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Spermatogonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518149/rnf138-deficiency-promotes-apoptosis-of-spermatogonia-in-juvenile-male-mice
#1
Longchang Xu, Yalan Lu, Deqiang Han, Rongyan Yao, Han Wang, Shunshun Zhong, Yanyun Luo, Ruiqin Han, Kai Li, Jun Fu, Shudong Zong, Shiying Miao, Wei Song, Linfang Wang
Spermatogenesis, the process by which haploid sperm cells are produced from a diploid precursor cell, is essential for sexual reproduction. Here, we report that RING-finger protein 138 (Rnf138) is highly expressed in testes, especially in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The role of Rnf138 in spermatogenesis was examined using a Rnf138-knockout mouse model. Rnf138 deficiency resulted in increased apoptosis in spermatogenic cells, loss of proliferative spermatogonia, delayed development of spermatozoa and impaired fertility...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506466/impaired-steroidogenesis-in-the-testis-of-leptin-deficient-mice-ob-ob
#2
Fabiane Ferreira Martins, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
The obesity and its comorbidities, including resistance to leptin, impacts the reproductive function. Testes express leptin receptors in the germ cells and Leydig cells. Then, leptin-deficient animals are obese and infertile. We aimed to evaluate the structure and steroidogenic pathway of the testis of deficient leptin mice. Three months old male C57BL/6 mice (wild-type, WT) and deficient leptin (ob/ob) mice had their testes dissected and prepared for analyses. Compared to the WT group, the ob/ob group showed a greater body mass with smaller testes, and alterations in the germinative epithelium: fewer spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids...
May 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502832/sexually-dimorphic-expression-in-developing-and-adult-gonads-shows-an-important-role-of-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-during-sex-differentiation-in-olive-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#3
Yuezhong Liu, Wei Zhang, Xinxin Du, Jun Zhao, Xiaobing Liu, Xiaojing Li, Quanqi Zhang, Xubo Wang
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is a new member of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. As a teleost- and gonad-specific growth factor, gsdf has been indicated to play an important role in early germ cell development. However, little is known about its significance in germ cell development of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In the present study, a 1338 bp gsdf gene was isolated from P. olivaceus for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genomic structure and synteny relationship of gsdf in teleosts were conserved...
May 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499702/prespermatogenesis-and-early-spermatogenesis-in-frogs
#4
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska
Spermatogenesis in frogs was for the first time divided into two phases: prespermatogenesis, when gonocytes proliferate in developing tadpole testes, and active spermatogenesis when spermatogonial stem cells (i.e. descendants of gonocytes), either self-renew or enter into meiotic cycles within cysts formed by Sertoli cells. We argue that amphibian larval gonocytes are homologues to mammalian gonocytes, whereas spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in adult frogs are homologous to mammalian single spermatogonia (As)...
March 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498828/kdm1a-lsd1-regulates-the-differentiation-and-maintenance-of-spermatogonia-in-mice
#5
Dexter A Myrick, Michael A Christopher, Alyssa M Scott, Ashley K Simon, Paul G Donlin-Asp, William G Kelly, David J Katz
The proper regulation of spermatogenesis is crucial to ensure the continued production of sperm and fertility. Here, we investigated the function of the H3K4me2 demethylase KDM1A/LSD1 during spermatogenesis in developing and adult mice. Conditional deletion of Kdm1a in the testis just prior to birth leads to fewer spermatogonia and germ cell loss before 3 weeks of age. These results demonstrate that KDM1A is required for spermatogonial differentiation, as well as germ cell survival, in the developing testis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483168/hedgehog-gli1-signaling-regelates-differentiation-of-chicken-gallus-gallus-embryonic-stem-cells-to-male-germ-cells
#6
Dong Li, Shaoze Cheng, Wenhui Zhang, Man Wang, Changhua Sun, Chen Zhang, Yilin Wang, Jing Jin, Yani Zhang, Bichun Li
Gli1 is an important signaling molecular in Hedgehog signaling pathway. In our study, we explored the adjustment effect of Hedgehog-Gli1 signaling pathway on chicken male germ cells differentiation based on the transcriptome-wide analyses of chicken ESCs, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and spermatogonia stem cells (SSCs) that were associated with male germ cell differentiation. We screened out Hedgehog signaling pathway and identified 8 candidated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), Wnt3a, Wnt16, Wnt8a, HHIPL1, Gli1, BMP6, BMP7 and TTLL4...
February 10, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481731/posttranslational-modifications-in-spermatozoa-and-effects-on-male-fertility-and-sperm-viability
#7
Rahim Dad Brohi, Li-Jun Huo
Spermatogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process. The ability of spermatozoa to perform its function depends on multiple physiological and genetic factors that are not fully understood. Notably, due to lack of transcriptional and translational activity in spermatozoa, posttranslational modifications (PTMs) play key roles in determining their viability. PTMs not only confer structural changes in the proteome of the spermatozoa cells, but also increase the diversity of the proteome and introduce specific modifications that could be translated into functional changes in the affected spermatozoa...
May 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481028/preservation-of-chromosomal-integrity-in-murine-spermatozoa-derived-from-gonocytes-and-spermatogonial-stem-cells-surviving-prenatal-and-postnatal-exposure-to-%C3%AE-rays-in-mice
#8
Hiroyuki Watanabe, Atsushi Kohda, Jun-Ichiro Komura, Hiroyuki Tateno
Pre- and postnatal male mice were acutely (659 - 690 mGy/min) and continuously (0.303 mGy/min) exposed to 2 Gy γ-rays to evaluate spermatogenic potential and chromosome damage in their germ cells as adults. Acute irradiation on Days 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5 post-coitus affected testicular development, as a result of massive quiescent gonocyte loss; the majority of the seminiferous tubules in these testes were devoid of germ cells. Acute irradiation on Days 18.5 and 19.5 post-coitus had less effect on testicular development and spermatogenesis, even though germ cells were quiescent gonocytes on these days...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474535/long-term-propagation-of-porcine-undifferentiated-spermatogonia
#9
Pengfei Zhang, Xiaoxu Chen, Yi Zheng, Jinsheng Zhu, Yuwei Qin, Yinghua Lv, Wenxian Zeng
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) provide the foundation for spermatogenesis and fertility throughout the adult life of a male. Genetic manipulations of SSCs combined with germ cell transplantation present a novel approach for gene therapy and production of genetically modified animals. However, the rarity of SSCs within mammalian testes remains an impediment to related applications that require sufficient numbers of SSCs, making in vitro expansion of SSCs a prerequisite. Nevertheless, long-term culture systems of SSCs from large animals have not been established yet...
May 5, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469844/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-regulation-of-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Xiaoxu Chen, Xueliang Li, Jiayin Guo, Pengfei Zhang, Wenxian Zeng
Mammalian spermatogenesis contains three continuous and organized processes, by which spermatogonia undergo mitosis and differentiate to spermatocytes, follow on meiosis to form haploid spermatids and ultimately transform into spermatozoa. These processes require an accurately, spatially and temporally regulated gene expression patterns. The microRNAs are a novel class of post-transcriptional regulators. Cumulating evidences have demonstrated that microRNAs are expressed in a cell-specific or stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465413/bmp8a-sustains-spermatogenesis-by-activating-both-smad1-5-8-and-smad2-3-in-spermatogonia
#11
Fang-Ju Wu, Ting-Yu Lin, Li-Ying Sung, Wei-Fang Chang, Po-Chih Wu, Ching-Wei Luo
Mutation in either of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 8A or 8B (Bmp8a or Bmp8b) causes postnatal depletion of spermatogonia in mice. We found that Bmp8a, but not Bmp8b, was expressed predominantly in the neonatal mouse spermatogonia. Although most BMPs induce activation of SMADs 1, 5, and 8 (SMAD1/5/8), but not SMADs 2 and 3 (SMAD2/3), we found that BMP8A induced signaling through both sets of transcription factors. In undifferentiated mouse spermatogonia, BMP8A activated SMAD1/5/8 through receptor complexes formed by ALK3 and either ACVR2A or BMPR2 and activated SMAD2/3 through receptor complexes formed by ALK5 and ACVR2A, ACVR2B, or TGFBR2...
May 2, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465081/characterization-of-male-germ-cell-markers-in-canine-testis
#12
Won-Young Lee, Ran Lee, Hyun-Jung Park, Jeong Tae Do, Chankyu Park, Jin-Hoi Kim, Hyunjhung Jhun, Ji-Heon Lee, Taiyoung Hur, Hyuk Song
Spermatogenesis begins at puberty and continues throughout a male's life. This process is initiated and maintained by spermatogonial stem cells in the seminiferous tubules, and these cells produce haploid spermatozoa. Markers of male germ cells have been fully identified in rodents, including mice and rats, but not in canines. To characterize the canine male germ cells, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed, using prepubertal (1-3-month-old), early pubertal (4-month-old), and postpubertal (7-month-old) dog testes...
January 12, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464323/ssm1b-expression-and-function-in-germ-cells-of-adult-mice-and-in-early-embryos
#13
Sarayu Ratnam, Grazyna Bozek, Christopher Payne, Shannon Gallagher, Terence Martin, Ursula Storb
Strain-specific modifier of DNA methylation 1b (Ssm1b) is a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger gene that promotes CpG methylation in the mouse transgene HRD (Heavy chain enhancer, Rearrangement by Deletion). Ssm1b expression and concomitant HRD methylation are also present in the male and female germ cells of adult mice. Ssm1b is expressed in both diploid (2N) and haploid (1N) oocytes, as well as in 1N spermatids and spermatozoa, but not in 2N spermatogonia. Interestingly, Ssm1b mRNA is not detected in any other adult mouse organ examined, although Ssm1-family mRNAs are highly expressed in the heart...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461596/a-transit-amplifying-population-underpins-the-efficient-regenerative-capacity-of-the-testis
#14
Claudia Carrieri, Stefano Comazzetto, Amit Grover, Marcos Morgan, Andreas Buness, Claus Nerlov, Dónal O'Carroll
The spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) that supports spermatogenesis throughout adult life resides within the GFRα1-expressing A type undifferentiated spermatogonia. The decision to commit to spermatogenic differentiation coincides with the loss of GFRα1 and reciprocal gain of Ngn3 (Neurog3) expression. Through the analysis of the piRNA factor Miwi2 (Piwil4), we identify a novel population of Ngn3-expressing spermatogonia that are essential for efficient testicular regeneration after injury. Depletion of Miwi2-expressing cells results in a transient impact on testicular homeostasis, with this population behaving strictly as transit amplifying cells under homeostatic conditions...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457724/effects-of-pre-overwintering-conditions-on-eupyrene-and-apyrene-spermatogenesis-after-overwintering-in-polygonia-c-aureum-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#15
Satoshi Hiroyoshi, Jin Yoshimura, Kikuo Iwabuchi, Gadi V P Reddy, Jun Mitsuhashi
Sperm polymorphism is widely known in invertebrates. In insects, Lepidoptera has two types of sperm: nucleated eupyrene (fertile) sperm and anucleated apyrene (unfertile) sperm. These sperm types are produced during post-embryogenesis, and eupyrene spermatogenesis precedes apyrene spermatogenesis. During overwintering, spermatogenesis stops and a portion of undifferentiated-stage spermatocytes degenerate. After overwintering, spermatogenesis restarts with unaffected spermatogonia. However, how new spermatozoa arise in the adult testes after overwintering is not known in Lepidoptera...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456466/constitutive-wnt-ctnnb1-activation-triggers-spermatogonial-stem-cell-proliferation-and-germ-cell-depletion
#16
Anne-Amandine Chassot, Morgane Le Rolle, Maxime Jourden, Maketo M Taketo, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Marie-Christine Chaboissier
The differentiation of germ cells into oogonia or spermatogonia is the first step that eventually gives rise to fully mature gametes. In the female fetal gonad, the RSPO1/WNT/CTNNB1 signalling pathway is involved in primordial germ cell proliferation and differentiation into female germ cells, which are able to enter meiosis. In the postnatal testis, the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway also mediates proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and progenitor cells. Here we show that forced activation of the WNT/CTNNB1 pathway in fetal gonocytes using transgenic mice leads to deregulated spermatogonial proliferation, and exhaustion of the spermatocytes by apoptosis, resulting in a hypoplastic testis...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438683/identification-and-expression-of-piwil2-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-with-implications-of-the-involvement-in-embryonic-and-gonadal-development
#17
Huizhen Wang, Bo Wang, Xiaobing Liu, Yuezhong Liu, Xinxin Du, Quanqi Zhang, XuBo Wang
Piwil2, a member of the Argonaute family, is involved in the biogenesis of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and plays an important role in regulating gametogenesis. In the present study, we identified turbot Scophthalmus maximus piwil2 gene, named Smpiwil2, which contained a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. Sequence comparison, genomic structure and phylogenetic analyses showed that Smpiwil2 is homologous to that of teleosts and tetrapods. The Smpiwil2 transcript showed higher expression in the ovary than in the testis, demonstrating a sexually dimorphic gene expression pattern...
April 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431283/zika-virus-infection-of-adult-and-fetal-stat2-knock-out-hamsters
#18
Venkatraman Siddharthan, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Rong Li, Jinxin Miao, Zhongde Wang, John D Morrey, Justin G Julander
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was investigated in adult and fetal STAT2 knock-out (KO) hamsters. Subcutaneous injection of ZIKV of adults resulted in morbidity, mortality, and infection of the uterus, placenta, brain, spinal cord, and testicles, thus providing an opportunity to evaluate congenital ZIKV infection in a second rodent species besides mice. ZIKV-infected cells with morphologies of Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed in the testes, which may have implications for sexual transmission and male sterility...
April 18, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427772/seasonal-variations-of-aromatase-and-estrogen-receptors-expression-in-the-testis-of-free-ranging-sand-rats
#19
Rafik Menad, Souaâd Smaï, Xavier Bonnet, Thérèse Gernigon-Spychalowicz, Elara Moudilou, Farida Khammar, Jean-Marie Exbrayat
An increasing number of studies revealed the importance of estrogen in male reproduction. However, most research was conducted in laboratory rodents subjected to standardized environmental conditions. Therefore, seasonal regulations of estrogen pathways remain poorly understood under natural conditions. Using immunohistochemistry, the expression of several molecules involved in the functioning of testis (i.e. 17-β estradiol [E2], P450 aromatase, estrogen receptors ESR1, ESR2, and GPER1 [also known as GPR30]) were investigated in free-ranging fat sand rats, Psammomys obesus, during the breeding and resting seasons...
April 17, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427670/estimation-of-the-distribution-of-low-intensity-ultrasound-mechanical-index-as-a-parameter-affecting-the-proliferation-of-spermatogonia-stem-cells-in-vitro
#20
Zeinab Hormozi Moghaddam, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, Mansoureh Movahedin, Mohammad Ehsan Ravari
Considering the use of physical and mechanical stimulation, such as low-intensity ultrasound for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, it is essential to understand the physical and acoustical mechanisms of acoustic waves in vitro. Mechanical index is used for quantifying acoustic cavitation and the relationship between acoustic pressure and the frequency. In this study, modeling of the mechanical index was applied to provide treatment protocol and to understand the effective physical processes on reproducibility of stem cells...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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