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Human testis

Eun-Jung Park, Uiseok Jeong, Younghun Kim, Byoung-Seok Lee, Myung-Haing Cho, You-Seok Go
With the extensive application of iron oxide nanoparticles (FeNPs), attention about their potential risks to human health is also rapidly raising, particularly in sensitive subgroups such as pregnant women and babies. In this study, we a single instilled intratracheally FeNPs (1, 2, and 4mg/kg) to the male and female parent mice, mated, then assessed reproductive toxicity according to the modified OECD TG 421. During the pre-mating period (14 days), two female parent mice died at 4mg/kg dose, and the body weight gain dose-dependently decreased in male and female parent mice exposed to FeNPs...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Research
X Song, J Hao, J Wang, C Guo, Y Wang, Q He, H Tang, X Qin, Y Li, Y Zhang, Y Yin
The biological function of MAGEC2, a cancer/testis antigen highly expressed in various cancers, remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that expression of MAGEC2 induces rounded morphology and amoeboid-like movement of tumor cells in vitro and promotes tumor metastasis in vivo. The pro-metastasis effect of MAGEC2 was mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation. Mechanistically, MAGEC2 interacts with STAT3 and inhibits the polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of STAT3 in the nucleus of tumor cells, resulting in accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 and enhanced transcriptional activity...
October 24, 2016: Oncogene
Senol Emre, Rahsan Ozcan, Mehmet Elicevik, Haluk Emir, Yunus Soylet, Cenk Buyukunal
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to analyze testis-sparing surgical procedures in boys with Leydig cell pathologies. STUDY DESIGN: The hospital records of four boys with Leydig cell hyperplasia who underwent testis-sparing surgery for testicular masses between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Tumor markers were evaluated and all boys underwent scrotal ultrasonography preoperatively. The hormonal profile was also analyzed for symptoms of precocious puberty. The testis was delivered through a high transverse inguinal incision and the tumor was excised by enucleation...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Erika Heninger, Timothy E G Krueger, Stephanie M Thiede, Jamie M Sperger, Brianna L Byers, Madison R Kircher, David Kosoff, Bing Yang, David F Jarrard, Douglas G McNeel, Joshua M Lang
Immune tolerance to self-antigens can limit robust anti-tumor immune responses in the use of tumor vaccines. Expression of novel tumor associated antigens can improve immune recognition and lysis of tumor cells. The cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family of proteins has been hypothesized to be an ideal class of antigens due to tumor-restricted expression, a subset of which have been found to induce antibody responses in patients with prostate disease. We demonstrate that CTA expression is highly inducible in five different Prostate Cancer (PC) cell lines using a hypomethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5AZA) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
S S Zou, S Yang, Q Xiao, C Sun, K M Lu, W B Shi, Y Liu, J Qiu, Y Z Du, X F Chen
Objective: To study and analyze the transcript and expression pattern of SOX5 in human semen, thus to provide evidence for exploring the role of transcription factor SOX5 in the process of spermatogenesis in testis. Methods: A total of 61 semen samples and 3 blood samples (as controls) collected from healthy volunteer donors at Shanghai Human Sperm Bank in September 2015 were randomly selected. Expression of SOX5 in the semen samples was detected and quantified using agarose gel electrophoresis and real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Alison Pearce, Cathy Bradley, Paul Hanly, Ciaran O'Neill, Audrey Alforque Thomas, Michal Molcho, Linda Sharp
BACKGROUND: When individuals stop working due to cancer this represents a loss to society - the loss of productivity. The aim of this analysis was to estimate productivity losses associated with premature mortality from all adult cancers and from the 20 highest mortality adult cancers in Ireland in 2011, and project these losses until 2030. METHODS: An incidence-based method was used to estimate the cost of cancer deaths between 2011 and 2030 using the Human Capital Approach...
October 18, 2016: BMC Cancer
Caroline S Martinez, Franck M Peçanha, Daniela S Brum, Francielli W Santos, Jeferson L Franco, Ana Paula P Zemolin, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Fernando B Junior, María J Alonso, Mercedes Salaices, Dalton V Vassallo, Fábio G Leivas, Giulia A Wiggers
Mercury is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and mercury contamination and toxicity are serious hazards to human health. Some studies have shown that mercury impairs male reproductive function, but less is known about its effects following exposure at low doses and the possible mechanisms underlying its toxicity. Herein we show that exposure of rats to mercury chloride for 30 days (first dose 4.6µgkg-1, subsequent doses 0.07µgkg-1day-1) resulted in mean (±s.e.m.) blood mercury concentrations of 6.8±0...
October 19, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Hayato Terayama, Shuichi Hirai, Munekazu Naito, Ning Qu, Chiaki Katagiri, Kenta Nagahori, Shogo Hayashi, Hiraku Sasaki, Shota Moriya, Masaki Hiramoto, Keisuke Miyazawa, Naoyuki Hatayama, Zhong-Lian Li, Kou Sakabe, Masayuki Matsushita, Masahiro Itoh
There are various autoimmunogenic antigens (AIs) in testicular germ cells (TGCs) recognized as foreign by the body's immune system. However, there is little information of TGC-specific AIs being available. The aim of this study is to identify TGC-specific AIs. We have previously established that immunization using viable syngeneic TGC can also induce murine experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) without using any adjuvant. This study is to identify TGC-specific AIs by TGC liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis that reacted with serum IgG from EAO mice...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ryan Dean Fortune, Raymond J Grill, Christine Beeton, Mark Tanner, Redwan Huq, David S Loose
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in devastating changes to almost all aspects of a patient's life. In addition to a permanent loss of sensory and motor function, males will also frequently exhibit a profound loss of fertility through poorly understood mechanisms. We demonstrate that SCI causes measureable pathology in the testis both acutely (24 hours) and chronically, up to 1.5 years post injury, leading to loss in sperm motility and viability. SCI has been shown in humans and rats to induce leukocytospermia, with the presence of inflammatory cytokines, anti-sperm antibodies, and reactive oxygen species found within the ejaculate...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kangwook Lee, Sung-Gook Cho, Sang-Mi Woo, Ah Jeong Kim, Kang Min Lee, Ho Yeon Go, Seung-Ho Sun, Tae-Hun Kim, Ki-Yong Jung, You-Kyung Choi, Eun Mee Lim, Yun-Kyung Song, Jong-Hyeong Park, Chan-Yong Jun, Seong-Gyu Ko
Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Senggang-Tang (DSGOST), one of the traditional Chinese medicines, has long been prescribed for patients suffering from Raynaud phenomenon (RP) in Northeast Asian countries, including China, Japan and Korea. Although a previous in vitro study from our laboratory revealed that DSGOST prevents cold (25˚C)‑induced RhoA activation and endothelin‑1 (ET‑1) production in endothelial cells (ECs), the mechanisms by which DSGOST is able to alleviate the symptoms of RP have yet to be fully elucidated...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
K Dziendzikowska, A Krawczyńska, M Oczkowski, T Królikowski, K Brzóska, A Lankoff, M Dziendzikowski, T Stępkowski, M Kruszewski, J Gromadzka-Ostrowska
The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various applications, including consumer, agriculture and medicine products, has raised many concerns about the potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) to human health and the environment. An increasing body of evidence suggests that AgNPs may have adverse effects of humans, thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive system. Silver particles (20nm AgNPs (groups Ag I and Ag II) and 200nm Ag sub-micron particles (SPs) (group Ag III)) were administered intravenously to male Wistar rats at a dose of 5 (groups Ag I and Ag III) or 10 (group Ag II) mg/kg of body weight...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
C E Fedorka, K E Scoggin, E L Squires, B A Ball, M H T Troedsson
The seminal plasma protein, cysteine-rich secretory protein-3 (CRISP-3), has been correlated with increased fertility and first-cycle conception rates, and has been suggested to be involved in the modulation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and phagocytosis of spermatozoa during the inflammatory response to breeding in the horse. Previous research demonstrated that equine CRISP-3 is located in both the ampulla of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. However, this was done with nonquantitative laboratory techniques...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Vladimir V Besprozvannykh, Konstantin V Rozhkovan, Alexey V Ermolenko
Echinostomatoidea is a large, globally distributed and heterogeneous group of hermaphroditic digeneans that parasite, as adults, vertebrate hosts of all classes. Species of this group have received attention from researchers as they can cause diseases in wildlife and humans. Here we describe the biological and molecular phylogenetic characteristics of Stephanoprora chasanensis n. sp. (Digenea: Echinochasmidae). The life cycle of this fluke was experimentally completed by the use of hosts, i.e. Stenothyra recondite Lindholm, 1929 snail (the 1st intermediate), Rhynchocypris percnurus mantschuricus (Berg, 1907) freshwater fish (the 2nd intermediate) and Gallus gallus chicken (the definitive host)...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology International
Neila Marouani, Olfa Tebourbi, Donia Cherif, Dorsaf Hallegue, Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi, Mohsen Sakly, Moncef Benkhalifa, Khemais Ben Rhouma
The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used worldwide in agriculture as a selective herbicide. It has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects on the health of both animals and humans from embryotoxicity and teratogenicity to neurotoxicity. In the present study, we have examined the effect of 2,4-D on male reproductive function of rats. Male Wistar rats received daily by force-feeding 100 or 200 mg of 2,4-D/kg body weight for 30 consecutive days. Rats exposed to 100 and 200 mg of 2,4-D/kg showed a significant decrease in body weights only after 24 days of treatment and in relative weights of testis, seminal vesicles and prostate at killing day, when compared with controls...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Raju Murugananthkumar, Yarikipati Prathibha, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran, Anbazhagan Rajakumar, Hirohiko Kagawa
Gonadal maturation is a critical event wherein gonads, under the influence of several hormones and factors, undergo cyclic morphological and physiological changes to produce functional gametes during the spawning phase. However, artificial induction can be effectively used to advance the maturation of gonad vis-à-vis spawning like behavior in seasonal breeders during the off-breeding season. In the present study, osmotic pumps loaded with 5000IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or saline as control were implanted intraperitoneally for 21days during the pre-spawning phase (May-June) in catfish Clarias batrachus and C...
October 5, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Anuj Kumar, Drista Sharma, M L Aggarwal, K M Chacko, Tarun Kumar Bhatt
Present chemotherapeutic drugs have limited efficacy and severe side effects. Considering the complexity of cancer, an effective strategy is necessary to discover multiple new drug targets. Cancer/testis antigens are vital for cancer cell progression. We have performed a computational network analysis of cancer/testis antigens and assessed these antigens as drug targets. During this analysis, protein interaction network of 700 human CT antigens was investigated. CT antigen network consisted of eight independent components...
October 5, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Wern-Joo Sohn, Jae-Young Kim, Dongbum Kim, Jeong-A Park, Younghee Lee, Hyung-Joo Kwon
Transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 3 (TMCC3) has been reported to be expressed in the human brain; however, its function is still unknown. Here, we found that expression of TMCC3 is higher in human whole brain, testis and spinal cord compared to other human tissues. TMCC3 was expressed in mouse developing hind brain, lung, kidney and somites, with strongest expression in the mesenchyme of developing tongue. By expression of recombinant TMCC3 and its deletion mutants, we found that TMCC3 proteins self-assemble to oligomerize...
September 29, 2016: BMB Reports
K Hartmann, J Bennien, B Wapelhorst, K Bakhaus, V Schumacher, S Kliesch, W Weidner, M Bergmann, J Geyer, D Fietz
Within the human testis, large amounts of sulfated steroid hormones are produced. As shown in breast tissue and placenta, these might not only be excretion intermediates, but re-activated in target cells by steroid sulfatase (STS). This process is called sulfatase pathway and may play a pivotal role in para- and/or intracrine regulation by creating a local supply for steroid hormones. This requires a facilitated transport via uptake carriers and efflux transporters as these hydrophilic molecules cannot pass the cell membrane...
September 29, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
T Mirzapour, T A B Tengku Ibrahim, M Movahedin, M R Nowroozi
Destruction of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) along the chemotherapy and radiotherapy is one of the side effects of cancer treatments that lead to infertility. In vitro propagation of hSSCs is necessary to obtain an adequate number of cells for successful transplantation. In this study, hSSCs were isolated from testis biopsies of the patients with maturation arrest and proliferated in DMEM in the presence of LIF and bFGF for 5 weeks. The various types of human spermatogonia were identified in culture system and compared with testis tissue using morphological criteria at the ultrastructural level...
September 29, 2016: Andrologia
Luca De Toni, Diego Guidolin, Vincenzo De Filippis, Simone Tescari, Giacomo Strapazzon, Maria Santa Rocca, Alberto Ferlin, Mario Plebani, Carlo Foresta
The undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin (ucOC) regulates male fertility and energy metabolism, acting through the G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A thus forming a new pancreas-bone-testis axis. Recently, GPRC6A has also been suggested to mediate the non-genomic responses of free testosterone (T). However, these data did not consider the physiological scenario, where circulating T is mainly bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and only a small percentage circulates freely in the blood. Here, by the use of computational modelling, we document the existence of similar structural moieties between ucOC and SHBG that are predicted to bind to GPRC6A at docking analysis...
September 27, 2016: Endocrinology
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