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Spermatogonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438683/identification-and-expression-of-piwil2-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-with-implications-of-the-involvement-in-embryonic-and-gonadal-development
#1
Huizhen Wang, Bo Wang, Xiaobing Liu, Yuezhong Liu, Xinxin Du, Quanqi Zhang, XuBo Wang
Piwil2, a member of the Argonaute family, is involved in the biogenesis of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and plays an important role in regulating gametogenesis. In the present study, we identified turbot Scophthalmus maximus piwil2 gene, named Smpiwil2, which contained a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. Sequence comparison, genomic structure and phylogenetic analyses showed that Smpiwil2 is homologous to that of teleosts and tetrapods. The Smpiwil2 transcript showed higher expression in ovary than in testis, demonstrating a sexually dimorphic gene expression pattern...
April 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431283/zika-virus-infection-of-adult-and-fetal-stat2-knock-out-hamsters
#2
Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Rong Li, Jinxin Miao, Zhongde Wang, John D Morrey, Justin G Julander
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427772/seasonal-variations-of-aromatase-and-estrogen-receptors-expression-in-the-testis-of-free-ranging-sand-rats
#3
Rafik Menad, Souaâd Smaï, Xavier Bonnet, Thérèse Gernigon-Spychalowicz, Elara Moudilou, Farida Khammar, Jean-Marie Exbrayat
An increasing number of studies revealed the importance of estrogen in male reproduction. However, most research was conducted in laboratory rodents subjected to standardized environmental conditions. Therefore, seasonal regulations of estrogen pathways remain poorly understood under natural conditions. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression of several molecules involved in the functioning of testis (i.e. 17-β estradiol [E2], P450 aromatase, estrogen receptors ESR1, ESR2, and GPER1 [also known as GPR30]) were investigated in free-ranging fat sand rats, Psammomys obesus, during the breeding and resting seasons...
April 17, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427670/estimation-of-the-distribution-of-low-intensity-ultrasound-mechanical-index-as-a-parameter-affecting-the-proliferation-of-spermatogonia-stem-cells-in-vitro
#4
Zeinab Hormozi Moghaddam, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, Mansoureh Movahedin, Mohammad Ehsan Ravari
Considering the use of physical and mechanical stimulation, such as low-intensity ultrasound for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, it is essential to understand the physical and acoustical mechanisms of acoustic waves in vitro. Mechanical index is used for quantifying acoustic cavitation and the relationship between acoustic pressure and the frequency. In this study, modeling of the mechanical index was applied to provide treatment protocol and to understand the effective physical processes on reproducibility of stem cells...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418813/radiation-induced-deletions-in-mouse-spermatogonia-are-usually-large-over-200-kb-and-contain-little-sequence-similarity-at-the-junctions
#5
Mieko Kodaira, Jun-Ichi Asakawa, Nori Nakamura
Ionizing radiation can induce mutations, and the majority of radiation-induced mutations in mammalian cells are deletions. The most critical types of radiation-induced DNA damage are DNA double-strand breaks, and these breaks are repaired by either the homologous recombination (HR) pathway or the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. The HR pathway is not as mutagenic as the NHEJ pathway, and it is expected that radiation-induced deletions would usually have little sequence similarity around the deletion junction points...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408662/the-gdnf-responsive-phosphoprotein-landscape-identifies-raptor-phosphorylation-required-for-spermatogonial-progenitor-cell-proliferation
#6
Min Wang, Yueshuai Guo, Mei Wang, Tao Zhou, Yuanyuan Xue, Guihua Du, Xiang Wei, Jing Wang, Lin Qi, Hao Zhang, Lufan Li, Lan Ye, Xuejiang Guo, Xin Wu
Cytokine-dependent renewal of stem cells is a fundamental requisite for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Spermatogonial progenitor cells (SPCs) including stem cells support life-long spermatogenesis and male fertility, but pivotal phosphorylation events that regulate fate decisions in SPCs remain unresolved. Here, we described a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of SPCs following sustained stimulation with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), an extrinsic factor supporting SPC proliferation...
April 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407859/establishment-of-intraperitoneal-germ-cell-transplantation-for-critically-endangered-chinese-sturgeon-acipenser-sinensis
#7
Huan Ye, Chuang-Ju Li, Hua-Mei Yue, Hao Du, Xiao-Ge Yang, Tasuku Yoshino, Takao Hayashida, Yutaka Takeuchi, Qi-Wei Wei
Recent progress in germ cell transplantation techniques in fish has paved the way for the conservation of endangered species. Here, we developed an intraperitoneal germ cell transplantation procedure using Chinese and Dabry's sturgeon as donor and recipient species, respectively. Histological analysis revealed that primordial germ cells migrated on the peritoneal wall at 16 days post-hatch (dph) in Dabry's sturgeon. The genital ridges of Dabry's sturgeon (recipient) first formed at 28 dph, suggesting that for successful colonization of donor germ cells in the recipient gonads, the transplantation should be performed earlier than this age...
May 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402059/molecular-markers-of-putative-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-the-domestic-cat
#8
S J Bedford-Guaus, S Kim, L Mulero, J M Vaquero, C Morera, R Adan-Milanès, A Veiga, Á Raya
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are an important tool for fertility preservation and species conservation. The ability to expand SSCs by in vitro culture is a crucial premise for their use in assisted reproduction. Because SSCs represent a small proportion of the germ cells in the adult testis, culture success is aided by pre-enrichment through sorting techniques based on cell surface-specific markers. Given the importance of the domestic cat as a model for conservation of endangered wild felids, herein we sought to examine culture conditions as well as molecular markers for cat SSCs...
April 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380054/meioc-maintains-an-extended-meiotic-prophase-i-in-mice
#9
Y Q Shirleen Soh, Maria M Mikedis, Mina Kojima, Alexander K Godfrey, Dirk G de Rooij, David C Page
The meiosis-specific chromosomal events of homolog pairing, synapsis, and recombination occur over an extended meiotic prophase I that is many times longer than prophase of mitosis. Here we show that, in mice, maintenance of an extended meiotic prophase I requires the gene Meioc, a germ-cell specific factor conserved in most metazoans. In mice, Meioc is expressed in male and female germ cells upon initiation of and throughout meiotic prophase I. Mouse germ cells lacking Meioc initiate meiosis: they undergo pre-meiotic DNA replication, they express proteins involved in synapsis and recombination, and a subset of cells progress as far as the zygotene stage of prophase I...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379293/cell-autonomous-requirement-for-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-mtor-in-spermatogonial-proliferation-and-differentiation-in-the-mouse4
#10
Nicholas D Serra, Ellen K Velte, Bryan A Niedenberger, Oleksander Kirsanov, Christopher B Geyer
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) must balance self-renewal with production of transit-amplifying progenitors that differentiate in response to retinoic acid (RA) before entering meiosis. This self-renewal vs. differentiation fate decision is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis, as imbalances cause defects that can lead to human testicular cancer or infertility. Little is currently known about the program of differentiation initiated by RA, and the pathways and proteins involved are poorly defined. We recently found that RA stimulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR kinase signaling pathway is required for differentiation, and that short-term inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) by rapamycin blocked spermatogonial differentiation in vivo and prevented RA-induced translational activation...
March 31, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373495/spermatogonial-stem-cell-transplantation-to-the-testis
#11
Shaun Goodyear, Ralph Brinster
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are located in the basal region of the seminiferous tubules and provide a self-renewing reservoir from which progenitor spermatogonia arise and transiently amplify in number before transition to a differentiating state. SSC transplantation involves grafting mouse testicular cells into the seminiferous tubules of an aspermic recipient testis that is generated either by chemical (e.g., busulfan) treatment or genetic mutations.
April 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370226/total-flavonoids-of-epimedium-reduce-ageing-related-oxidative-dna-damage-in-testis-of-rats-via-p53-dependent-pathway
#12
H Zhao, L Song, W Huang, J Liu, D Yuan, Y Wang, C Zhang
Increased DNA damage in testis is considered as a major factor for ageing-related dysfunction. Total flavonoids of Epimedium (TFE), the main active compositions of Epimedium, have been used to treat sexual dysfunction and delay ageing. However, whether TFE could improve ageing-related testicular dysfunction remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the protection effects of TFE and its mechanisms of action in a naturally ageing rat model. Eighteen-month-old SD rats were randomised to receive either vehicle or TFE (10 and 20 mg/kg)...
March 30, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369535/the-production-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-by-human-sertoli-cells-is-substantially-reduced-in-sertoli-cell-only-testes
#13
D Singh, D A Paduch, P N Schlegel, K E Orwig, A Mielnik, A Bolyakov, W W Wright
STUDY QUESTION: Do human Sertoli cells in testes that exhibit the Sertoli cell-only (SCO) phenotype produce substantially less glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) than Sertoli cells in normal testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: In human SCO testes, both the amounts of GDNF mRNA per testis and the concentration of GDNF protein per Sertoli cell are markedly reduced as compared to normal testes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vivo, GDNF is required to sustain the numbers and function of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and their immediate progeny, transit-amplifying progenitor spermatogonia...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369509/revisiting-the-human-seminiferous-epithelium-cycle
#14
F Nihi, M L M Gomes, F A R Carvalho, A B Reis, R Martello, R C N Melo, F R C L Almeida, H Chiarini-Garcia
STUDY QUESTION: Can all types of testicular germ cells be accurately identified by microscopy techniques and unambiguously distributed in stages of the human seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: By using a high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) method, which enables an improved visualization of germ cell morphological features, we identified all testicular germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium and precisely grouped them in six well-delimitated SEC stages, thus providing a reliable reference source for staging in man...
March 28, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356500/a-novel-testis-specific-protein-pramey-is-involved-in-spermatogenesis-in-cattle
#15
Wan-Sheng Liu, Yaqi Zhao, Chen Lu, Gang Ning, Yun Ma, Francisco Diaz, Michael O'Connor
PRAME is a cancer/testis antigen that is predominantly expressed in normal testicular tissues and a variety of tumors. The function of the PRAME family in spermatogenesis remains unknown. This study was designed to characterize the Y-linked PRAME (PRAMEY) protein during spermatogenesis in cattle. We found that PRAMEY is a novel male germ cell-specific, and a germinal granule-associated protein that is expressed in spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis. The intact PRAMEY protein (58 kDa) was detected in different ages of testes but not in epididymal spermatozoa...
March 29, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341464/reproductive-effects-of-oestrogenic-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-astyanax-rivularis-inhabiting-headwaters-of-the-velhas-river-brazil
#16
André Alberto Weber, Davidson Peruci Moreira, Rafael Magno Costa Melo, Augusto Bicalho Cruz Vieira, Paula Suzanna Prado, Mirra Angelina Neres da Silva, Nilo Bazzoli, Elizete Rizzo
The Velhas River is the most polluted river in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Due to its historical and environmental relevance, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oestrogenic endocrine disruptors on the reproduction of the lambari Astyanax rivularis, a small-sized species found in headwaters of the São Francisco River basin. Quarterly field samplings were carried out during a reproductive cycle in three streams of the upper Velhas River: S1 (reference site) and S2 and S3 (sites contaminated by untreated sewage)...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341395/gonocytes-to-spermatogonia-transition-initiates-prior-to-birth-in-murine-testes-and-it-requires-fgf-signaling
#17
Han Pin Pui, Yumiko Saga
Spermatogenesis is a continuous and highly coordinated process of spermatozoa production. In mice, this process is believed to initiate shortly after birth with the emergence of nascent spermatogonia in the testes. However, because the nascent spermatogonia originated from the gonocytes are morphologically indistinguishable from their predecessors and there is no clear definition for the gonocytes-to-spermatogonia transition (GST), it remains unclear when and how spermatogenesis is initiated in the mouse testes...
March 21, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335493/melatonin-mt%C3%A2-and-mt%C3%A2-receptors-in-the-ram-reproductive-tract
#18
Marta González-Arto, David Aguilar, Elena Gaspar-Torrubia, Margarita Gallego, Melissa Carvajal-Serna, Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Edith Serrano-Blesa, Thais Rose Dos Santos Hamilton, Rosaura Pérez-Pé, Teresa Muiño-Blanco, José A Cebrián-Pérez, Adriana Casao
Some melatonin functions in mammals are exerted through MT₁ and MT₂ receptors. However, there are no reports of their presence in the reproductive tract of the ram, a seasonal species. Thus, we have investigated their existence in the ram testis, epididymis, accessory glands and ductus deferens. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed higher levels of m-RNA for both receptors in the testis, ampulla, seminal vesicles, and vas deferens, than in the other organs of the reproductive tract (p < 0...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325592/intersexuality-in-aquatic-invertebrates-prevalence-and-causes
#19
REVIEW
Tiago F Grilo, Rui Rosa
This review is the first assembling information on intersexuality in aquatic invertebrates, from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Intersex is a condition whereby an individual of a gonochorist (separate sexes) species has oocytes or distinct stages of spermatogonia, at varying degrees of development, within the normal gonad of the opposite gender (i.e. spermatocytes in the ovary or oocytes in the testis), often involving alterations in the gonadal structure, reproductive tract or external genitalia...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302378/hypothermic-storage-of-isolated-spermatogonia-and-oogonia-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#20
Bahram Falahatkar, Samaneh Poursaeid, Ryota Kitada, Goro Yoshizaki
A growing number of fish species are endangered due to human activities. A short- or long-time preservation of gametes could conserve genetic resources of threatened fish species. The aim of this study was to evaluate a hypothermic condition for short-term preservation of spermatogonia and oogonia cells isolated from immature transgenic rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and to determine the maximum time point for further transplantation. Viability rate of germ cells was investigated after isolation and during storage at 4 °C up to 24 h...
March 13, 2017: Cryobiology
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