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Spermatogonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024760/rna-processing-in-the-male-germline-mechanisms-and-implications-for-fertility
#1
REVIEW
Julien M D Legrand, Robin M Hobbs
Mammalian spermatogenesis is a tightly coordinated process that gives rise to mature spermatozoa capable of fertilising an ovum during sexual reproduction. A population of stem and progenitor cells known as undifferentiated spermatogonia enables continual spermatogenesis throughout life. A complex transcriptional network that balances self-renewal of spermatogonia with their timely differentiation in order to maintain constant fertility regulates this process. Importantly, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a critical role in spermatogenesis, necessitated by the profound genetic and morphological changes that occur during meiosis and sperm maturation...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024578/morpho-functional-features-of-the-gonads-of-danio-rerio-the-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#2
Pietro Cacialli, Livia D'Angelo, Paolo de Girolamo, Luigi Avallone, Carla Lucini, Elisabeth Pellegrini, Luciana Castaldo
Zebrafish, a suitable and widely used teleost fish model in basic biomedical research, displays morphophysiological features of adult gonads that share some commonalities with those of mammalian species. In mammals, gametogenesis is regulated, among several factors, by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This neurotrophin has a well-established role in the developing and adult nervous system, as well as gonads development and functions in vertebrates pecies. We hypothesize that BDNF has a role also in the gonadal functions of zebrafish...
October 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024157/regulation-of-nonylphenol-induced-reproductive-toxicity-in-mouse-spermatogonia-cells-by-mir-361-3p
#3
Liyan Tang, Bo Zhao, Hui Zhang, Qiao Du, Jiang Zhu, Zhijiang Zhao, Ce Chen, Cheng Luo, Qiyuan Kang, Wenbing Yuan, Shaohua Bian, Hang Bi, Huimin Sun, Yingyi Li
Nonylphenol (NP) is an environmental chemical that affects apoptosis and male infertility. In our study, we found that a high concentration of NP could down-regulate the expression of microRNA-361-3p (miR-361-3p) in the murine GC-1 spermatogonia cell line and in vivo in murine spermatogonia. Additionally, one direct target of this miR, the 3' untranslated region of Killin (Klln) mRNA, was identified. Klln encodes a transcription factor that directly regulates the expression of Tp73 (transcriptionally active p73), whose encoded protein can up-regulate the expression of Puma (P53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis)...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023069/histological-characteristics-on-the-testes-of-mud-spiny-lobster-panulirus-polyphagus-herbst-1793
#4
Siti Nor Fatihah, Harman Muhd-Farouk, Adnan Amin-Safwan, Hairul Hafiz Mahsol, Mhd Ikhwanuddin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Mud spiny lobsters, Panulirus polyphagus (P. polyphagus) are one of the most important fisheries resources now-a-days due to quality that it's possessed. However, there is still lack of in-depth study about this species mainly on males testicular characteristics and sexual maturity size. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the histological characteristics on the testes and sexual maturity sizes of mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019938/dmrtc2-pax7-brachyury-t-and-tert-are-implicated-in-male-germ-cell-development-following-curative-hormone-treatment-for-cryptorchidism-induced-infertility
#5
Katharina Gegenschatz-Schmid, Gilvydas Verkauskas, Philippe Demougin, Vytautas Bilius, Darius Dasevicius, Michael B Stadler, Faruk Hadziselimovic
Defective mini-puberty results in insufficient testosterone secretion that impairs the differentiation of gonocytes into dark-type (Ad) spermatogonia. The differentiation of gonocytes into Ad spermatogonia can be induced by administration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, GnRHa (Buserelin, INN)). Nothing is known about the mechanism that underlies successful GnRHa treatment in the germ cells. Using RNA-sequencing of testicular biopsies, we recently examined RNA profiles of testes with and without GnRHa treatment...
October 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017935/physiological-implications-of-dheas-induced-non-classical-steroid-hormone-signaling
#6
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Mazen Shihan, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
In the spermatogenic cell line GC-2, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), activates the Src/Ras/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB(ATF-1) signaling cascade. Since DHEAS is present in the gonads, and since spermatogenesis and maturation of spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa requires activation of Erk1/2, the triggering of these signaling events by DHEAS might have physiological relevance. In the Sertoli cell line TM4, DHEAS-induces activation of Erk1/2, CREB, and ATF-1, stimulates expression of claudin-3 and claudin-5 and augments transepithelial resistance, indicating the formation of tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016690/expression-profile-of-amh-amh-during-bi-directional-sex-change-in-the-protogynous-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#7
Guan-Chung Wu, Hau-Wen Li, Wei-Guan Tey, Chien-Ju Lin, Ching-Fong Chang
Gonadal differentiation is tightly regulated by the initial sex determining gene and the downstream sex-related genes in vertebrates. However, sex change in fish can alter the sexual fate from one sex to the other. Chemical-induced maleness in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper is transient, and a reversible sex change occurs after the chemical treatment is withdrawn. We used these characteristics to study Amh signaling during bi-directional sex change in the grouper. We successfully induced the female-to-male sex change by chemical (aromatase inhibitor, AI, or methyltestosterone, MT) treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994096/impaired-expression-of-testicular-androgen-receptor-and-collagen-fibers-in-the-testis-of-diabetic-rats-under-haart-the-role-of-hypoxis-hemerocallidea
#8
Onanuga O Ismail, Jegede I Ayoola, Offor Ugochukwu, Ogedengbe O Oluwatosin, Peter I Aniekan, Naidu C S Edwin, Azu O Onyemaechi
INTRODUCTION: Wide spectrum of alterations associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been reported. The current study aimed at evaluating the role of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (HH) aqueous extract on the testosterone levels, expression of androgen receptors and collagen fibers in the testes of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats under HAART regimen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (189.0 ± 4.5 g) were divided into eight groups (8 animals in each treatment groups and 6 rats in the control group)...
October 10, 2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992366/possible-involvement-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-nr3c1-and-selected-nr3c1-gene-variants-in-regulation-of-human-testicular-function
#9
L Nordkap, K Almstrup, J E Nielsen, A K Bang, L Priskorn, M Krause, S A Holmboe, S B Winge, D L Egeberg Palme, N Mørup, J H Petersen, A Juul, N E Skakkebaek, E Rajpert-De Meyts, N Jørgensen
Perceived stress has been associated with decreased semen quality but the mechanisms have not been elucidated. It is not known whether cortisol, the major stress hormone in humans, can act directly via receptors in the testis, and whether variants in the gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) can possibly modulate the effect. To address these questions, we investigated the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in human testicular tissue, including adult and fetal samples (n = 20) by immunohistochemical staining, and in silico analysis of publicly available datasets...
October 9, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987646/molecular-cloning-and-expression-of-octamer-binding-transcription-factor-oct4-in-the-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#10
Yonghua Jiang, Kunhuang Han, Shihai Chen, Mingyi Cai, Yilei Wang, Ziping Zhang
Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) is a crucial pluripotent transcription factor in controlling pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs), early embryonic development, and gonadal germ cells. To understand the roles of Oct4 in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (Lc-Oct4), the full-length cDNA of Oct4 was cloned and analyzed. Lc-Oct4 includes a 104-bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 567-bp 3' UTR and a 1431-bp coding region encoding a protein of 476 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular mass (Mm) of 52...
October 4, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985528/chromatin-and-single-cell-rna-seq-profiling-reveal-dynamic-signaling-and-metabolic-transitions-during-human-spermatogonial-stem-cell-development
#11
Jingtao Guo, Edward J Grow, Chongil Yi, Hana Mlcochova, Geoffrey J Maher, Cecilia Lindskog, Patrick J Murphy, Candice L Wike, Douglas T Carrell, Anne Goriely, James M Hotaling, Bradley R Cairns
Human adult spermatogonial stem cells (hSSCs) must balance self-renewal and differentiation. To understand how this is achieved, we profiled DNA methylation and open chromatin (ATAC-seq) in SSEA4(+) hSSCs, analyzed bulk and single-cell RNA transcriptomes (RNA-seq) in SSEA4(+) hSSCs and differentiating c-KIT(+) spermatogonia, and performed validation studies via immunofluorescence. First, DNA hypomethylation at embryonic developmental genes supports their epigenetic "poising" in hSSCs for future/embryonic expression, while core pluripotency genes (OCT4 and NANOG) were transcriptionally and epigenetically repressed...
October 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982932/ezh2-deletion-promotes-spermatogonial-differentiation-and-apoptosis
#12
Cheng Jin, Yan Zhang, Zhi-Peng Wang, Xiu-Xia Wang, Tie-Cheng Sun, Xiao-Yu Li, Ji-Xin Tang, Jin-Mei Cheng, Jian Li, Su-Ren Chen, Shou-Long Deng, Yi-Xun Liu
Spermatogenesis is crucial for male fertility and is therefore tightly controlled by a variety of epigenetic regulators. However, the function of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in spermatogenesis and the molecular mechanisms underlying its activity remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that deleting EZH2 promoted spermatogonial differentiation and apoptosis. EZH2 is expressed in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and round and elongated spermatids from stage 9 to 11 but not in leptotene and zygotene spermatocytes...
November 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982686/regulation-of-mitosis-meiosis-transition-by-the-ubiquitin-ligase-%C3%AE-trcp-in-male-germ-cells
#13
Tadashi Nakagawa, Teng Zhang, Ryo Kushi, Seiji Nakano, Takahiro Endo, Makiko Nakagawa, Noriko Yanagihara, David Zarkower, Keiko Nakayama
The mitosis-meiosis transition is essential for spermatogenesis. Specific and timely down-regulation of the transcription factor DMRT1, and consequent induction of Stra8 expression, is required for this process in mammals, but the molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Here we show that β-TrCP, the substrate recognition component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, targets DMRT1 for degradation and thereby controls the mitosis-meiosis transition in mouse male germ cells. Conditional inactivation of β-TrCP2 in male germ cells of β-TrCP1 knockout mice resulted in sterility due to a lack of mature sperm...
October 5, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982519/nanos2-is-a-molecular-marker-of-inchoate-buffalo-spermatogonia
#14
Meng-Qi Li, Ao-Lin Luo, Peng-Wei Zhao, Ting-Ting Li, Shuang-Shuang Geng, Xing-Wei Liang, Hui-Yan Xu, Yang-Qing Lu, Sheng-Sheng Lu, Xiao-Gan Yang, Ke-Huan Lu
Nanos2 belongs to the Nanos gene-coding family and is an important RNA-binding protein that has been shown to have essential roles in male germline stem cells development and self-renewal in mouse. However, little is known about Nanos2 in inchoate buffalo spermatogonia. Here, rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the full-length buffalo Nanos2 sequence and bioinformatic analysis revealed a highly conserved Nanos2 sequence between buffalo and other mammalian species. Although Nanos2 was expressed in various tissues, the highest mRNA expression levels were found in testes tissue...
November 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980229/development-and-preservation-of-avian-sperm
#15
Atsushi Asano, Atsushi Tajima
Terminally differentiated avian sperm consist of a head which male genetic material locates and flagellum that provides the motive force to propel them towards the fertilization site. The apical end of the sperm head accommodates a secretory vesicle, called an acrosome, that undergoes acrosome reaction releasing proteolytic content to penetrate the peri-vitelline membrane of an egg. Transcriptionally and translationally inactive, sperm need to rely on these distinct compartments in which different functions are preassembled, in order to achieve the goal of "fertilization"...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980226/avian-primordial-germ-cells
#16
Takahiro Tagami, Daichi Miyahara, Yoshiaki Nakamura
Germ cells transmit genetic information to the next generation through gametogenesis. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first germ-cell population established during development, and are the common origins of both oocytes and spermatogonia. Unlike in other species, PGCs in birds undergo blood circulation to migrate toward the genital ridge, and are one of the major biological properties of avian PGCs. Germ cells enter meiosis and arrest at prophase I during embryogenesis in females, whereas in males they enter mitotic arrest during embryogenesis and enter meiosis only after birth...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969149/microfilariae-of-wuchereriabancrofti-in-testicular-aspirate
#17
Anil Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Kapoor, Manish Singh
Present study deals with results of fine needle aspiration of both the testes in a patient with azoospermia. Surprisingly, aspiration of right testis revealed large number of microfilariae in the smears. Conversely, left testicular aspirate showed few spermatogonia. However, microfilariae were not detected in venous blood smears. Findings of this study suggested possible role of Wuchereriabancrofti in causation of azoospermia.
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957323/identification-of-genetic-networks-that-act-in-the-somatic-cells-of-the-testis-to-mediate-the-developmental-program-of-spermatogenesis
#18
Michael John Fairchild, Fayeza Islam, Guy Tanentzapf
Spermatogenesis is a dynamic developmental process requiring precisely timed transitions between discrete stages. Specifically, the germline undergoes three transitions: from mitotic spermatogonia to spermatocytes, from meiotic spermatocytes to spermatids, and from morphogenetic spermatids to spermatozoa. The somatic cells of the testis provide essential support to the germline throughout spermatogenesis, but their precise role during these developmental transitions has not been comprehensively explored. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of genes that are required in the somatic cells of the Drosophila melanogaster testis for progress through spermatogenesis...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950662/the-antineoplastic-busulphan-impairs-peritubular-and-leydig-cells-and-vitamin-b12-stimulates-spermatogonia-proliferation-and-prevents-busulphan-induced-germ-cell-death
#19
Estela Sasso-Cerri, Bárbara Oliveira, Fabiane de Santi, Flávia L Beltrame, Breno H Caneguim, Paulo S Cerri
Busulphan (Bu), an alkylating agent used for bone marrow and spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT), impairs Sertoli (SC) cells, which are necessary for the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) homing during transplantation. As Leydig (LC) and peritubular myoid (PMC) cells are essential for SC support and maintenance of spermatogonial niche, we evaluated the impact of Bu on the LC and PMC structural integrity. Vitamin B12 (B12) has demonstrated beneficial effects against drug-induced testicular changes; thus, we also examined whether this vitamin is able to stimulate spermatogonia mitotic activity and prevent Bu-induced germ cell death...
September 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947561/profiling-of-mirnas-in-porcine-germ-cells-during-spermatogenesis
#20
Xiaoxu Chen, Dongxue Che, Pengfei Zhang, Xueliang Li, Qingqing Yuan, Tian Tian Liu, Jiayin Guo, Tongying Feng, Ligang Wu, Mingzhi Liao, Zuping He, Wen Xian Zeng
Spermatogenesis includes mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of pachytene spermatocytes and spermiogenesis of round spermatids. MiRNAs as a ~22nt small noncoding RNA are involved in regulating spermatogenesis at post-transcriptional level. However, the dynamic miRNAs expression in the developmental porcine male germ cells remains largely undefined. In this study, we purified porcine spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids using a STA-PUT apparatus. A small RNA deep sequencing and analysis were conducted to establish a miRNAs profiling in these male germ cells...
September 25, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
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