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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631887/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-is-expressed-in-human-corneal-stromal-cells-and-secreted-upon-protease-activated-receptor-1-activation
#1
Hongbo Yin, Yan Tian, Rongying Luo, Yingping Deng
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin-7 (IL-7) like cytokine that triggers inflammatory responses through activating dendritic cell. It is demonstrated to be involved in a number of disorders, including cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and autoimmune diseases. In addition, TSLP is also found to be able to induce itch sensation by directly activating the itch sensory neurons. The expression of human TSLP is detected in various tissues such as heart, liver, testis, and prostate. In this study, we report that TSLP was expressed in the human corneal stromal cells, the highly specialized cells that are critical for the function of the cornea...
June 20, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630322/tcte1-is-a-conserved-component-of-the-dynein-regulatory-complex-and-is-required-for-motility-and-metabolism-in-mouse-spermatozoa
#2
Julio M Castaneda, Rong Hua, Haruhiko Miyata, Asami Oji, Yueshuai Guo, Yiwei Cheng, Tao Zhou, Xuejiang Guo, Yiqiang Cui, Bin Shen, Zibin Wang, Zhibin Hu, Zuomin Zhou, Jiahao Sha, Renata Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Zhifeng Yu, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Masahito Ikawa, Martin M Matzuk, Mingxi Liu
Flagella and cilia are critical cellular organelles that provide a means for cells to sense and progress through their environment. The central component of flagella and cilia is the axoneme, which comprises the "9+2" microtubule arrangement, dynein arms, radial spokes, and the nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC). Failure to properly assemble components of the axoneme leads to defective flagella and in humans leads to a collection of diseases referred to as ciliopathies. Ciliopathies can manifest as severe syndromic diseases that affect lung and kidney function, central nervous system development, bone formation, visceral organ organization, and reproduction...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629181/knockout-of-murine-mamld1-impairs-testicular-growth-and-daily-sperm-production-but-permits-normal-postnatal-androgen-production-and-fertility
#3
Mami Miyado, Kaoru Yoshida, Kenji Miyado, Momori Katsumi, Kazuki Saito, Shigeru Nakamura, Tsutomu Ogata, Maki Fukami
MAMLD1 has been implicated in testicular function in both human and mouse fetuses. Although three patients with MAMLD1 mutations were reported to have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in their teens, the functional significance of MAMLD1 in the postnatal testis remains unclear. Here, we analyzed the phenotype of Mamld1 knockout (KO) male mice at reproductive ages. The reproductive organs of KO male mice were morphologically unremarkable, except for relatively small testes. Seminiferous tubule size and number of proliferating spermatogonia/spermatocytes were reduced in the KO testis...
June 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628042/a-therapeutic-t-cell-receptor-mimic-antibody-targets-tumor-associated-prame-peptide-hla-i-antigens
#4
Aaron Y Chang, Tao Dao, Ron S Gejman, Casey A Jarvis, Andrew Scott, Leonid Dubrovsky, Melissa D Mathias, Tatyana Korontsvit, Victoriya Zakhaleva, Michael Curcio, Ronald C Hendrickson, Cheng Liu, David A Scheinberg
Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias. In healthy tissue, PRAME expression is limited to the testes and ovaries, making it a highly attractive cancer target. PRAME is an intracellular protein that cannot currently be drugged. After proteasomal processing, the PRAME300-309 peptide ALYVDSLFFL (ALY) is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of cytotoxic T cells...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628013/modulation-of-antitumor-immune-response-in-mouse-prostate-cancer-model
#5
N Mitskevich, T Tsertsvadze, K Mchedlishvili, K Matchavariani, G Guruli
Aim of study - prostate cancer is second most common cancer in men worldwide, and fifth leading cause of death from cancer in men (6.6% of the total men deaths). Unfortunately, once cancer spreads outside of prostate, it becomes incurable. Androgen deprivation can provide some relief, but resistance will develop eventually, and at that time no effective treatment options are left to the patient. Therefore, the search of alternative treatment modalities is paramount. In this article we evaluated the role of epigenetic modifier 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) and immunomodulator - Lenalidomide and their possible impact on the immune response in the murine prostate cancer model...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625020/methylation-of-the-ribosomal-rna-gene-promoter-is-associated-with-aging-and-age-related-decline
#6
Patrizia D'Aquila, Alberto Montesanto, Maurizio Mandalà, Sabrina Garasto, Vincenzo Mari, Andrea Corsonello, Dina Bellizzi, Giuseppe Passarino
The transcription of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) is subject to epigenetic regulation, as it is abrogated by the methylation of CpG dinucleotides within their promoter region. Here, we investigated, through Sequenom platform, the age-related methylation status of the CpG island falling into the rDNA promoter in 472 blood samples from 20- to 105-year-old humans and in different tissues (blood, heart, liver, kidney, and testis) of 15 rats 3-96 weeks old. In humans, we did not find a consistently significant correlation between CpG site methylation and chronological age...
June 17, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613414/the-arg-phe-amide-peptide-26rfa-qrfp-and-its-receptor-iuphar-review
#7
REVIEW
Jérôme Leprince, Didier Bagnol, Ronan Bureau, Shoji Fukusumi, Riccarda Granata, Shuji Hinuma, Dan Larhammar, Stefany Primeaux, Jana Sopkova-de Oliveiras Santos, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi Ukena, Hubert Vaudry
26RFa is an RFamide neuropeptide that was first isolated from the brain of the European green frog on the basis of a cross-reactivity with antibodies raised against bovine NPFF. 26RFa and its N-terminally extended form QRFP have been identified as cognate ligands of the former orphan receptor GPR103, now renamed QRFPR. The 26RFa/QRFP precursor has been characterized in various mammalian and non-mammalian species. In the brain of mammals, including human, 26RFa/QRFP mRNA is almost exclusively expressed in hypothalamic nuclei...
June 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611354/chronic-low-dose-exposure-to-a-mixture-of-environmental-endocrine-disruptors-induces-micrornas-isomirs-deregulation-in-mouse-concomitant-with-intratesticular-estradiol-reduction
#8
Julio Buñay, Eduardo Larriba, Ricardo D Moreno, Jesús Del Mazo
Humans are environmentally exposed not only to single endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) but to mixtures that affect their reproductive health. In reproductive tissues, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key targets of EDCs. Here, we analysed changes in the testis "miRNome" (and their biogenesis mechanism) in chronically exposed adult mice to a cocktail of five EDCs containing 0.3 mg/kg-body weight (BW)/day of each phthalate (DEHP, DBP, BBP) and 0.05 mg/kg-BW/day of each alkylphenol (NP, OP), from conception to adulthood...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611019/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-aberrations-of-the-x-chromosome-as-cause-of-male-infertility
#9
Albrecht Röpke, Frank Tüttelmann
Male infertility is most commonly caused by spermatogenetic failure, clinically noted as oligo- or azoospermia. Today, in approximately 20% of azoospermic patients, a causal genetic defect can be identified. The most frequent genetic causes of azoospermia (or severe oligozoospermia) are Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), structural chromosomal abnormalities and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. Consistently with Ohno's law, the human X chromosome is the most stable of all the chromosomes, but contrary to Ohno's law, the X chromosome is loaded with regions of acquired, rapidly evolving genes, which are of special interest because they are predominantly expressed in the testis...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609670/differential-effects-of-the-18-kda-translocator-protein-tspo-ligand-etifoxine-on-steroidogenesis-in-rat-brain-plasma-and-steroidogenic-glands-pharmacodynamic-studies
#10
Philippe Liere, Antoine Pianos, Jean-Paul Oudinet, Michael Schumacher, Yvette Akwa
Etifoxine is indicated in humans for treating anxiety. In rodents, besides its anxiolytic-like properties, it has recently shown neuroprotective and neuroregenerative activities. It acts by enhancing GABAA receptor function and by stimulating acute steroid biosynthesis via the activation of the 18-kDa translocator protein. However, the regulatory action of etifoxine on steroid production is not well characterized. In this work, we performed dose-response, acute and chronic time-course experiments on the effects of intraperitoneal injections of etifoxine on steroid levels in adult male rat brain and plasma analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
June 3, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609104/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-alters-the-synthesis-and-%C3%AE-oxidation-of-fatty-acids-and-hinders-atp-supply-in-mouse-testes-via-uplc-q-exactive-orbitrap-ms-based-metabonomics-study
#11
Guolin Shen, Lili Zhou, Wei Liu, Yuan Cui, Wenping Xie, Huiming Chen, Wenlian Yu, Wentao Li, Haishan Li
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is considered to be an environmental endocrine disruptor at high levels of general exposure. Studies show that DEHP may cause testicular toxicity on human being. In this study, metabonomics techniques were used to identify differential endogenous metabolites, draw the network metabolic pathways, and conduct network analysis, to determine the underlying mechanisms of testicular toxicity induced by DEHP. The results showed that DEHP inhibited synthesis and accelerated β-oxidation of fatty acids and impaired the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and gluconeogenesis, resulting in lactic acid accumulation and an insufficient ATP supply in the microenvironment of the testis...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603733/prolonged-exposure-to-acetaminophen-during-pregnancy-reduces-testosterone-production-by-the-human-fetal-testis
#12
EDITORIAL
Mehmet Gokhan Culha, Ege Can Serefoglu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601408/expression-of-ciliated-bronchial-epithelium-1-during-human-spermatogenesis
#13
Christiane Pleuger, Daniela Fietz, Katja Hartmann, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Wolfgang Weidner, Sabine Kliesch, Mark Baker, Moira K O'Bryan, Martin Bergmann
OBJECTIVE: To define the precise cellular localization of ciliated bronchial epithelium 1 (CBE1) in the human testis and test its relationship to impaired spermatogenesis. DESIGN: Gene expression analysis, and histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. SETTING: University research laboratories and andrologic outpatient clinic. PATIENT(S): Forty-three human testicular biopsies: 12 biopsies showing normal spermatogenesis (NSP), 8 with maturation arrest at level of spermatocytes (STA), 8 with maturation arrest at level of spermatids (SDA), 4 with scattered elongating spermatids, and 12 with Sertoli cell-only syndrome, with an additional 5 semen samples from healthy donors...
June 7, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599311/c-terminal-kinesin-motor-kifc1-participates-in-facilitating-proper-cell-division-of-human-seminoma
#14
Yu-Xi Xiao, Hao-Qing Shen, Zhen-Yu She, Li Sheng, Qian-Qian Chen, Yu-Lan Chu, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
C-terminus kinesin motor KIFC1 is known for centrosome clustering in cancer cells with supernumerary centrosomes. KIFC1 crosslinks and glides on microtubules (MT) to assist normal bipolar spindle formation to avoid multi-polar cell division, which might be fatal. Testis cancer is the most common human cancer among young men. However, the gene expression profiles of testis cancer is still not complete and the expression of the C-terminus kinesin motor KIFC1 in testis cancer has not yet been examined. We found that KIFC1 is enriched in seminoma tissues in both mRNA level and protein level, and is specifically enriched in the cells that divide actively...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588045/assessing-the-impact-of-in-utero-exposures-potential-effects-of-paracetamol-on-male-reproductive-development
#15
REVIEW
Karen R Kilcoyne, Rod T Mitchell
Human male reproductive disorders (cryptorchidism, hypospadias, testicular cancer and low sperm counts) are common and some may be increasing in incidence worldwide. These associated disorders can arise from subnormal testosterone production during fetal life. This has resulted in a focus on in-utero environmental influences that may result in reproductive effects on the offspring in later life. Over recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the scientific literature describing associations between in-utero environmental exposures (eg, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals) and subsequent reproductive outcomes in male offspring...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585775/the-roles-of-the-pd-1-pd-l1-pathway-at-immunologically-privileged-sites
#16
Li-Ling Wang, Zhi-Hui Li, Xiao-Hui Hu, Kahinho P Muyayalo, Yong-Hong Zhang, Ai-Hua Liao
The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays a vital role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, promoting the development and function of regulatory T cells, and maintaining the quiescence of autoreactive T cells. Abnormalities in this inhibitory pathway are involved in the pathogenesis of some disorders such as tumours, autoimmune diseases, pregnancy complications, and transplantation rejection. Immune privilege represents a special immunological condition, where foreign antigens can be tolerated and do not elicit an immune response...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579394/primate-primordial-germ-cells-acquire-transplantation-potential-by-carnegie-stage-23
#17
Amander T Clark, Sofia Gkountela, Di Chen, Wanlu Liu, Enrique Sosa, Meena Sukhwani, Jon D Hennebold, Kyle E Orwig
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest embryonic progenitors in the germline. Correct formation of PGCs is critical to reproductive health as an adult. Recent work has shown that primate PGCs can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells; however, a bioassay that supports their identity as transplantable germ cells has not been reported. Here, we adopted a xenotransplantation assay by transplanting single-cell suspensions of human and nonhuman primate embryonic Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque) testes containing PGCs into the seminiferous tubules of adult busulfan-treated nude mice...
May 22, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575165/genome-wide-profiling-of-sus-scrofa-circular-rnas-across-nine-organs-and-three-developmental-stages
#18
Guoming Liang, Yalan Yang, Guanglin Niu, Zhonglin Tang, Kui Li
The spatio-temporal expression patterns of Circular RNA (circRNA) across organs and developmental stages are critical for its function and evolution analysis. However, they remain largely unclear in mammals. Here, we comprehensively analysed circRNAs in nine organs and three skeletal muscles of Guizhou miniature pig (S. scrofa), a widely used biomedical model animal. We identified 5,934 circRNAs and analysed their molecular properties, sequence conservation, spatio-temporal expression pattern, potential function, and interaction with miRNAs...
May 29, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574145/human-epididymis-structural-pattern-total-length-and-inner-surface-area
#19
Kalanghot P Skandhan, Ashutosh Soni, Anantkumar Joshi, Kalanghot P S Avni, Bansi Dhar Gupta
INTRODUCTION: The organ epididymis is secured the name considering it functioned as an appendix to the testis; earlier testis was called as didymi. Regarding the length of human epididymis, several values are attributed by different authors. The present study was aimed to find out the pattern, total length and inner surface area of human epididymis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted by employing microsurgical procedures on five testes from unclaimed human dead bodies...
May 24, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570559/analysis-of-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-function-in-meiotic-recombination-immunoglobulin-class-switching-and-dna-damage-tolerance
#20
Kei-Ichi Takata, Shelley Reh, Matthew J Yousefzadeh, Maciej J Zelazowski, Sarita Bhetawal, David Trono, Megan G Lowery, Maria Sandoval, Yoko Takata, Yue Lu, Kevin Lin, Jianjun Shen, Donna F Kusewitt, Kevin M McBride, Francesca Cole, Richard D Wood
DNA polymerase ν (pol ν), encoded by the POLN gene, is an A-family DNA polymerase in vertebrates and some other animal lineages. Here we report an in-depth analysis of pol ν-defective mice and human cells. POLN is very weakly expressed in most tissues, with the highest relative expression in testis. We constructed multiple mouse models for Poln disruption and detected no anatomic abnormalities, alterations in lifespan, or changed causes of mortality. Mice with inactive Poln are fertile and have normal testis morphology...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
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