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Sexual dimorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529127/antioxidant-peroxiredoxin-3-expression-is-regulated-by-17beta-estradiol-in-rat-white-adipose-tissue
#1
Marco Bauza-Thorbrügge, M Bel Galmés-Pascual, Miquel Sbert-Roig, J Francisco García-Palmer, Magdalena Gianotti, M Ana Proenza, Isabel Lladó
Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) plays a role as a regulator of the adipocyte mitochondrial function due to its antioxidant activity. We have previously reported the existence of a sexual dimorphism in the mitochondrial oxidative stress status of many rat tissues such as white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues. The aim was to elucidate whether sex hormones may play a role in PRX3 expression in the adipose tissues of rats. In in vivo experiments, male and female standard diet fed rats, high fat diet (HFD) fed rats and rosiglitazone-supplemented HFD (HDF+Rsg) fed rats, as well as ovariectomized (OVX) and 17beta-estradiol-supplemented OVX (OVX+E2) female rats were used...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527122/effects-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-during-suckling-on-food-intake-fat-mass-hormones-and-biochemical-profile-of-young-and-adult-female-rats
#2
Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Patricia Novaes Soares, Thamara Cherem Peixoto, Janaine Cavalcanti Carvalho, Camila Calvino, Vanessa Silva Tavares Rodrigues, Dayse Nascimento Bernardino, Viviane Younes-Rapozo, Alex Christian Manhães, Elaine de Oliveira, Egberto Gaspar de Moura
PURPOSE: Children from smoking mothers have a higher risk of developing obesity and associated comorbidities later in life. Different experimental models have been used to assess the mechanisms involved with this increased risk. Using a rat model of neonatal nicotine exposure via implantation of osmotic minipumps in lactating dams, we have previously shown marked sexual dimorphisms regarding metabolic and endocrine outcomes in the adult progeny. Considering that more than four thousand substances are found in tobacco smoke besides nicotine, we then studied a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure: adult male offspring had hyperphagia, obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, secondary hyperthyroidism and lower adrenal hormones...
May 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#3
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526030/prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-and-dysregulation-of-infant-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-findings-from-the-apron-cohort-study
#4
Gerald F Giesbrecht, Maede Ejaredar, Jiaying Liu, Jenna Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Tavis Campbell, Jonathan W Martin, Deborah Dewey
BACKGROUND: Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) neuroendocrine system, but human data are lacking. In humans, prenatal BPA exposure is associated with sex-specific behavioural problems in children, and HPA axis dysregulation may be a biological mechanism. The objective of the current study was to examine sex differences in associations between prenatal maternal urinary BPA concentration and HPA axis function in 3 month old infants...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525535/sexual-dimorphism-and-aging-differentially-regulate-adaptive-homeostasis
#5
Laura C D Pomatto, John Tower, Kelvin J A Davies
External and internal stimuli cause modifications to gene and biochemical pathways. In turn, demonstrating that biological systems continuously make short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of "normal" capacity, due to mild conditional changes, or to subtoxic, nondamaging levels of chemical agents. This is termed as "Adaptive Homeostasis," defined with the following: "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, nondamaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events...
May 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#6
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522364/inhibition-of-mir-181a-protects-female-mice-from-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-targeting-astrocyte-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE
#7
Creed M Stary, Lijun Xu, Le Li, Xiaoyun Sun, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Xiaoxing Xiong, Jing Zhao, Rona G Giffard
Whether the effect of miR-181a is sexually dimorphic in stroke is unknown. Prior work showed protection of male mice with miR-181a inhibition. Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) is an identified target of miR181 in endometrium. Therefore we investigated the separate and joint effects of miR-181a inhibition and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement after ovariectomy. Adult female mice were ovariectomized and implanted with an E2- or vehicle-containing capsule for 14d prior to 1h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Each group received either miR-181a antagomir or mismatch control by intracerebroventricular injection 24h before MCAO...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520775/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-androgen-receptor-expression-and-sociosexual-behavior-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#8
Eric R Schuppe, Devaleena S Pradhan, Kevin Thonkulpitak, Cathleen Drilling, Michael Black, Matthew S Grober
Androgen signaling, via receptor binding, is critical for regulating the physiological and morphological foundations of male-typical reproductive behavior in vertebrates. Muscles essential for male courtship behavior and copulation are highly sensitive to androgens. Differences in the distribution and density of the androgen receptor (AR) are important for maintaining dimorphic musculature and thus may provide for anatomical identification of sexually selected traits. In Lythrypnus dalli, a bi-directional hermaphroditic teleost fish, both sexes produce agonistic approach displays, but reproductive behavior is sexually dimorphic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515895/disruptive-natural-selection-predicts-divergence-between-the-sexes-during-adaptive-radiation
#9
Stephen P De Lisle, Locke Rowe
Evolution of sexual dimorphism in ecologically relevant traits, for example, via resource competition between the sexes, is traditionally envisioned to stall the progress of adaptive radiation. An alternative view is that evolution of ecological sexual dimorphism could in fact play an important positive role by facilitating sex-specific adaptation. How competition-driven disruptive selection, ecological sexual dimorphism, and speciation interact during real adaptive radiations is thus a critical and open empirical question...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515473/placental-o-glcnac-transferase-expression-and-interactions-with-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-are-sex-specific-and-regulated-by-maternal-corticosterone-exposure-in-mice
#10
Marie Pantaleon, Sarah E Steane, Kathryn McMahon, James S M Cuffe, Karen M Moritz
Maternal stress programs offspring disease in a sexually dimorphic manner with males often more adversely affected. Previous studies of maternal glucocorticoid exposure suggest male vulnerability may derive from placental alterations. The hexosamine signalling pathway and O-linked glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) are part of an essential adaptive survival response in healthy cells. The key enzyme involved is O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT), a gene recently identified as a sex-specific placental biomarker of maternal stress...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512088/trpv4-in-the-battle-of-the-sexes
#11
Caitlin Sedwick
New JGP paper explains sexual dimorphism and tissue-specific activity of TRPV4.
May 16, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511513/sexual-dimorphism-of-maxillary-sinus-a-morphometric-analysis-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#12
Ayeesha Urooge, Bharati A Patil
INTRODUCTION: Age and sex determination in forensic sciences are primary components of any skeletal analysis. As most bones used for sex determination are recovered in incomplete state, it is often necessary to use bones that are recovered intact e.g., the maxillary sinus. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) can provide precise information about complex anatomical structures, as it is characterized by rapid volumetric image acquisition with high resolution. AIM: The present study was designed to evaluate the size and volume of Maxillary Sinus (MS) in determining gender by CBCT...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510528/identification-of-octopaminergic-neurons-that-modulate-sleep-suppression-by-male-sex-drive
#13
Daniel R Machado, Dinis Js Afonso, Alexandra R Kenny, Arzu Öztu Rk-Çolak, Emilia H Moscato, Benjamin Mainwaring, Matthew Kayser, Kyunghee Koh
Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510293/a-test-for-y-linked-additive-and-epistatic-effects-on-surviving-bacterial-infections-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Ian C Kutch, Kenneth M Fedorka
Y and W chromosomes offer a theoretically powerful way for sexual dimorphism to evolve. Consistent with this possibility, Drosophila melanogaster Y-chromosomes can influence gene regulation throughout the genome; particularly immune-related genes. In order for Y-linked regulatory variation (YRV) to contribute to adaptive evolution it must be comprised of additive genetic variance, such that variable Ys induce consistent phenotypic effects within the local gene pool. We assessed the potential for Y-chromosomes to adaptively shape gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial defense by introgressing Ys across multiple genetic haplotypes from the same population...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508952/identification-of-sex-determining-loci-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopeneaus-vannamei-using-linkage-and-association-analysis
#15
Yang Yu, Xiaojun Zhang, Jianbo Yuan, Quanchao Wang, Shihao Li, Hao Huang, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a predominant aquaculture shrimp species in the world. Like other animals, the L. vannamei exhibited sexual dimorphism in growth trait. Mapping of the sex-determining locus will be very helpful to clarify the sex determination system and further benefit the shrimp aquaculture industry towards the production of mono-sex stocks. Based on the data used for high-density linkage map construction, linkage-mapping analysis was conducted. The sex determination region was mapped in linkage group (LG) 18...
May 16, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507860/aging-and-sexual-differences-of-the-human-skull
#16
Luiz Eduardo Toledo Avelar, Márcio Alberto Cardoso, Leonardo Santos Bordoni, Lorena de Miranda Avelar, João Victor de Miranda Avelar
BACKGROUND: The aging process of the face comprises all layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, muscles, and skeleton, and the signs of aging depend mainly on which layer is mostly affected. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aging facial skeleton, as well as establish the sexual differences, areas with a strong predisposition to resorption, and aesthetic repercussion for better treatment approach. METHODS: Skulls from the Forensic Anthropology Department of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were classified according to gender and age group (i...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506988/dmrt1-induces-the-male-pathway-in-a-turtle-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#17
Chutian Ge, Jian Ye, Haiyan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Wei Sun, Yapeng Sang, Blanche Capel, Guoying Qian
The molecular mechanism underlying temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) has been a long-standing mystery; in particular, the thermo-sensitive genetic triggers for gonadal sex differentiation are largely unknown. Here, we characterized a conserved DM domain gene, Dmrt1, in the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta (T. scripta), which exhibits TSD. We found that Dmrt1 has a temperature-dependent, sexually dimorphic expression pattern, preceding gonadal sex differentiation, and is capable of responding rapidly to temperature shifts and aromatase inhibitor treatment...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506621/zenk-expression-following-conspecific-and-heterospecific-playback-in-the-zebra-finch-auditory-forebrain
#18
Erin N Scully, Allison H Hahn, Kimberley A Campbell, Neil McMillan, Jenna V Congdon, Christopher B Sturdy
Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are sexually dimorphic songbirds, not only in appearance but also in vocal production: while males produce both calls and songs, females only produce calls. This dimorphism provides a means to contrast the auditory perception of vocalizations produced by songbird species of varying degrees of relatedness in a dimorphic species to that of a monomorphic species, species in which both males and females produce calls and songs (e.g., black-capped chickadees, Poecile atricapillus)...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505307/sexual-dimorphism-and-retinal-mosaic-diversification-following-the-evolution-of-a-violet-receptor-in-butterflies
#19
Kyle J McCulloch, Furong Yuan, Ying Zhen, Matthew L Aardema, Gilbert Smith, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Peter Andolfatto, Adriana D Briscoe
Numerous animal lineages have expanded and diversified the opsin-based photoreceptors in their eyes underlying color vision behavior. However, the selective pressures giving rise to new photoreceptors and their spectral tuning remain mostly obscure. Previously, we identified a violet receptor (UV2) that is the result of a UV opsin gene duplication specific to Heliconius butterflies. At the same time the violet receptor evolved, Heliconius evolved UV-yellow coloration on their wings, due to the pigment 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OHK) and the nanostructure architecture of the scale cells...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502884/quantifying-sex-race-and-age-specific-differences-in-bone-microstructure-requires-measurement-of-anatomically-equivalent-regions
#20
Ali Ghasem-Zadeh, Andrew Burghardt, Xiao-Fang Wang, Sandra Iuliano, Serena Bonaretti, Minh Bui, Roger Zebaze, Ego Seeman
INTRODUCTION: Individuals differ in forearm length. As microstructure differs along the radius, we hypothesized that errors may occur when sexual and racial dimorphisms are quantified at a fixed distance from the radio-carpal joint. METHODS: Microstructure was quantified ex vivo in 18 cadaveric radii using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and in vivo in 158 Asian and Caucasian women and men at a fixed region of interest (ROI), a corrected ROI positioned at 4...
May 11, 2017: Bone
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