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Sexual dimorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107778/parabolic-variation-in-sexual-selection-intensity-across-the-range-of-a%C3%A2-cold-water-pipefish-implications-for-susceptibility-to-climate-change
#1
Nuno Monteiro, Mário Cunha, Lídia Ferreira, Natividade Vieira, Agostinho Antunes, David Lyons, Adam G Jones
While an understanding of evolutionary processes in shifting environments is vital in the context of rapid ecological change, one of the most potent selective forces, sexual selection, remains curiously unexplored. Variation in sexual selection across a species range, especially across a gradient of temperature regimes, has the potential to provide a window into the possible impacts of climate change on the evolution of mating patterns. Here, we investigated some of the links between temperature and indicators of sexual selection, using a cold-water pipefish as model...
January 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107354/visual-adaptations-for-mate-detection-in-the-male-carpenter-bee-xylocopa-tenuiscapa
#2
Hema Somanathan, Renee Maria Borges, Eric J Warrant, Almut Kelber
Sexual dimorphism in eye structure is attributed to sexual selection in animals that employ vision for locating mates. In many male insects, large eyes and eye regions of higher acuity are believed to facilitate the location of females. Here, we compare various features of male and female eyes in three sympatric carpenter bee species, which include two diurnal species (Xylocopa tenuiscapa and X. leucothorax) as well as a nocturnal species (X. tranquebarica). In X. tenuiscapa, males have larger eyes than females, while in the nocturnal X...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106715/seasonal-effects-on-the-population-morphology-and-reproductive-behavior-of-narnia-femorata-hemiptera-coreidae
#3
Lauren A Cirino, Christine W Miller
Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior...
January 17, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105715/gigantopithecus-blacki-a-giant-ape-from-the-pleistocene-of-asia-revisited
#4
Yingqi Zhang, Terry Harrison
Gigantopithecus blacki is the largest hominoid that ever lived. The consensus view is that it is a specialized pongine and late-surviving member of the Sivapithecus-Indopithecus lineage. It is known primarily from Early and Middle Pleistocene cave sites in southern China, dating from 2.0 Ma to almost 300 ka. The cause of its extinction in the late Middle Pleistocene is unknown, but ecological change or the arrival of Homo erectus may have been contributing factors. Gigantopithecus is highly specialized in its dentognathic anatomy, with a unique combination of features that distinguish it from all other hominoids...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104573/anomalous-subcortical-morphology-in-boys-but-not-girls-with-adhd-compared-to-typically-developing-controls-and-correlates-with-emotion-dysregulation
#5
Karen E Seymour, Xiaoying Tang, Deana Crocetti, Stewart H Mostofsky, Michael I Miller, Keri S Rosch
There has been limited investigation of volume and shape difference in subcortical structures in children with ADHD and a paucity of examination of the influence of sex on these findings. The objective of this study was to examine morphology (volume and shape) of subcortical structures and their association with emotion dysregulation (ED) in girls and boys with ADHD as compared to their typically-developing (TD) counterparts. Participants included 218 children ages 8-12 years old with and without DSM-IV ADHD...
January 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103521/sexually-dimorphic-deficits-of-prepulse-inhibition-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-their-relationship-to-symptoms-a-large-single-ethnicity-study
#6
Junko Matsuo, Miho Ota, Shinsuke Hidese, Hiroaki Hori, Toshiya Teraishi, Ikki Ishida, Moeko Hiraishi, Hiroshi Kunugi
BACKGROUND: Sensorimotor gating deficits as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex have been repeatedly observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, studies investigating PPI in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are scarce, and this issue remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Subjects were 221 patients with MDD and 250 age-matched healthy comparison subjects. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the 21-item version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D21), and the scores were divided into six factors...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102207/drosophila-fit-is-a-protein-specific-satiety-hormone-essential-for-feeding-control
#7
Jinghan Sun, Chang Liu, Xiaobing Bai, Xiaoting Li, Jingyun Li, Zhiping Zhang, Yunpeng Zhang, Jing Guo, Yan Li
Protein homeostasis is critical for health and lifespan of animals. However, the mechanisms for controlling protein feeding remain poorly understood. Here we report that in Drosophila, protein intake-induced feeding inhibition (PIFI) is specific to protein-containing food, and this effect is mediated by a fat body (FB) peptide named female-specific independent of transformer (FIT). Upon consumption of protein food, FIT expression is greatly elevated. Secreted FIT peptide in the fly haemolymph conveys this metabolic message to the brain, thereby promoting the release of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (DILP2) and suppressing further protein intake...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102157/sexual-dimorphism-of-acetabular-anatomy-based-on-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-image-of-pelvises
#8
Bartosz Musielak, Michał Rychlik, Marek Jóźwiak
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to compare sex differences in the morphology and spatial orientation of pelvic acetabula to advance the understanding of hip anatomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on three-dimensional reconstructions of computed tomography images of 50 female and 50 male acetabula. The images were used for spatial analysis of hip acetabula relative to the base of the sacral bone as the plane of reference. Statistical analysis was performed to compare angles relevant to the actual axis of the acetabulum (inclination angle, anteversion angle, tilt angle) as well as the volume and inner surface area of the acetabulum...
October 28, 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100805/differences-in-mobility-at-the-range-edge-of-an-expanding-invasive-population-of-xenopus-laevis-in-the-west-of-france
#9
Vivien Louppe, Julien Courant, Anthony Herrel
Theoretical models predict that spatial sorting at the range edge of expanding populations should favor individuals with increased mobility relative to individuals at the center of the range. Despite the fact that empirical evidence for the evolution of locomotor performance at the range edge is rare, data on cane toads support this model. However, whether this can be generalized to other species remains largely unknown. Here, we provide data on locomotor stamina and limb morphology in individuals from two sites: one from the center and one from the periphery of an expanding population of the clawed frog Xenopus laevis in France where it was introduced about 30 years ago...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100020/independent-evolution-of-sexual-dimorphism-and-female-limited-mimicry-in-swallowtail-butterflies-papilio-dardanus-and-p-phorcas
#10
M J T N Timmermans, M J Thompson, S Collins, A P Vogler
Several species of Swallowtail butterflies (genus Papilio) are Batesian mimics that express multiple mimetic female forms, while the males are monomorphic and non-mimetic. The evolution of such sex-limited mimicry may involve sexual dimorphism arising first and mimicry subsequently. Such a stepwise scenario through a non-mimetic, sexually dimorphic stage has been proposed for two closely related sexually dimorphic species; P. phorcas, a non-mimetic species with two female forms, and P. dardanus, a female-limited polymorphic mimetic species...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099161/menstrual-cycle-and-the-temporal-discrimination-threshold
#11
Eavan M Mc Govern, Emer O'Connor, Ines Beiser, Laura Williams, John S Butler, Brendan Quinlivan, Shruti Narasiham, Rebecca Beck, Richard B Reilly, Sean O'Riordan, Michael Hutchinson
The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is a proposed pre-clinical biomarker (endophenotype) for adult onset isolated focal dystonia (AOIFD). Age- and sex-related effects on temporal discrimination demonstrate that women, before the age of 40 years, have faster temporal discrimination than men but their TDTs worsen with age at almost three times the rate of men. Thus after 40 years the TDT in women is progressively worse than in men. AOIFD is an increasingly female-predominant disorder after the age of 40; it is not clear whether this age-related sexually-dimorphic difference observed for both the TDT and sex ratio at disease onset in AOIFD is a hormonal or chromosomal effect...
January 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097663/the-evolution-of-male-nuptial-colour-in-a-sexually-dimorphic-group-of-fishes-percidae-etheostomatinae
#12
P J Ciccotto, T C Mendelson
To test hypotheses explaining variation in elaborate male colouration across closely related species groups, ancestral-state reconstructions and tests of phylogenetic signal and correlated evolution were used to examine the evolution of male body and fin colouration in a group of sexually dichromatic stream fishes known as darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae). The presence or absence of red-orange and blue-green male colour traits were scored across six body regions in 99 darter species using a recently estimated amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) phylogeny for comparative analyses...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094027/persistent-females-and-compliant-males-coordinate-alarm-calling-in-diana-monkeys
#13
Claudia Stephan, Klaus Zuberbühler
Sexual dimorphisms in animal vocal behavior have been successfully explained by sexual selection theory (e.g., mammals [1-5]; birds [6, 7]; anurans [8, 9]), but this does not usually include alarm calls, which are thought to be the product of kin or individual selection (e.g., [10, 11]). Here, we present the results of playback experiments with wild Diana monkeys, a species with highly dimorphic predator-specific alarms, to investigate the communication strategies of males and females during predator encounters...
November 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089711/regulation-of-expression-of-hyperalgesic-priming-by-estrogen-receptor-alpha-in-the-rat
#14
Luiz F Ferrari, Dionéia Araldi, Jon D Levine
: Hyperalgesic priming, a sexually dimorphic model of transition to chronic pain, is expressed as prolongation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced hyperalgesia by the activation of an additional pathway including an autocrine mechanism at the plasma membrane. The autocrine mechanism involves the transport of cAMP to the extracellular space, and its conversion to AMP and adenosine, by ecto-5'phosphodiesterase and ecto-5'nucleotidase, respectively. The end product, adenosine, activates A1 receptors, producing delayed onset prolongation of PGE2 hyperalgesia...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089665/dissociation-of-morphine-analgesic-effects-in-the-sensory-and-affective-components-of-formalin-induced-spontaneous-pain-in-male-and-female-rats
#15
Lisa R Harton, Janell R Richardson, Alexander Armendariz, Arbi Nazarian
Sex differences in the analgesic effects of morphine have been previously reported in various models that represent the sensory component of pain. However, pain sensation is a complex process that consists of both sensory and affective components. It is presently unclear whether the analgesic effects of morphine between the sensory and affective components of pain are sexually dimorphic. Moreover, differences in morphine dose-response in the two components of pain have not been examined in male and female rats...
January 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078206/infectious-atopic-and-inflammatory-diseases-childhood-adversities-and-familial-aggregation-are-independently-associated-with-the-risk-for-mental-disorders-results-from-a-large-swiss-epidemiological-study
#16
Vladeta Ajdacic-Gross, Aleksandra Aleksandrowicz, Stephanie Rodgers, Margot Mutsch, Anja Tesic, Mario Müller, Wolfram Kawohl, Wulf Rössler, Erich Seifritz, Enrique Castelao, Marie-Pierre F Strippoli, Caroline Vandeleur, Roland von Känel, Rosa Paolicelli, Markus A Landolt, Cornelia Witthauer, Roselind Lieb, Martin Preisig
AIM: To examine the associations between mental disorders and infectious, atopic, inflammatory diseases while adjusting for other risk factors. METHODS: We used data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (n = 3720; age range 35-66). Lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders were grouped into the following categories: Neurodevelopmental, anxiety (early and late onset), mood and substance disorders. They were regressed on infectious, atopic and other inflammatory diseases adjusting for sex, educational level, familial aggregation, childhood adversities and traumatic experiences in childhood...
December 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078076/sex-dependent-alteration-of-cardiac-cytochrome-p450-gene-expression-by-doxorubicin-in-c57bl-6-mice
#17
Marianne K O Grant, Davis M Seelig, Leslie C Sharkey, Beshay N Zordoky
BACKGROUND: There is inconclusive evidence about the role of sex as a risk factor for doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Recent experimental studies have shown that adult female rats are protected against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of this sexual dimorphism are not fully elucidated. We have previously demonstrated that DOX alters the expression of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the hearts of male rats. Nevertheless, the sex-dependent effect of DOX on the expression of CYP enzymes is still not known...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077306/the-interaction-of-dietary-isoflavones-and-estradiol-replacement-on-behavior-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-ovariectomized-rat
#18
Ashley L Russell, Jamie Moran Grimes, Darwin O Larco, Danette F Cruthirds, Joanna Westerfield, Lawren Wooten, Margaret Keil, Michael J Weiser, Michael R Landauer, Robert J Handa, T John Wu
Phytoestrogens are plant derived, non-steroidal compounds naturally found in rodent chows that potentially have endocrine-disrupting effects. Isoflavones, the most common phytoestrogens, have a similar structure and molecular weight to 17β-estradiol (E2) and have the ability to bind and activate both isoforms of the estrogen receptor (ER). Most isoflavones have a higher affinity for ERβ, which is involved in sexually dimorphic behavioral regulation. The goal of this study was to examine the interaction of isoflavones and E2 presence in the OVX rat on anxiety- and depressive- like behavior and the related BDNF pathophysiology...
January 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076494/accuracy-of-mandibular-measurements-of-sexual-dimorphism-using-stabilizer-equipment
#19
Thais Torralbo Lopez, Edgard Michel-Crosato, Eduardo de Novaes Benedicto, Luiz Airton Saavedra de Paiva, Diogo Cesar Borges Silva, Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic
The objective of this investigation was to compare the accuracy of mandibular measurements using a stabilizer (MS) with gold standard computed tomography (GS) images. Sixty mandibles were studied. Werth TomoScope HV Compact® was used to obtain CT images (GS), and the MS was also used. Analysis of the CT scans was performed using the VG Studio Max software® (Volume Graphics GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany), and MS was used after the proper positioning of the mandible. Descriptive and paired t test measures were used, and a ROC curve was calculated, as well as sensibility and specificity...
January 5, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076391/assessing-sexual-dicromatism-the-importance-of-proper-parameterization-in-tetrachromatic-visual-models
#20
Pierre-Paul Bitton, Kevyn Janisse, Stéphanie M Doucet
Perceptual models of animal vision have greatly contributed to our understanding of animal-animal and plant-animal communication. The receptor-noise model of color contrasts has been central to this research as it quantifies the difference between two colors for any visual system of interest. However, if the properties of the visual system are unknown, assumptions regarding parameter values must be made, generally with unknown consequences. In this study, we conduct a sensitivity analysis of the receptor-noise model using avian visual system parameters to systematically investigate the influence of variation in light environment, photoreceptor sensitivities, photoreceptor densities, and light transmission properties of the ocular media and the oil droplets...
2017: PloS One
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