest that females with younger ages-at-death have narrower canal dimensions than those who die at older ages, possibly due to continued independent growth of the pubis. A recent examination of this pattern argued that it is unlikely that these differences relate to mortality, but the source of the difference in pelvic dimensions with age remains unresolved. We use pelvic dimensions to assess differences in magnitudes of morphological integration between adult females and males across ages-at-death...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297176/anatomy-development-and-function-of-the-human-pelvis
#20
Jeremy M DeSilva, Karen R Rosenberg
The pelvis is an anatomically complex and functionally informative bone that contributes directly to both human locomotion and obstetrics. Because of the pelvis' important role in obstetrics, it is one of the most sexually dimorphic bony elements of the human body. The complex intersection of pelvic dimorphism, locomotion, and obstetrics has been reenergized by exciting new research, and many papers in this special issue of the pelvis help provide clarity on the relationship between pelvic form (especially female) and locomotor function...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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