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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809158/germ-cell-connectivity-enhances-cell-death-in-response-to-dna-damage-in-the-drosophila-testis
#1
Kevin L Lu, Yukiko M Yamashita
Two broadly known characteristics of germ cells in many organisms are their development as a 'cyst' of interconnected cells and their high sensitivity to DNA damage. Here we provide evidence that in the Drosophila testis, connectivity serves as a mechanism that confers to spermatogonia a high sensitivity to DNA damage. We show that all spermatogonia within a cyst die synchronously even when only a subset of them exhibit detectable DNA damage. Mutants of the fusome, an organelle that is known to facilitate intracyst communication, compromise synchronous spermatogonial death and reduces overall germ cell death...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801886/effects-of-3-nitro-1-2-4-triazol-5-one-on-survival-growth-and-metamorphosis-in-the-northern-leopard-frog-lithobates-pipiens
#2
David A Pillard, William S Eck, Mark S Johnson, Stephanie Packard
New explosive formulations are being developed to be less sensitive to impact and inadvertent explosion, increasing safety for the warfighter. Since testing and training make environmental releases imminent, the toxicity of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), a component of Insensitive Munitions eXplosive (IMX) formulations, was assessed in a one-generation study to the northern leopard frog (Lithobates ( = Rana) pipiens). Because NTO in water creates acidic conditions, acute studies were conducted with non-pH-adjusted NTO, while a long-term (70-d) study was conducted with neutralized NTO...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798535/effects-of-cadmium-exposure-on-medaka-oryzias-latipes-testes
#3
Ayano Hirako, Yuki Takeoka, Satoshi Furukawa, Akihiko Sugiyama
Adult male medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to 10 ppm of cadmium for 96 h, and the testes were examined histopathologically. Numerous apoptotic cells were found in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes at 72 and 96 h after initiation of cadmium exposure, and the pyknotic index, TUNEL-positive rate, and cleaved caspase-3-positive rate in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of the cadmium-treated group were higher compared with the control group. No significant difference between the control and cadmium-treated groups was found in the phospho-histone H3-positive rate in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes...
July 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792252/rosa-damascena-mill-essential-oil-has-protective-effect-against-testicular-damage-in-diabetic-rats
#4
Somayeh Hamedi, Tahoora Shomali, Aliakbar Haghighat
This study investigates the protective effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on diabetes-induced testicular damage in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups: Group I: negative control (no treatment); Group II: positive control (diabetic by alloxan injection); Groups III-VI that rendered diabetic and received, respectively, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/kg/day rose oil, orally for 28 days. Rose oil did not significantly change body weight and blood glucose level as compared to positive control...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783592/the-efficiency-of-spermatogenesis-and-the-support-capacity-of-sertoli-cells-in-characiformes
#5
Maira da Silva Rodrigues, Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva, Patrícia Postingel Quirino, Alexandre Ninhaus-Silveira, Rosicleire Veríssimo-Silveira
This stereological analysis of the types of germ cells and the number of Sertoli cells per cyst in Astyanax altiparanae testes during spermatogenesis is the first such report in Characiformes. Testes of 25 male A. altiparanae were examined. Based on the number of spermatogonia B per cyst (469.2 ± 9.92), we estimated that spermatogonia undergo at least nine mitotic divisions before differentiating into primary spermatocytes. There are four spermatogonia types: undifferentiated spermatogonia A*, undifferentiated spermatogonia, differentiated spermatogonia, and type B spermatogonia...
July 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774758/dmrt-proteins-and-coordination-of-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#6
Teng Zhang, David Zarkower
DMRT genes encode a deeply conserved family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA binding motif, the DM domain. DMRTs regulate development in a broad variety of metazoans and they appear to have controlled sexual differentiation for hundreds of millions of years. In mice, starting during embryonic development, three Dmrt genes act sequentially to help establish and maintain spermatogenesis. Dmrt1 has notably diverse functions that include repressing pluripotency genes and promoting mitotic arrest in embryonic germ cells, reactivating prospermatogonia perinatally, establishing and maintaining spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), promoting spermatogonial differentiation, and controlling the mitosis/meiosis switch...
July 25, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768794/embryonic-stem-cell-derived-germ-cells-induce-spermatogenesis-following-transplantation-to-testis-of-adult-mouse-azoospermia-model
#7
Zohreh Makoolati, Mansoureh Movahedin, Mehdi Forouzandeh-Moghadam, Majid Naghdi, Morteza Koruji
This study aimed to (a) identify the exogenous factors that allow in vitro differentiation of mouse SSCs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs); (b) evaluate the effects of Sertoli cells on SSCs enrichment; and (c) to assess the success of transplantation using in vitro differentiated SSCs in mouse busulfan-treated azoospermia model. One-day-old embryoid body (EB) received 5 ng/ml BMP4 for 4 days, 3 µM retinoic acid (RA) in STO co-culture (Co-C) system for 7 days and subsequently co-cultured for 2 days with Sertoli cell in the presence or absence of LIF, bFGF and RA composition and in the presence of these factors in the simple culture media...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765938/rapamycin-inhibits-spermatogenesis-by-changing-the-autophagy-status-through-suppressing-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-p70s6-kinase-in-male-rats
#8
Shangjing Liu, Longxian Huang, Yanqing Geng, Junlin He, Xuemei Chen, Hao Xu, Rong Li, Yingxiong Wang, Yubin Ding, Xueqing Liu
Rapamycin (sirolimus) is an antiproliferative drug that has been widely used in the clinic as an immunosuppressant and a potential anticancer agent. Certain reports have indicated that rapamycin may induce male infertility through impairing sperm quality. The present study investigated the mechanism of male infertility caused by rapamycin and examined whether withdrawal of rapamycin could recover the number of sperm in rats. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats (n=100) were divided randomly into 5 groups: 3 rapamycin‑treated groups (2, 4 and 6 mg/kg) and 2 control groups [Blank and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)]...
July 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748255/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-adp-ribosylation-factor-6-in-mouse-peripheral-tissues
#9
Osamu Katsumata, Momoko Mori, Yusuke Sawane, Tomoko Niimura, Akiko Ito, Hirotsugu Okamoto, Masahiro Fukaya, Hiroyuki Sakagami
ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small GTPase that regulates endosomal trafficking and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the cellular and subcellular localization of Arf6 in adult mouse peripheral tissues by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using the heat-induced antigen retrieval method with Tris-EDTA buffer (pH 9.0). Marked immunolabeling of Arf6 was observed particularly in epithelial cells of several tissues including the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, trachea, kidney, epididymis, oviduct, and uterus...
July 26, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745623/a-standardized-approach-for-multispecies-purification-of-mammalian-male-germ-cells-by-mechanical-tissue-dissociation-and-flow-cytometry
#10
Ana C Lima, Min Jung, Jannette Rusch, Abul Usmani, Alexandra M Lopes, Donald F Conrad
Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) has been one of the methods of choice to isolate enriched populations of mammalian testicular germ cells. Currently, it allows the discrimination of up to 9 murine germ cell populations with high yield and purity. This high-resolution in discrimination and purification is possible due to unique changes in chromatin structure and quantity throughout spermatogenesis. These patterns can be captured by flow cytometry of male germ cells stained with fluorescent DNA-binding dyes such as Hoechst-33342 (Hoechst)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744861/gonadal-morphogenesis-and-sex-differentiation-in-cultured-ussuri-catfish-tachysurus-ussuriensis
#11
Z J Pan, C K Zhu, H Wang, F J Zhou, X G Qiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal developmental time to perform sex reversal in Ussuri catfish Tachysurus ussuriensis, to develop monosex breeding in aquaculture. Systematic observations of gonadal sex differentiation of P. ussiriensis were conducted. The genital ridge formed at 9 days post fertilization (dpf) and germ cells begin to proliferate at 17 dpf. The ovarian cavity began forming on 21 dpf and completed by 25 dpf while presumptive testis remained quiescent. The primary oocytes were at the chromatin nucleolus stage by 30 dpf, the peri-nucleolus stage by 44 dpf and the cortical alveoli stage by 64 dpf...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735517/metallothionein-expression-and-synthesis-in-the-testis-of-the-lizard-podarcis-sicula-under-natural-conditions-and-following-estrogenic-exposure
#12
Mariailaria Verderame, Ermelinda Limatola, Rosaria Scudiero
Metallothionein (MT) is the main protein involved in the homeostasis of metallic micronutrients and in cellular defence against heavy metals and reactive oxygen species. Found in almost all vertebrate tissues, MT presence and localization in the testis has been controversial. In the present study, by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis we assessed the localization of both MT transcript and protein in Podarcis sicula testes during two different phases of the reproductive cycle: the autumnal resumption and the spring-early summer mating period...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708521/flow-cytometric-enrichment-of-pacific-bluefin-tuna-type-a-spermatogonia-based-on-light-scattering-properties
#13
REVIEW
Kensuke Ichida, Kazuyoshi Kise, Tetsuro Morita, Ryosuke Yazawa, Yutaka Takeuchi, Goro Yoshizaki
We previously established surrogate broodstock in which the donor germ cells transplanted into the peritoneal cavities of xenogeneic recipients were capable of developing into functional eggs and sperm in teleost fish. In this transplantation system, only the undifferentiated germ cells such as type A spermatogonia (ASG) or a portion of the ASG population were capable of being incorporated into the genital ridges of the recipients and undergo gametogenesis. Therefore, the use of enriched ASGs can be expected to achieve efficient donor-cell incorporation...
June 22, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708515/stage-specific-expression-of-sal-like-protein-4-in-boar-testicular-germ-cells
#14
Hyun-Jung Park, Ran Lee, Won-Young Lee, Jin-Hoi Kim, Jeong Tae Do, Chankyu Park, Hyuk Song
Spermatogenesis, the complex process of sperm cell development including mitotic cell division and meiosis, relies on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). While markers for developing germ cells have been well investigated in mice, developmental stage-specific markers of germ cells in domestic animals have not been identified. Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) is known as a putative marker for undifferentiated spermatogonia in rodents; however, its expression in domestic animals has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of SALL4 in the developmental stages of boar testes and SSCs...
June 16, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694759/using-curcumin-to-prevent-structural-impairments-of-testicles-in-rats-induced-by-sodium-metabisulfite
#15
Reza Mahmoudi, Zahra Honarmand, Saied Karbalay-Doust, Mehrzad Jafari-Barmak, Mohsen Nikseresht, Ali Noorafshan
Sodium metabisulfite (Na-MBS) is a disinfectant and preservative agent. Some organ including testicle would be in danger in the case of Na-MBS consumption. Curcumin (CUR) is the constituent of turmeric with protective properties. The effect of CUR on testicles in rats exposed to Na-MBS evaluated using stereological methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups. The rats in groups I to VIII received the following respectively: distilled water, CUR (100 mg/kg/day), low (0.7 mg/kg/day: acceptable daily intake), intermediate (7 mg/ kg/day), and high (70 mg/kg/day) doses of Na-MBS, and low, intermediate, and high doses of Na-MBS plus CUR...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693937/spermatogenic-dynamics-of-the-spiny-rat-kannabateomys-amblyonyx-wagner-1845-rodentia-echimyidae
#16
Verônica A Siman, Raquel S M Godoy, Fernanda C R Dias, Fabiano A Silva, Gisele M L Del Giudice, Marcos L M Gomes, Sérgio L P Matta
Rodents are distributed worldwide, playing important ecological roles regarding preservation of forest areas. Thus, the study of their reproductive biology is a key for conservation initiatives that prevent extinction and/or improve species management. The present study aimed to describe the spermatogenic dynamics of the spiny rat Kannabateomys amblyonyx, an endemic species from Atlantic Rainforest areas, in Brazil. The average body weight was 418.43g with a gonadosomatic index of 0.41%. The testicular parenchyma organization followed the pattern described for other rodent species, with a large amount of seminiferous tubules occupying 93...
June 28, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690291/geminin-deletion-in-pre-meiotic-dna-replication-stage-causes-spermatogenesis-defect-and-infertility
#17
Yue Yuan, Xue-Shan Ma, Qiu-Xia Liang, Zhao-Yang Xu, Lin Huang, Tie-Gang Meng, Fei Lin, Heide Schatten, Zhen-Bo Wang, Qing-Yuan Sun
Geminin plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation by regulating DNA replication and serves as a transcriptional molecular switch that directs cell fate decisions. Spermatogonia lacking Geminin disappear during the initial wave of mitotic proliferation, while geminin is not required for meiotic progression of spermatocytes. It is unclear whether geminin plays a role in pre-meiotic DNA replication in later-stage spermatogonia and their subsequent differentiation. Here, we selectively disrupted Geminin in the male germline using the Stra8-Cre/loxP conditional knockout system...
July 9, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686696/morphological-and-transcriptomic-evidence-for-ammonium-induction-of-sexual-reproduction-in-thalassiosira-pseudonana-and-other-centric-diatoms
#18
Eric R Moore, Briana S Bullington, Alexandra J Weisberg, Yuan Jiang, Jeff Chang, Kimberly H Halsey
The reproductive strategy of diatoms includes asexual and sexual phases, but in many species, including the model centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, sexual reproduction has never been observed. Furthermore, the environmental factors that trigger sexual reproduction in diatoms are not understood. Although genome sequences of a few diatoms are available, little is known about the molecular basis for sexual reproduction. Here we show that ammonium reliably induces the key sexual morphologies, including oogonia, auxospores, and spermatogonia, in two strains of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669602/the-bile-acid-nuclear-receptor-fxr%C3%AE-is-a-critical-regulator-of-mouse-germ-cell-fate
#19
Emmanuelle Martinot, Lauriane Sèdes, Marine Baptissart, Hélène Holota, Betty Rouaisnel, Christelle Damon-Soubeyrand, Angélique De Haze, Jean-Paul Saru, Christelle Thibault-Carpentier, Céline Keime, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro, Silvère Baron, Gérard Benoit, Françoise Caira, Claude Beaudoin, David H Volle
Spermatogenesis is the process by which spermatozoa are generated from spermatogonia. This cell population is heterogeneous, with self-renewing spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and progenitor spermatogonia that will continue on a path of differentiation. Only SSCs have the ability to regenerate and sustain spermatogenesis. This makes the testis a good model to investigate stem cell biology. The Farnesoid X Receptor alpha (FXRα) was recently shown to be expressed in the testis. However, its global impact on germ cell homeostasis has not yet been studied...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661483/gene-knockout-of-zmym3-in-mice-arrests-spermatogenesis-at-meiotic-metaphase-with-defects-in-spindle-assembly-checkpoint
#20
Xiangjing Hu, Bin Shen, Shangying Liao, Yan Ning, Longfei Ma, Jian Chen, Xiwen Lin, Daoqin Zhang, Zhen Li, Chunwei Zheng, Yanmin Feng, Xingxu Huang, Chunsheng Han
ZMYM3, a member of the MYM-type zinc finger protein family and a component of a LSD1-containing transcription repressor complex, is predominantly expressed in the mouse brain and testis. Here, we show that ZMYM3 in the mouse testis is expressed in somatic cells and germ cells until pachytene spermatocytes. Knockout (KO) of Zmym3 in mice using the CRISPR-Cas9 system resulted in adult male infertility. Spermatogenesis of the KO mice was arrested at the metaphase of the first meiotic division (MI). ZMYM3 co-immunoprecipitated with LSD1 in spermatogonial stem cells, but its KO did not change the levels of LSD1 or H3K4me1/2 or H3K9me2...
June 29, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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