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Sexual dimorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781039/sex-dependent-association-of-circulating-sex-steroids-and-pituitary-hormones-with-treatment-free-survival-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients
#1
Eric P Allain, Karin Venzl, Patrick Caron, Véronique Turcotte, David Simonyan, Michaela Gruber, Trang Le, Eric Lévesque, Chantal Guillemette, Katrina Vanura
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not considered a hormone-regulated cancer although sex is a recognized risk factor with men more frequently diagnosed and developing progressive disease. We hypothesized that variable hormonal exposure may have a sexually dimorphic influence on treatment-free survival (TFS). In 156 CLL cases, we quantitatively profiled 29 circulating steroids (progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens, estrogens, and catechol estrogens) as well as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone...
May 21, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780744/employing-dimensional-disparity-of-teeth-to-establish-the-gender-in-odisha-population-a-dimorphic-study
#2
Kailash Chandra Dash, Abikshyeet Panda, Shyam Sundar Behura, Sujatha Ramachandra, Lipsa Bhuyan, Alokenath Bandopadhyay
Aims and Objectives: Determination of sex is one of the most important and crucial steps in forensic science. Sexual dimorphism using odontometric analysis is found to vary in different populations making it necessary to attain values of a specific population which helps the identification possible. This present study attempts to establish sexual dimorphism using odontometric analysis in Odisha population. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 subjects (100 male and 100 female) between ages 18 and 25 years were included in the study...
March 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777688/proteomic-changes-during-adult-stage-in-pre-optic-hypothalamus-hippocampus-and-pituitary-regions-of-female-rat-brain-following-neonatal-exposure-to-estradiol-17%C3%AE
#3
Vijayakumar Govindaraj, Radhika Nagamangalam Shridharan, Addicam Jagannadha Rao
Although neonatal exposure to estrogen or estrogenic compounds results in irreversible changes in the brain function and reproductive abnormalities during adulthood but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. The present study has attempted to compare the protein profiles of sexually dimorphic brain regions of adult female rats which were exposed to estradiol- 17β during neonatal period. The total proteins extracted from pre-optic area (POA), hypothalamus, hippocampus and pituitary of control and neonatally E2 treated female rats was subjected to 2D-SDS-PAGE and differentially expressed proteins were identification by MALDI TOF/TOF-MS...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776995/kinematic-control-of-male-allen-s-hummingbird-wing-trill-over-a-range-of-flight-speeds
#4
Christopher J Clark, Emily A Mistick
Wing trills are pulsed sounds produced by modified wing feathers at one or more specific points in time during a wingbeat. Male Allen's Hummingbird ( Selasphorus sasin ) produce a sexually dimorphic 9 kHz wing trill in flight. Here we investigate the kinematic basis for trill production. The wingtip velocity hypothesis posits that trill production is modulated by the airspeed of the wingtip at some point during the wingbeat, whereas the wing rotation hypothesis posits that trill production is instead modulated by wing rotation kinematics...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773464/sex-and-gender-differences-in-developmental-programming-of-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Laura Dearden, Sebastien G Bouret, Susan E Ozanne
BACKGROUND: The early life environment experienced by an individual in utero and during the neonatal period is a major factor in shaping later life disease risk-including susceptibility to develop obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of metabolic disease is different between males and females. How the early life environment may underlie these sex differences is an area of active investigation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of how the early life environment influences metabolic disease risk in a sex specific manner...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773405/gender-differences-in-knee-morphology-and-the-prospects-for-implant-design-in-total-knee-replacement
#6
Malte Asseln, Christoph Hänisch, Fabian Schick, Klaus Radermacher
BACKGROUND: Morphological differences between female and male knees have been reported in the literature, which led to the development of so-called gender-specific implants. However, detailed morphological descriptions covering the entire joint are rare and little is known regarding whether gender differences are real sexual dimorphisms or can be explained by overall differences in size. METHODS: We comprehensively analysed knee morphology using 33 features of the femur and 21 features of the tibia to quantify knee shape...
May 14, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773143/sex-and-vaccination-insights-from-female-rats-vaccinated-with-juvenile-specific-proteases-from-fasciola-hepatica
#7
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Katarzyna Basałaj, Luke J Norbury, Alicja Sielicka, Halina Wędrychowicz, Anna Zawistowska-Deniziak
Most animal research is less evidence-based for females, with the majority of studies conducted on males. Since immune responses vary between males and females, sexual dimorphism in immunity contributes, among other things, to sex-based differences post-vaccination. However, the issue of sex effects in animal vaccine research is rarely considered in vaccine study design. Previously, we have evaluated the efficacy of cathepsin L3 (FhCL3-1 and FhCL3-2) and B3 proteases (FhCB3) from juvenile Fasciola hepatica as vaccines against fasciolosis in male rats...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772257/conspecific-odor-exposure-predominantly-activates-non-kisspeptin-cells-in-the-medial-nucleus-of-the-amygdala
#8
Leandro Bueno Lima, Fernanda Tais Haubenthal, Marina Augusto Silveira, Tabata Mariz Bohlen, Martin Metzger, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
A small neuronal subpopulation in the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA), expressing the Kiss1 gene, is now considered an important mediator that integrates socio-sexual behavior and odor information in order to modulate the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal (HPG) axis. Previous studies demonstrated that exogenous kisspeptin administration or selective activation of Kiss1-expressing neurons in the MeA modulates the onset of puberty, LH secretion and sexual behavior. These functions are supported by the known MeA neuronal connections...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771299/at-the-crossroads-of-fate-somatic-cell-lineage-specification-in-the-fetal-gonad
#9
Emmi Rotgers, Anne Jørgensen, Humphrey Hung-Chang Yao
The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal primordium. After separation of the adrenal and gonadal primordia, the gonadal somatic cells initiate sex-specific differentiation during gonadal sex determination with the specification of the supporting cell lineages: Sertoli cells in the testis vs...
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770127/temporal-expression-patterns-of-genes-related-to-sex-steroid-action-in-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-during-puberty
#10
Moeko Kanaya, Masahiro Morishita, Shinji Tsukahara
Sex steroids play a major role in sexually dimorphic brain development during not only the perinatal period but also the pubertal period. We previously showed that, in male mice, the estrogen receptor-α ( Esr1 ) and aromatase ( Cyp19a1 ) genes are essential to the sexually dimorphic formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), but the estrogen receptor-β ( Esr2 ) gene is not necessary. We also showed that the androgen receptor ( Ar ) gene is essential to the sexually dimorphic formation of the BNSTp...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769098/wing-morphometrics-of-aedes-ochlerotatus-albifasciatus-macquart-1838-diptera-culicidae-from-different-climatic-regions-of-argentina
#11
Maximiliano J Garzón, Nicolás Schweigmann
BACKGROUND: Gene flow restrictions between populations of Aedes albifasciatus, the vector of Western equine encephalitis and Dirophilaria immitis, have been described in the central region of Argentina. Genetic and eco-physiological variations usually result in local forms reflecting the climatic regions. Mosquito wings and their different parts have ecological functions in flight and communication. Therefore, wing shape could be considered an aspect of sexual dimorphism, and its eco-physiological responses can be expressed as morphological changes induced by the environment...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768572/ontogenetic-shape-changes-and-sexual-dimorphism-in-aegla-marginata-bond-buckup-and-buckup-1994
#12
Carolina L Adam, Murilo Z Marochi, Setuko Masunari
A study on relative growth, sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory was carried out in a population of the aeglidAegla marginata coming from Barrinha River, Iguape River Basin, Tunas do Paraná, Paraná State, Brazil. The size the of morphological sexual maturity was estimated for males and females. The analysis of sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic trajectory were performed using geometric morphometric technique. Males reach maturity with 10.58 mm of carapace length (CL) and females with 10.38 mm CL. Sexual size dimorphism was only visible among adults, with males reaching larger sizes...
May 14, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768469/misidentification-of-sex-for-lampsilis-teres-yellow-sandshell-and-its-implications-for-mussel-conservation-and-wildlife-management
#13
Megan C Hess, Kentaro Inoue, Eric T Tsakiris, Michael Hart, Jennifer Morton, Jack Dudding, Clinton R Robertson, Charles R Randklev
Correct identification of sex is an important component of wildlife management because changes in sex ratios can affect population viability. Identification of sex often relies on external morphology, which can be biased by intermediate or nondistinctive morphotypes and observer experience. For unionid mussels, research has demonstrated that species misidentification is common but less attention has been given to the reliability of sex identification. To evaluate whether this is an issue, we surveyed 117 researchers on their ability to correctly identify sex of Lampsilis teres (Yellow Sandshell), a wide ranging, sexually dimorphic species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767687/hormone-responsive-genes-in-the-shh-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathways-influence-urethral-closure-and-phallus-growth
#14
Yu Chen, Hongshi Yu, Andrew J Pask, Asao Fujiyama, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree
Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) that affect androgen or estrogen activity may disrupt gene regulation during normal phallus development to cause hypospadias or a masculinized clitoris. We treated developing male tammar wallabies with estrogen and females with androgen from day 20-40 postpartum (pp) during the established androgen imprinting window. Administration of estrogen to males inhibited phallus elongation but had no effect on urethral closure and did not significantly depress testicular androgen synthesis...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763783/sex-differences-in-the-acth-and-cortisol-response-to-pharmacological-probes-are-stressor-specific-and-occur-regardless-of-alcohol-dependence-history
#15
Robert M Anthenelli, Jaimee L Heffner, Thomas J Blom, Belinda E Daniel, Benjamin S McKenna, Gary S Wand
Women and men differ in their risk for developing stress-related conditions such as alcohol use and anxiety disorders and there are gender differences in the typical sequence in which these disorders co-occur. However, the neural systems underlying these gender-biased psychopathologies and clinical course modifiers in humans are poorly understood and may involve both central and peripheral mechanisms regulating the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In the present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, triple-dummy crossover study, we juxtaposed a centrally-acting, citalopram (2 mg/unit BMI) neuroendocrine stimulation test with a peripherally-acting, dexamethasone (Dex) (1...
May 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763641/ischemic-stroke-across-sexes-what-is-the-status-quo
#16
REVIEW
Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Fabrizio Montecucco, Cathérine Gebhard, Thomas F Lüscher, Susanne Wegener, Giovanni G Camici
Stroke prevalence is expected to increase in the next decades due to the aging of the Western population. Ischemic stroke (IS) shows an age- and sex-dependent distribution in which men represent the most affected population within 65 years of age, being passed by post-menopausal women in older age groups. Furthermore, a sexual dimorphism concerning risk factors, presentation and treatment of IS has been widely recognized. In order to address these phenomena, a number of issue have been raised involving both socio-economical and biological factors...
May 12, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761044/the-brown-anole-dewlap-revisited-do-predation-pressure-sexual-selection-and-species-recognition-shape-among-population-signal-diversity
#17
Simon Baeckens, Tess Driessens, Raoul Van Damme
Animal signalling structures are amongst the most variable characteristics, as they are subjected to a diversity of selection pressures. A well-known example of a diverse signalling system in the animal kingdom is the dewlap of Anolis lizards. Dewlap characteristics can vary remarkably among and within species, and also between sexes. Although a considerable amount of studies have attempted to disentangle the functional significance of the staggering dewlap diversity in Anolis , the underlying evolutionary processes remain elusive...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760903/function-related-drivers-of-skull-morphometric-variation-and-sexual-size-dimorphism-in-a-subterranean-rodent-plateau-zokor-eospalax-baileyi
#18
Junhu Su, Ibrahim M Hegab, Weihong Ji, Zhibiao Nan
Sexual dimorphism is prevalent in most living organisms. The difference in size between sexes of a given species is generally known as sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The magnitude of the SSD is determined by Rensch's rule where size dimorphism increases with increasing body size when the male is the larger sex and decreases with increasing average body size when the female is the larger sex. The unique underground environment that zokors ( Eospalax baileyi ) live under in the severe habitat of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) could create SSD selection pressures that may or may not be supported by Rensch's rule, making this scientific question worthy of investigation...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760886/geographic-variation-in-body-size-and-its-relationship-with-environmental-gradients-in-the-oriental-garden-lizard-calotes-versicolor
#19
Xiaomei Wei, Linmiao Yan, Chengjian Zhao, Yueyun Zhang, Yongli Xu, Bo Cai, Ni Jiang, Yong Huang
Patterns of geographic variation in body size are predicted to evolve as adaptations to local environmental gradients. However, many of these clinal patterns in body size, such as Bergmann's rule, are controversial and require further investigation into ectotherms such as reptiles on a regional scale. To examine the environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, topography and primary productivity) that shaped patterns of geographic variation in body size in the reptile Calotes versicolor , we sampled 180 adult specimens (91 males and 89 females) at 40 locations across the species range in China...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756331/mammalian-x-chromosome-dosage-compensation-perspectives-from-the-germ-line
#20
REVIEW
Mahesh N Sangrithi, James M A Turner
Sex chromosomes are advantageous to mammals, allowing them to adopt a genetic rather than environmental sex determination system. However, sex chromosome evolution also carries a burden, because it results in an imbalance in gene dosage between females (XX) and males (XY). This imbalance is resolved by X dosage compensation, which comprises both X chromosome inactivation and X chromosome upregulation. X dosage compensation has been well characterized in the soma, but not in the germ line. Germ cells face a special challenge, because genome wide reprogramming erases epigenetic marks responsible for maintaining the X dosage compensated state...
May 14, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
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