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Spermatogonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661171/a-novel-tex11-mutation-induces-azoospermia-a-case-report-of-infertile-brothers-and-literature-review
#1
Yanwei Sha, Liangkai Zheng, Zhiyong Ji, Libin Mei, Lu Ding, Shaobin Lin, Xu Wang, Xiaoyu Yang, Ping Li
BACKGROUND: Testis-expressed gene 11 (TEX11) is an X-linked gene and essential for meiotic recombination and chromosomal synapsis. TEX11 deficiency causes meiotic arrest and male infertility, and many TEX11 mutations have been found in azoospermic and infertile men. CASE PRESENTATION: This study reported one novel TEX11 mutation (2653G → T, in exon 29, GenBank accession number, NM_031276) in two brothers with azoospermia. This mutation was firstly screened out by whole-exome sequencing (WES) and further verified by amplifying and sequencing the specific exon 29...
April 16, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660605/functional-assessment-of-spermatogonial-stem-cell-purity-in-experimental-cell-populations
#2
REVIEW
Tessa Lord, Jon M Oatley
Historically, research in spermatogonial biology has been hindered by a lack of validated approaches to identify and isolate pure populations of the various spermatogonial subsets for in-depth analysis. In particular, although a number of markers of the undifferentiated spermatogonial population have now been characterized, standardized methodology for assessing their specificity to the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) and transit amplifying progenitor pools has been lacking. To date, SSC content within an undefined population of spermatogonia has been inferred using either lineage tracing or spermatogonial transplantation analyses which generate qualitative and quantitative data, respectively...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660519/oocyte-maturation-and-origin-of-the-germline-as-revealed-by-the-expression-of-nanos-like-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#3
Rui Xu, Qi Li, Hong Yu, Lingfeng Kong
Nanos gene plays an important role in germline development in animals. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in germline development in Mollusca, the second largest animal phylum, are still poorly understood. Here we identified the Nanos orthologue from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Cg-Nanos-like), and investigated the expression patterns of Nanos during gametogenesis and embryogenesis in C. gigas. Tissue expression analysis showed that Cg-Nanos-like was specifically expressed in female gonads...
April 13, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660436/in-vitro-study-of-doxorubicin-induced-oxidative-stress-in-spermatogonia-and-immature-sertoli-cells
#4
Amélie R Tremblay, Geraldine Delbes
Pediatric chemotherapy treatments can impair long-term male fertility. Unfortunately, no fertility preservation solution is available for pre-pubertal boys. Studies suggest that doxorubicin, used against pediatric cancers, induces oxidative stress in the testis. However, the targeted testicular cell types remain unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether doxorubicin can induce oxidative stress in rat spermatogonia (GC-6Spg) and immature Sertoli (Ser-W3) cell lines, and to assess their protection by antioxidants...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660000/spermatogonial-behavior-in-marmoset-a-new-generation-their-kinetics-and-niche
#5
A L Caldeira-Brant, L Eras-Garcia, D Alves-Freitas, F R C L Almeida, H Chiarini-Garcia
STUDY QUESTION: Could a more detailed evaluation of marmoset spermatogonial morphology, kinetics, and niches using high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) lead to new findings? SUMMARY ANSWER: Three new classes of marmoset spermatogonia, which were not evenly distributed in terms of number and position along the basal membrane, and an extra premeiotic cell division not present in humans were identified using HRLM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC) of marmosets is divided into nine stages when based on the acrosome system, and several spermatogenic stages can usually be recognized within the same tubular cross-section...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657241/expression-dynamics-of-self-renewal-factors-for-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-the-mouse-testis
#6
Mizuki Sakai, Kaito Masaki, Shota Aiba, Masaaki Tone, Seiji Takashima
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are bona fide self-renewal factors for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Although GDNF is indispensable for the maintenance of SSCs, the role of FGF2 in the testis remains to be elucidated. To clarify this, the expression dynamics and regulatory mechanisms of Fgf2 and Gdnf in the mouse testes were analyzed. It is well known that Sertoli cells express Gdnf, and its receptor is expressed in a subset of undifferentiated spermatogonia, including SSCs...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655854/the-expression-and-distribution-of-a-leptin-receptor-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#7
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anuracpreeda, Prasert Sobhon, Yotsawan Tinikul
In the present study, the presence and distribution of leptin receptor (LEP-R) in central nervous system, digestive organs, gonads of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were investigated with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. By Western blot a LEP-R with a molecular weight (MW) of 100 kDa was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, hepatopancreas, all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and testes. In hepatopancreas and foregut, another intense positive band was detected at molecular weight of 30 kDa, which could be an isotype of LEP-R...
April 11, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652044/-the-ultrastructure-of-sertoli-cells-and-spermatogonia-in-the-rats-exposed-to-radiation-under-conditions-of-therapeutic-and-prophylactic-application-of-low-intensity-electromagnetic-emission
#8
Y N Korolev, I P Bobrovnitskii, M S Geniatulina, L A Nikulina, L V Mikhailik
BACKGROUND: it has been demonstrated in various experimental studies that radiation exposure produces a negative impact on the processes of spermatogenesis associated with the disturbances of the microcirculation processes in the testes and the development of cellular and intracellular disintegration expressed as destructive changes in the cells leading to their death. AIM: The objective of the present study was to detect the ultrastructural abnormalities in the cells of Sertoli and spermatogonia under conditions of their exposure to radiation and to identify the peculiarities of their regeneration under the influence of the therapeutic and prophylactic application of low-intensity ultra-high frequency (UHF) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and low-intensity low-frequency magnetic field (MF)...
April 9, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649725/production-of-live-fish-derived-from-frozen-germ-cells-via-germ-cell-transplantation
#9
Goro Yoshizaki, Seungki Lee
The conservation of endangered fish is an urgent issue. Although cryo-banking of fish gametes might ultimately help conserve endangered fish, cryopreservation of fish eggs or embryos is still not possible due to their large size and high yolk content. Therefore, as an alternative, we focused on undifferentiated germ cells, such as primordial germ cells, spermatogonia, and oogonia, as materials for cryopreservation. Transplantation of cryopreserved germ cells into the body cavity of allogeneic or xenogeneic recipients sterilized by triploidization or endogenous germ cell ablation resulted in migration of the transplanted germ cells toward the recipient genital ridges, where they were eventually incorporated...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649409/the-forkhead-transcription-factor-foxc2-is-required-for-maintaining-murine-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#10
Chao Wei, Hao Lin, Sheng Cui
Continuous spermatogenesis from puberty to old age in males relies on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that possess the property of self-renewal and differentiation. The delicate balance between self-renewal and differentiation is of great importance. In mice, SSCs exist as a subpopulation of undifferentiated spermatogonia. SSCs are controlled by intrinsic molecular pathways which can be activated by extrinsic signals. Our results here first show that the expression of forkhead box C2 (FOXC2) is restricted to GFRα1 positive spermatogonia in the testis...
March 13, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649254/uxt-is-required-for-spermatogenesis-in-mice
#11
Eric D Schafler, Phillip A Thomas, Susan Ha, Yu Wang, Keria Bermudez-Hernandez, Zuojian Tang, David Fenyö, Margarita Vigodner, Susan K Logan
Male mammals must simultaneously produce prodigious numbers of sperm and maintain an adequate reserve of stem cells to ensure continuous production of gametes throughout life. Failures in the mechanisms responsible for balancing germ cell differentiation and spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal can result in infertility. We discovered a novel requirement for Ubiquitous Expressed Transcript (UXT) in spermatogenesis by developing the first knockout mouse model for this gene. Constitutive deletion of Uxt is embryonic lethal, while conditional knockout in the male germline results in a Sertoli cell-only phenotype during the first wave of spermatogenesis that does not recover in the adult...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621673/part-b-morphometric-and-transcriptomic-responses-to-sub-chronic-exposure-to-the-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-phenanthrene-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#12
Jennifer R Loughery, Karen A Kidd, Angella Mercer, Chris J Martyniuk
Phenanthrene is a tricyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and environmental contaminant found in high concentrations around urban catchments and in the vicinity of oil extraction activities. Fish exposed to phenanthrene can exhibit altered reproductive hormone profiles and/or differences within gonadosomatic index and altered gamete proportions, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. In this study, we conducted a sub-chronic bioassay and measured transcriptional responses in the liver, the major tissue involved in generating lipids for oocyte growth...
March 23, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618374/transient-reduction-of-dna-methylation-at-the-onset-of-meiosis-in-male-mice
#13
Valeriya Gaysinskaya, Brendan F Miller, Chiara De Luca, Godfried W van der Heijden, Kasper D Hansen, Alex Bortvin
BACKGROUND: Meiosis is a specialized germ cell cycle that generates haploid gametes. In the initial stage of meiosis, meiotic prophase I (MPI), homologous chromosomes pair and recombine. Extensive changes in chromatin in MPI raise an important question concerning the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation to meiosis. Interestingly, previous studies concluded that in male mice, genome-wide DNA methylation patters are set in place prior to meiosis and remain constant subsequently...
April 4, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617903/spermatogonial-stem-cells
#14
Hiroshi Kubota, Ralph L Brinster
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the most primitive spermatogonia in the testis and have an essential role to maintain highly productive spermatogenesis by self-renewal and continuous generation of daughter spermatogonia that differentiate into spermatozoa, transmitting genetic information to the next generation. Since the 1950s, many experimental methods, including histology, immunostaining, whole-mount analyses, and pulse-chase labeling had been used in attempts to identify SSCs, but without success. In 1994, a spermatogonial transplantation method was reported that established a quantitative functional assay to identify SSCs by evaluating their ability to both self-renew and differentiate to spermatozoa...
March 30, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609093/histological-and-electron-microscopy-observations-on-the-testis-and-spermatogenesis-of-the-butterfly-dione-juno-cramer-1779-and-agraulis-vanillae-linnaeus-1758-lepidoptera-nymphalidae
#15
Isabelle Pereira Mari, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis Gigliolli, Satiko Nanya, Ana Luiza de Brito Portela-Castro
Lepidopteran species present an interesting case of sperm polymorphism and testicular fusion. The study of these features are of great importance in understanding the reproductive biology of these insects, especially in the case of those considered pests. Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae stand out as the most important pests of passion fruit (Passiflora sp.) crops in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to characterize the testes and germ cells of Dione juno and Agraulis vanillae at different life stages, using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, to understand the maturation mechanisms of the male gametes in these species...
March 20, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604593/ebselen-can-protect-male-reproductive-organs-and-male-fertility-from-manganese-toxicity-structural-and-bioanalytical-approach-in-a-rat-model
#16
Amany Tharwat Mohammed, Lamiaa L M Ebraheim, Mohamed M M Metwally
Ebselen (EBS) is a versatile compound that can protect the cellular components from oxidative and free radical-mediated damage. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of EBS against manganese (Mn) toxicity on male reproductive organs. Thirty-two male rats were assigned into four groups, namely, negative control, EBS (15 mg/kg body weight (bw), as a single protective IP injection), MnCl2 (50 mg/kg bw, orally for 30 consecutive days), and EBS + MnCl2 (as mentioned before). The results showed that EBS ameliorated the alterations caused by MnCl2 in the testicular, epididymal, and seminal vesicle tissues...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602213/expression-of-the-sox9-foxl2-vasa-and-trpv4-genes-in-the-ovaries-and-testes-of-the-morelet-s-crocodile-crocodylus-moreletii
#17
Adriana Martínez-Juárez, Marco A López-Luna, Tania J Porras-Gómez, Norma Moreno-Mendoza
The Sox9 gene is important for determining sex in vertebrates, as well as for maintaining testis morphology and fertility during adult life. In the same way, Vasa is an important gene for the maintenance of the germinal lineage and has been highly conserved throughout evolution, as it is expressed in germ cells of both vertebrates and invertebrates. In the particular case of crocodiles, the expression of Sox9 during gonadal morphogenesis and in the testes of 3-month-old Alligator mississippiensis has been studied...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590307/mutations-causing-specific-arrests-in-the-development-of-mouse-primordial-germ-cells-and-gonocytes
#18
Geert Hamer, Dirk G de Rooij
This review focusses on those mouse mutations that cause an effect on the morphology, viability and/or behavior of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and gonocytes at specific steps of their fetal development up to the start of spermatogenesis, a few days after birth. To restrict the area covered, mice with mutations that cause abnormal hormone levels or mutations of genes not expressed in germ cells that secondarily cause spermatogenic problems, are not discussed. To make our literature search as comprehensive as possible, Pubmed was searched for "(primordial germ cells OR prospermatogonia OR prespermatogonia OR gonocytes OR spermatogonia or meiosis or spermiogenesis or spermatogenesis) AND mouse AND (knockout or mutant or transgenic)...
March 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580836/differential-expression-of-two-piwil-orthologs-during-embryonic-and-gonadal-development-in-pufferfish-takifugu-fasciatus
#19
Xin Wen, Dan Wang, Xinru Li, Cheng Zhao, Tao Wang, Xiaoming Qian, Shaowu Yin
Piwil was an important regulator gene in germ cell division during gonadal development. Two Piwi-like genes, Piwil1 and Piwil2, were first cloned from T. fasciatus. The full-length cDNAs of Piwil1 and Piwil2 were of 2933 and 3394 bp, respectively. Piwil1 and Piwil2 possessed an open reading frame (ORF) of 2565 and 3138 bp, encoding 854 and 1045 amino acids, respectively. The tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that Piwil1 and Piwil2 were expressed at higher levels in gonad compared to other tissues (brain, liver, gill, etc...
March 23, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573758/age-related-and-photoperiodic-variation-of-the-daz-gene-family-in-the-testis-of-the-syrian-hamster-mesocricetus-auratus
#20
Candela Rocío González, Luciana Moverer, Ricardo Saúl Calandra, Silvia Inés González-Calvar, Alfredo Daniel Vitullo
The Deleted in AZoospermia (DAZ) gene family regulates the development, maturation and maintenance of germ cells and spermatogenesis in mammals. The DAZ family consists of two autosomal genes, Boule and Dazl (Daz-like), and the Daz gene on chromosome Y. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of DAZL and BOULE during testicular ontogeny of the seasonal-breeding Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. We also evaluated the testicular expression of DAZ family genes under short- or long-photoperiod conditions...
March 25, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
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