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Sexual dimorphism

Terrence B Ritzman, Claire E Terhune, Philipp Gunz, Chris A Robinson
The fossils from Malapa cave, South Africa, attributed to Australopithecus sediba, include two partial skeletons-MH1, a subadult, and MH2, an adult. Previous research noted differences in the mandibular rami of these individuals. This study tests three hypotheses that could explain these differences. The first two state that the differences are due to ontogenetic variation and sexual dimorphism, respectively. The third hypothesis, which is relevant to arguments suggesting that MH1 belongs in the genus Australopithecus and MH2 in Homo, is that the differences are due to the two individuals representing more than one taxon...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Travis Rayne Pickering, Jason L Heaton, Morris B Sutton, Ron J Clarke, Kathleen Kuman, Jess Hutton Senjem, C K Brain
We describe 14 hominin teeth and tooth fragments excavated recently from Swartkrans Cave (South Africa). The fossils derive from Members 1 (Lower Bank) and 3, from the Member 2/3 interface and from two deposits not yet assigned to member (the "Talus Cone Deposit" and the "Underground North Excavation" [UNE]) of the Swartkrans Formation, and include the first hominin fossil from the UNE, the two smallest Paranthropus robustus deciduous maxillary second molars in the entire hominin fossil record, and one of the smallest P...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Maria Carla de Francesco, Anna Loy
Feeding adaptation, social behaviour, and interspecific interactions related to sexual dimorphism and allometric growth are particularly challenging to be investigated in the high sexual monomorphic Delphinidae. We used geometric morphometrics to extensively explore sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic allometry of different projections of the skull and the mandible of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. Two-dimensional landmarks were recorded on the dorsal, ventral, lateral, and occipital views of the skull, and on the lateral view of the left and the right mandible of 104 specimens from the Mediterranean and the North Seas, differing environmental condition and degree of interspecific associations...
2016: PloS One
Juan Augusto Hernández, Marissa Lepe, Rafael Macedo, Victalina Arredondo, Carlos Eliseo Cortez, Luis Jorge García, Omar Prado
A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Socorro Island Merino sheep. A total of 67 sheep, 62 females, 26 purebred and 36 crossbred with hair breeds, and five males were scored for 10 body measurements in addition to live weight, and four racial and seven functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex and crossbreeding on the body measurements and indices was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and morphological harmony was determined using Spearman correlation...
October 19, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
C S Oliveira, N Z Saraiva, M R de Lima, L Z Oliveira, R V Serapião, C A V Borges, J M Garcia, L S A Camargo
Here we present kinetics data from bovine sex-specific embryo development. Embryos were originated using sex-sorted semen from three different Nelore bulls, and semen from the same batch was used for X-and Y-chromosome spermatozoa sorting. Data was obtained for six time points (24, 48, 96, 120, and 144 h.p.i.). Analyses for each bull׳s embryos (1, 2 and 3) is presented for female and male groups separately. Also, grouped data analysis, considering bull and sex interaction, is shown. For further interpretation and discussion, see "Cell death is involved in sexual dimorphism during preimplantation development" (Oliveira et al...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Daniel V Guebel, Néstor V Torres
Motivation: In the brain of elderly-healthy individuals, the effects of sexual dimorphism and those due to normal aging appear overlapped. Discrimination of these two dimensions would powerfully contribute to a better understanding of the etiology of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as "sporadic" Alzheimer. Methods: Following a system biology approach, top-down and bottom-up strategies were combined. First, public transcriptome data corresponding to the transition from adulthood to the aging stage in normal, human hippocampus were analyzed through an optimized microarray post-processing (Q-GDEMAR method) together with a proper experimental design (full factorial analysis)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Laura Manthey, Richard L Jantz, Michael Bohnert, Katharina Jellinghaus
Crania are a reliable source for sex estimation in Euro-Americans, Europeans, and most other populations. Besides morphological assessments, the application of Fordisc® has become a useful tool within the last two decades, creating discriminant functions from morphometric data. Unfortunately, until now, white populations are mostly represented by measurements of American individuals. Therefore, classification rates are lower for European skulls than for Euro-Americans. The aim of this study was to show differences in sexual dimorphism between German and Euro-American crania...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Małgorzata Tomczyńska, Ireneusz Salata, Joanna Saluk
Autoimmune diseases occur with greater frequency in women than in men, suggesting that the mechanism of pathogenesis is conditioned by gender. So far not defined clearly factors responsible for the development and course of these diseases depending on sex. However, it was found there is a clear sexual dimorphism of the immune system, which may determine the process of autoimmunity. The causes of the increased incidence of women in autoimmune diseases are attributed to the action of the hormones estrogen, which can promote the process of autoimmunity and enhance the clinical symptoms of the disease...
September 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ramona Jühlen, Dana Landgraf, Angela Huebner, Katrin Koehler
It has been shown that the nucleoporin ALADIN plays a significant role in the redox homeostasis of the cell but its function in steroidogenesis contributing to adrenal atrophy in triple A syndrome remains largely unknown. In an attempt to identify new interaction partners of ALADIN, co-immunoprecipitation followed by proteome analysis was conducted in different expression models using the human adrenocortical tumour cell line NCI-H295R. Our results suggest an interaction of ALADIN with the microsomal protein PGRMC2...
October 17, 2016: Biology Open
Justin K Mogilski, Lisa L M Welling
Sexual dimorphism, symmetry, and coloration in human faces putatively signal information relevant to mate selection and reproduction. Although the independent contributions of these characteristics to judgments of attractiveness are well established, relatively few studies have examined whether individuals prioritize certain features over others. Here, participants (N = 542, 315 female) ranked six sets of facial photographs (3 male, 3 female) by their preference for starting long- and short-term romantic relationships with each person depicted...
October 17, 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Masahito Tsuboi, Adam Chee Ooi Lim, Boon Leong Ooi, Mei Yee Yip, Ving Ching Chong, Ingrid Ahnesjö, Niclas Kolm
Brain size varies greatly at all taxonomic levels. Feeding ecology, life history and sexual selection have been proposed as key components in generating contemporary diversity in brain size across vertebrates. Analyses of brain size evolution have, however, been limited to lineages where males predominantly compete for mating and females choose mates. Here, we present the first original data set of brain sizes in pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae) a group in which intense female mating competition occurs in many species...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Rafael de Oliveira Christe, André Barretto Bruno Wilke, Paloma Oliveira Vidal, Mauro Toledo Marrelli
Culicidae mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens; however, males and females have different responses to selective pressures, leading to distinct evolutionary outcomes. A better understanding of this phenomenon is crucial to establish effective control strategies for this mosquito. Although Aedes fluviatilis is considered a secondary vector for several diseases, there is a dearth of data about its ecology, population structure and sexual dimorphism. The goal of this study was therefore to assess sexual dimorphism patterns in Aedes fluviatilis...
October 13, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Liandong Yang, Zhaolei Zhang, Shunping He
Males and females often display extensive phenotypic differences, and many of these sexual dimorphisms are thought to result from differences between males and females in expression of genes present in both sexes. Sex-biased genes have been shown to exhibit accelerated rates of evolution in a wide array of species, however the cause of this remains enigmatic. In this study, we investigate the extent and evolutionary dynamics of sex-biased gene expression in zebrafish. Our results indicate that both male-biased genes and female-biased genes exhibit accelerated evolution at the protein level...
October 13, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Manuela Rebora, José Manuel Tierno de Figueroa, Silvana Piersanti
Plecoptera, one of the most primitive groups of Neoptera, are important aquatic insects usually employed as bioindicators of high water quality. Notwithstanding the well-developed antennae of the adult, its sensory abilities are so far not well known. The present paper describes at ultrastructural level under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the antennal sensilla of the adult of the stonefly Dinocras cephalotes (Plecoptera, Perlidae). Adult males and females show a filiform antenna constituted of a scape, a pedicel and a flagellum composed of very numerous segments with no clear sexual dimorphism in the number and distribution of the antennal sensilla...
October 11, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
G Andres Contreras, Kyan Thelen, Nadia Ayala-Lopez, Stephanie W Watts
There are sex associated differences in the risk for cardiovascular comorbidities in obesity and metabolic syndrome. A common clinical finding in these diseases is the expansion of perivascular adipose tissues (PVAT) which is associated with alterations in their role as regulators of vessel function. PVAT hyperplasia and hypertrophy are dependent on the biology of populations of adipocyte progenitor cells (APC). It is currently unclear if PVAT enlargement diverges between males and females and the mechanisms linking APC biology with sexual dimorphism remain poorly understood...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Nasser M Al-Daghri, Majed S Alokail, Antigoni Manousopoulou, Ashley Heinson, Omar Al-Attas, Yousef Al-Saleh, Shaun Sabico, Sobhy Yakout, Christopher H Woelk, George P Chrousos, Spiros D Garbis
BACKGROUND: Overweight adults are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and vitamin D deficiency, whereas an important feature to vitamin D physiology is its sex dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether vitamin D status improvement exerts a sexually dimorphic effect on serum proteins associated with cardiovascular risk among overweight adults. METHODS: Unprocessed serum from age- and BMI-matched men (n=26) and pre-menopausal women (n=24) with vitamin D deficiency and after they achieved sufficiency through a 12-month nutritional intervention was analyzed using our previously published depletion-free, quantitative proteomics method...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Yadanar Moe, Chaw Kyi-Tha-Thu, Tomoko Tanaka, Hiroto Ito, Satowa Yahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Goro Katsuura, Fumihiro Iwashige, Ichiro Sakata, Atsushi Akune, Akio Inui, Takafumi Sakai, Sonoko Ogawa, Shinji Tsukahara
We found a novel sexually dimorphic area in the dorsal hypothalamus of mice (hereafter the SDA-DH). The SDA-DH was sandwiched between two known male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the calbindin-sexually dimorphic nucleus, and exhibited a female-biased sex difference in neuronal cell density. The density of neurons in the SDA-DH was increased in male mice by orchidectomy on the day of birth and decreased in female mice by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth...
October 11, 2016: Endocrinology
Maryam Kavousi, Lawrence F Bielak, Patricia A Peyser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides a brief synopsis of sexual dimorphism in atherosclerosis with an emphasis on genetic studies aimed to better understand the atherosclerotic process and clinical outcomes in women. Such studies are warranted because development of atherosclerosis, impact of several traditional risk factors, and burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) differ between women and men. RECENT FINDINGS: While most candidate gene studies pool women and men and adjust for sex, some sex-specific studies provide evidence of association between candidate genes and prevalent and incident CHD in women...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Xin-Cheng Zhao, Bai-Wei Ma, Bente G Berg, Gui-Ying Xie, Qing-Bo Tang, Xian-Ru Guo
By using immunostaining and three-dimensional reconstruction, the anatomical organization of the antennal lobe glomeruli of the female cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was investigated. Eighty-one glomeruli were identified, 15 of which were not previously discovered. The general anatomical organization of the AL of female is similar to that of male and all glomeruli were classified into four sub-groups, including the female-specific glomerular complex, posterior complex, labial-palp pit organ glomerulus, and ordinary glomeruli...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
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