Read by QxMD icon Read

Sexual dimorphism

Grace H Hwang, Jessica L Hopkins, Philip W Jordan
Chromatin spread techniques have been widely used to assess the dynamic localization of various proteins during gametogenesis, particularly for spermatogenesis. These techniques allow for visualization of protein and DNA localization patterns during meiotic events such as homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and DNA repair. While a few protocols have been described in the literature, general chromatin spread techniques using mammalian prophase oocytes are limited and difficult due to the timing of meiosis initiation in fetal ovaries...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Laura C D Pomatto, Sarah Wong, John Tower, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis enables rapid cellular signaling, leading to transcriptional and translational modifications (Davies, 2016) [1]. The Proteasome is one of the main cellular proteolytic enzymes that plays an essential role in the rapid clearance of oxidatively damaged cellular proteins, and is highly responsive to oxidative stress. Upon exposure to even very low, signaling levels of oxidants, the predominant form of the Proteasome becomes the ATP-independent 20S proteasome that enables rapid clearance of damaged proteins...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Jessie P Buckley, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Susan L Teitelbaum, Antonia M Calafat, Mary S Wolff, Stephanie M Engel
BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate exposures may alter immune or inflammatory responses leading to respiratory and allergic disease. OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations of prenatal environmental phenol and phthalate biomarkers with respiratory and allergic outcomes among children in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study. METHODS: We quantified urinary biomarkers of benzophenone-3, bisphenol A, paradichlorobenzene (as 2,5-dichlorophenol), triclosan, and 10 phthalate metabolites in third trimester maternal samples and assessed asthma, wheeze, and atopic skin conditions via parent questionnaires at ages 6 and 7 years (n = 164 children with 240 observations)...
March 15, 2018: Environment International
Adriana Maggi, Sara Della Torre
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical studies have largely demonstrated major differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders in males and females, but the biological cause of these dissimilarities remain to be elucidated. Mammals are characterized by a major change in reproductive strategies and it is conceivable that these changes subjected females to a significant evolutionary pressure that perfected the coupling between energy metabolism and reproduction. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review will address the plausibility that female liver functions diverged significantly from males given the role of liver in the control of metabolism...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Margherita Ruoppolo, Marianna Caterino, Lucia Albano, Rita Pecce, Maria Grazia Di Girolamo, Daniela Crisci, Michele Costanzo, Luigi Milella, Flavia Franconi, Ilaria Campesi
Sex differences affect several diseases and are organ-and parameter-specific. In humans and animals, sex differences also influence the metabolism and homeostasis of amino acids and fatty acids, which are linked to the onset of diseases. Thus, the use of targeted metabolite profiles in tissues represents a powerful approach to examine the intermediary metabolism and evidence for any sex differences. To clarify the sex-specific activities of liver, heart and kidney tissues, we used targeted metabolomics, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and linear correlation models to evaluate sex and organ-specific differences in amino acids, free carnitine and acylcarnitine levels in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sa Geng, Ayano Miyagi, James G Umen
Volvocine algae comprise a unique comparative model for investigating the evolution of distinct male and female sexes (oogamy) from an isogamous ancestral state with mating types. The mating-type or sex-determining gene MID encodes a putative RWP-RK family transcription factor, and orthologs of MID are present throughout the volvocine algal lineage in either the MT- or male mating locus of dioecious species. It was previously found that ectopic expression of isogamous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii MID ( CrMID ) in a C...
March 16, 2018: Development
Yu Shi, Wenguang Liu, Maoxian He
Bivalve mollusks exhibit hermaphroditism and sex reversal/differentiation. Studies generally focus on transcriptional profiling and specific genes related to sex determination and differentiation. Few studies on sex reversal/differentiation have been reported. A combination analysis of gonad proteomics and transcriptomics was conducted on Chlamys nobilis to provide a systematic understanding of sex reversal/differentiation in bivalves. We obtained 4258 unique peptides and 93,731 unigenes with good correlation between messenger RNA and protein levels...
March 15, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Salvatore Sutti, Frank Tacke
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a clinical challenge due to the poorly predictable outcomes. Accordingly, considerable efforts have been devoted to unravel the risk factors responsible for DILI worsening toward acute liver failure (ALF), liver transplantation (LT), and/or death. From a pathogenic point of view, exhaustion of drug metabolizing pathways, cell death mechanisms, activation of local immune cells, such as Kupffer cells, and recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes including monocytes and lymphocytes are key drivers of DILI progression...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Inger Sundström-Poromaa
From a psychological perspective, the menstrual cycle has been a research topic for more than 50 years. The most recent menstrual cycle research has been driven by an increased interest in sex differences in neuroscience, and the urge to understand sex disparities in prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Indeed, the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. This review summarizes the emotion-related and cognitive findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Nikita Woodhead, Kelly M Hare, Alison Cree
The existence of sex differences in digit-length ratio (especially between the second and fourth digits, 2D:4D) is well established for humans from fetal life onwards, and has been linked with later performance. In rodents, the ratio is affected prenatally by exposure to androgens and estrogens, with some research suggesting an influence from sex of the neighbouring intrauterine fetus. However, the ubiquity and ontogenetic development of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios is not well established among wild amniotes...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Thomas C A Royle, Dionne Sakhrani, Camilla F Speller, Virginia L Butler, Robert H Devlin, Aubrey Cannon, Dongya Y Yang
Pacific salmonid (Oncorhynchus spp.) remains are routinely recovered from archaeological sites in northwestern North America but typically lack sexually dimorphic features, precluding the sex identification of these remains through morphological approaches. Consequently, little is known about the deep history of the sex-selective salmonid fishing strategies practiced by some of the region's Indigenous peoples. Here, we present a DNA-based method for the sex identification of archaeological Pacific salmonid remains that integrates two PCR assays that each co-amplify fragments of the sexually dimorphic on the Y chromosome (sdY) gene and an internal positive control (Clock1a or D-loop)...
2018: PloS One
Laura Burgueño Torres, María Rosa Mourelle Martínez, Montserrat Diéguez Pérez, Joaquín M de Nova García
AIM: To analyse differences in the eruption of primary teeth between both sexes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of 1250 children aged between 3 and 42 months. The clinical emergence of teeth was taken to estimate average ages for primary teeth eruption. The t-test was used to analyse gender and arch differences. RESULTS: Eruption of primary teeth began at the same time in girls as in boys; although the eruptive process was longer in girls...
March 14, 2018: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Cynthia Kanagaratham, Victoria Chiwara, Bianca Ho, Sanny Moussette, Mina Youssef, David Venuto, Lucie Jeannotte, Guillaume Bourque, Juan Bautista de Sanctis, Danuta Radzioch, Anna K Naumova
The human chromosomal region 17q12-q21 is one of the best replicated genome-wide association study loci for childhood asthma. The associated SNPs span a large genomic interval that includes several protein-coding genes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2) gene residing in this region contributes to asthma pathogenesis using a mouse model. We tested the lung phenotypes of knock-out (KO) mice that carry a deletion of the Zpbp2 gene. The deletion attenuated airway hypersensitivity (AHR) in female, but not male, mice in the absence of allergic sensitization...
March 13, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Sara Falvo, Gabriella Chieffi Baccaria, Giuseppe Spaziano, Luigi Rosati, Massimo Venditti, Maria Maddalena Di Flore, Alessandra Santillo
The Harderian gland (HG) of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) secretes copious amounts of lipids, such as cholesterol. Here we report a study of the expressions of the StAR protein and key steroidogenic enzymes in the HG of male and female rats. The objective of the present investigation was to ascertain (a) whether the rat HG is involved in steroid production starting with cholesterol, and (b) whether the pattern of gene and protein expressions together with the enzymatic activities display sexual dimorphism. The results demonstrate, for the first time, the expression of StAR gene and protein, and Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3, Srd5a1, Srd5a2 and Cyp19a1 genes in the rat HG...
March 10, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Takumi Oti, Keiko Takanami, Saya Ito, Takashi Ueda, Ken Ichi Matsuda, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Jintetsu Soh, Osamu Ukimura, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Hirotaka Sakamoto
The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we have generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line, and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence...
March 8, 2018: Endocrinology
Na Wang, Renkai Wang, Ruoqing Wang, Songlin Chen
The Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a typical female heterogamete species that exhibits female-biased sexual size dimorphism, which has severely hindered the sustainable development of the species in aquaculture. In the present study, four important somatotropic and reproductive tissues including brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad from 15 females and 15 males were used for transcriptome analysis via RNA-seq. A mean of 37,533,991 high-quality clean reads was obtained from each library and 806, 1482, 818, and 14,695 differentially expressed genes in female and male were identified from the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonad, respectively (fold change ≥ 2 and q < 0...
March 12, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Béatrice Milon, Sunayana Mitra, Yang Song, Zachary Margulies, Ryan Casserly, Virginia Drake, Jessica A Mong, Didier A Depireux, Ronna Hertzano
BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the most prevalent form of acquired hearing loss and affects about 40 million US adults. Among the suggested therapeutics tested in rodents, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) has been shown to be otoprotective from NIHL; however, these results were limited to male mice. METHODS: Here we tested the effect of SAHA on the hearing of 10-week-old B6CBAF1/J mice of both sexes, which were exposed to 2 h of octave-band noise (101 dB SPL centered at 11...
March 12, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
Waleska Vera, Jan Bergmann
The grape weevil, Naupactus xanthographus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a polyphagous insect native to southern South America that causes considerable damage in grape and other fruit species. In this study, the morphology and ultrastructure of the antennae and the antennal sensilla of N. xanthographus were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antennae consist of a scape, a pedicel, a funicle, and a zone called the "club," which are all formed by a total of 12 antennomers...
March 12, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Reza Rahimian, Pierre Cordeau, Jasna Kriz
Microglia are the principle immune cells of the brain. Once activated, microglial cells may exhibit a wide repertoire of the context-dependent profiles ranging from highly neurotoxic to more protective and pro-regenerative cellular phenotypes. While to date the mechanisms involved in the molecular regulation of the microglia polarization phenotypes remain elusive, a growing evidence suggests that gender may markedly affect the inflammatory and/or glial responses following brain injuries. In the recent years, special attention has been given to the role of microglia in sexual dimorphism, both in healthy brain and diseased brain...
March 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Kelli A Fagan, Jintao Luo, Ross C Lagoy, Frank C Schroeder, Dirk R Albrecht, Douglas S Portman
Biological sex, a fundamental dimension of internal state, can modulate neural circuits to generate behavioral variation. Understanding how and why circuits are tuned by sex can provide important insights into neural and behavioral plasticity. Here we find that sexually dimorphic behavioral responses to C. elegans ascaroside sex pheromones are implemented by the functional modulation of shared chemosensory circuitry. In particular, the sexual state of a single sensory neuron pair, ADF, determines the nature of an animal's behavioral response regardless of the sex of the rest of the body...
March 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"