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Sexual dimorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922627/distribution-patterns-and-morphology-of-sensilla-on-the-antennae-of-plutella-xylostella-l-a-scanning-and-transmission-electron-microscopic-study
#1
Xi-Zhong Yan, Cai-Ping Deng, Jiao-Xin Xie, Lan-Jun Wu, Xue-Jun Sun, Chi Hao
The antennal morphology, types of antennal sensilla, fine structures and distributions of the sensilla in Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The antenna, scape, pedicel and flagellum were all longer in males than in females. A total of seventeen types of sensilla were identified on the antennae: trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica, coeloconica (three subtypes), Böhm's bristles (two subtypes), styloconica (two subtypes), squamiformia, auricillica, furcatea (three subtypes), cupuliform organs and terminal sensory pegs...
September 6, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922406/loss-of-liver-specific-and-sexually-dimorphic-gene-expression-by-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-in-c57bl-6-mice
#2
Rance Nault, Kelly A Fader, Jack R Harkema, Tim Zacharewski
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a highly conserved transcription factor that mediates a broad spectrum of species-, strain-, sex-, age-, tissue-, and cell-specific responses elicited by structurally diverse ligands including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Dose-dependent effects on liver-specific and sexually dimorphic gene expression were examined in male and female mice gavaged with TCDD every 4 days for 28 or 92 days. RNA-seq data revealed the coordinated repression of 181 genes predominately expressed in the liver including albumin (3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918063/a-pca-based-method-for-determining-craniofacial-relationship-and-sexual-dimorphism-of-facial-shapes
#3
Wuyang Shui, Mingquan Zhou, Steve Maddock, Taiping He, Xingce Wang, Qingqiong Deng
Previous studies have used principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the craniofacial relationship, as well as sex determination using facial factors. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which the choice of principal components (PCs) affects the analysis of craniofacial relationship and sexual dimorphism. In this paper, we propose a PCA-based method for visual and quantitative analysis, using 140 samples of 3D heads (70 male and 70 female), produced from computed tomography (CT) images...
September 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913592/chronic-stress-causes-sex-specific-and-structure-specific-alterations-in-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-activity-in-rat-brain
#4
Carina de Souza Mota, Simone Nardin Weis, Roberto Farina Almeida, Carla Dalmaz, Fátima Therezinha Costa Guma, Letícia Ferreira Pettenuzzo
Chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces a variety of changes in brain function, some of which are mediated by glucocorticoids. The response to stress occurs in a sex-specific way, and may include mitochondrial and synaptic alterations. The synapse is highly dependent on mitochondrial energy supply, and when mitochondria become dysfunctional, they orchestrate cell death. This study aimed to investigate the CRS effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, as well as mitochondrial potential and mass in cell body and synapses using hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male and female rats...
September 14, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912458/y-chromosome-mitochondrial-dna-and-childhood-behavioural-traits
#5
Laurence J Howe, A Mesut Erzurumluoglu, George Davey Smith, Santiago Rodriguez, Evie Stergiakouli
Many psychiatric traits are sexually dimorphic in terms of prevalence, age of onset, progression and prognosis; sex chromosomes could play a role in these differences. In this study we evaluated the association between Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with sexually-dimorphic behavioural and psychiatric traits. The study sample included 4,211 males and 4,009 females with mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and 4,788 males with Y chromosome haplogroups who are part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) based in the United Kingdom...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912255/sex-hormones-and-the-development-of-sexual-size-dimorphism-dihydrotestosterone-inhibits-growth-in-a-female-larger-lizard-sceloporus-undulatus
#6
Nicholas B Pollock, Stephanie Feigin, Marko Drazenovic, Henry B John-Alder
Sexual differences in adult body size (sexual size dimorphism; SSD) and color (sexual dichromatism) are widespread, and both male- and female-biased dimorphisms are observed even among closely related species. A growing body of evidence indicates testosterone (T) can regulate growth, thus the development of SSD, and sexual dichromatism. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are conjectural, including possible conversions of T to estradiol (E2) or 5 α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In the present study, we hypothesized that effects of T are physiological responses mediated by androgen receptors, and we tested two specific predictions: 1) that DHT would mimic effects of T by inhibiting growth and enhancing coloration, and 2) that removal of endogenous T via surgical castration would stimulate growth...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911201/gene-expression-profiling-of-puberty-associated-genes-reveals-abundant-tissue-and-sex-specific-changes-across-postnatal-development
#7
Huayun Hou, Liis Uusküla-Reimand, Maisam Makarem, Christina Corre, Shems Saleh, Ariane Metcalf, Anna Goldenberg, Mark R Palmert, And Michael D Wilson
The timing of human puberty is highly variable, sexually dimorphic, and associated with adverse health outcomes. Over 20 genes carrying rare mutations have been identified in known pubertal disorders, many of which encode critical components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 candidate genes at loci associated with age at menarche or voice breaking in males. We know little about the spatial, temporal or postnatal expression patterns of the majority of these puberty-associated genes...
September 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910329/classification-and-conservation-priority-of-five-deccani-sheep-ecotypes-of-maharashtra-india
#8
Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Reena Arora, Anand Jain
Characterization of Indian livestock breeds has mostly been limited to single breed/population focused on either physical description of traditionally recognized breeds/populations or to their genetic description. Usually, morphological and genetic characterization has taken place in isolation. A parallel morphological characterization of genetically identified breeds or genetic characterization of morphologically described breeds is mostly missing, and their conservation priorities have largely been based on solely considering degree of endangerment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910276/igf2-stimulates-fetal-growth-in-a-sex-and-organ-dependent-manner
#9
Veronica White, Alicia Jawerbaum, Maria Belen Mazzucco, Martin Gauster, Gernot Desoye, Ursula Hiden
BACKGROUND: IGF2 is a key determinant of fetal growth, and altered expression of IGF2 is implicated in fetal growth disorders and maternal metabolic derangements including gestational diabetes. Here we studied how increased levels of IGF2 in late pregnancy affect fetal growth. METHODS: We employed a rat model of repeated intra-fetal IGF2 administration in late pregnancy, i.e. during GD19-GD21, and measured the consequences on fetal organ weight and expression of insulin/IGF-axis components...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905382/a-new-sexually-dichromatic-miniature-hyphessobrycon-teleostei-characiformes-characidae-from-the-rio-formiga-upper-rio-juruena-basin-mato-grosso-brazil-with-a-review-of-sexual-dichromatism-in-characiformes
#10
M N L Pastana, F C P Dagosta, A L H Esguícero
Hyphessobrycon myrmex sp. nov., is described from the Rio Formiga, upper Rio Juruena, upper Rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having the lower half of the body deeply pigmented with dark chromatophores, chromatophores concentrated above the anal fin and forming a broad, diffuse, dark midlateral stripe and by having a dense concentration of dark chromatophores along unbranched dorsal-fin rays and distal portions of the two or three subsequent branched rays...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904748/the-complexity-of-mating-decisions-in-stalk-eyed-flies
#11
Nadine C Chapman, Penthai Siriwat, James Howie, Aaron Towlson, Lawrence Bellamy, Kevin Fowler, Andrew Pomiankowski
All too often, studies of sexual selection focus exclusively on the responses in one sex, on single traits, typically those that are exaggerated and strongly sexually dimorphic. They ignore a range of less obvious traits and behavior, in both sexes, involved in the interactions leading to mate choice. To remedy this imbalance, we analyze a textbook example of sexual selection in the stalk-eyed fly (Diasemopsis meigenii). We studied several traits in a novel, insightful, and efficient experimental design, examining 2,400 male-female pairs in a "round-robin" array, where each female was tested against multiple males and vice versa...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904381/sexual-size-dimorphism-modulates-the-trade-off-between-exploiting-food-and-wind-resources-in-a-large-avian-scavenger
#12
Pablo A E Alarcón, Juan M Morales, José A Donázar, José A Sánchez-Zapata, Fernando Hiraldo, Sergio A Lambertucci
Animals are expected to synchronize activity routines with the temporal patterns at which resources appear in nature. Accordingly, species that depend on resources showing temporally mismatched patterns should be expected to schedule routines that balance the chances of exploiting each of them. Large avian scavengers depend on carcasses which are more likely available early in the morning, but they also depend on wind resources (i.e. uplifts) to subside flight which are stronger in afternoon hours. To understand how these birds deal with this potential trade-off, we studied the daily routines of GPS-tagged individuals of the world's largest terrestrial soaring scavenger, the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus)...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901197/sexually-dimorphic-faciometrics-in-humans-from-early-adulthood-to-late-middle-age-dynamic-declining-and-differentiated
#13
Julia M Robertson, Barbara E Kingsley, Gina C Ford
Faciometrics have widely been used in contemporary studies on gender-related behavioral traits, for example, perceived and actual aggression, co-operation and trustworthiness, prejudicial beliefs, unethical behavior, and achievement drive, as well as, but to a lesser degree, in nonhuman primates. For the large part, these studies have focused primarily on "student-aged" populations with little empirical scrutiny regarding the efficacy of applying these measures with older participants. This study therefore investigated sexual dimorphism across four age-groups (20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s) in 444 participants (225 men)...
July 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895873/prenatal-serum-concentrations-of-brominated-flame-retardants-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intellectual-disability-in-the-early-markers-of-autism-study-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-california
#14
Kristen Lyall, Lisa A Croen, Lauren A Weiss, Martin Kharrazi, Michela Traglia, Gerald N Delorenze, Gayle C Windham
BACKGROUND: Prior studies suggest neurodevelopmental impacts of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but few have examined diagnosed developmental disorders. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine whether prenatal exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability without autism (ID). METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study including children with ASD (n=545) and ID (n=181) identified from the California Department of Developmental Services and general population (GP) controls (n=418) from state birth certificates...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895579/a-sexually-dimorphic-peptidergic-system-in-the-lower-spinal-cord-controlling-penile-function-in-non-human-primates
#15
T Ito, T Oti, K Takanami, K Satoh, Y Ueda, T Sakamoto, H Sakamoto
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. OBJECTIVES: Although a population of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) neurons in the lumbar spinal cord has an important role in erection and ejaculation in rats, little information exists on this GRP system in primates. To identify the male-specific GRP system in the primate spinal cord, we studied the lumbosacral cord in macaque monkeys as a non-human primate model. SETTING: University laboratory in Japan...
September 12, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895538/body-composition-in-a-population-of-school-adolescents-a-comparison-of-simple-anthropometric-methods-and-bioelectrical-impedance
#16
María I Tovar-Galvez, Emilio González-Jiménez, Celia Martí-García, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle
OBJECTIVES: To report the anthropometric characteristics and body composition and to analyze the potential sex-based differences in Spanish schoolchildren and adolescents living in Granada and Ceuta. To estimate body fat percentage using regression equations and bioelectrical impedance to check for sex differences. An additional objective was to see whether the body fat percentages obtained by these two methods were similar. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 1,518 children and adolescents (aged 9-16) from 12 primary and secondary schools in Ceuta and Granada...
October 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894175/sexual-congruency-in-the-connectome-and-translatome-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#17
Amanda S Chung, Samara M Miller, Yanjun Sun, Xiangmin Xu, Larry S Zweifel
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system is important for reward, motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. Dysfunctions in the dopamine system are linked to multiple neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, many of which present with sex differences. Little is known about the extent of heterogeneity in the basic organization of VTA dopamine neurons with regard to sex. Here, we characterized the cell-specific connectivity of VTA dopamine neurons, their mRNA translational profile, and basic electrophysiological characteristics in a common strain of mice...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894112/perinatal-malnutrition-leads-to-sexually-dimorphic-behavioral-responses-with-associated-epigenetic-changes-in-the-mouse-brain
#18
Daniel Nätt, Riccardo Barchiesi, Josef Murad, Jian Feng, Eric J Nestler, Frances A Champagne, Annika Thorsell
Childhood malnutrition is a risk factor for mental disorders, such as major depression and anxiety. Evidence shows that similar early life adversities induce sex-dependent epigenetic reprogramming. However, little is known about how genes are specifically affected by early malnutrition and the implications for males and females respectively. One relevant target is neuropeptide Y (NPY), which regulates both stress and food-intake. We studied maternal low protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy/lactation in mice...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891073/sexual-dimorphism-in-jaw-muscles-of-the-japanese-sparrowhawk-accipiter-gularis
#19
H Wang, J Yan, Z Zhang
Materials suitable for anatomical research of raptorial birds are rare. Bird-eating raptors show distinct inter-sexual differences in body size and parental roles. The large females catch larger prey and prepare small morsels to feed their young using their hooked beaks. Here, we investigated the architectural properties of different jaw muscles of the Japanese sparrowhawk (Accipiter gularis) and examined whether there is sexual dimorphism in their architectural design. The results showed that musculus depressor mandibulae, the opener of the lower jaw, was characterized by relatively long fascicle length, whereas musculus pterygoideus was characterized by its larger mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) in both sexes...
September 11, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890130/effects-of-perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-the-volume-of-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-of-juvenile-rats-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#20
Sheryl E Arambula, Joelle Fuchs, Jinyan Cao, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions...
September 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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