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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913284/cardiac-proteasome-functional-insufficiency-plays-a-pathogenic-role-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#1
Jie Li, Wenxia Ma, Guihua Yue, Yaoliang Tang, Il-Man Kim, Neal L Weintraub, Xuejun Wang, Huabo Su
BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major risk factor in diabetic patients but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) facilitates protein quality control by degrading unnecessary and damaged proteins in eukaryotic cells, and dysfunction of UPS is implicated in various cardiac diseases. However, the overall functional status of the UPS and its pathophysiological role in diabetic cardiomyopathy have not been determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Type I diabetes was induced in wild-type and transgenic mice expressing a UPS functional reporter (GFPdgn) by injections of streptozotocin (STZ)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913210/trpv4-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-resists-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-blocking-cyp2e1-mediated-redox-toxicity
#2
Ratanesh K Seth, Suvarthi Das, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Firas Alhasson, Gregory Michelotti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Anna Mae Diehl, Darwin P Bell, Wolfgang Liedtke, Saurabh Chatterjee
NAFLD is a clinically progressive disease with steatosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis being the stages where clinical intervention becomes necessary. Lack of early biomarkers and absence of a FDA approved drug obstructs efforts for effective treatment. NAFLD progression is strongly linked to a balance between liver injury, tissue regeneration and the functioning of endogenous defense mechanisms. The failure of the defense pathways to resist the tissue damage arising from redox stress, one of the "multiple hits" in disease progression, give rise to heightened inflammation and occasional fibrosis...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907157/human-bone-derived-collagen-for-the-development-of-an-artificial-corneal-endothelial-graft-in-vivo-results-in-a-rabbit-model
#3
Natalia Vázquez, Manuel Chacón, Carlos A Rodríguez-Barrientos, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Miguel Naveiras, Begoña Baamonde, Jose F Alfonso, Iriana Zambrano-Andazol, Ana C Riestra, Álvaro Meana
Corneal keratoplasty (penetrating or lamellar) using cadaveric human tissue, is nowadays the main treatment for corneal endotelial dysfunctions. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor corneas available for transplantation and about 53% of the world's population have no access to corneal transplantation. Generating a complete cornea by tissue engineering is still a tough goal, but an endothelial lamellar graft might be an easier task. In this study, we developed a tissue engineered corneal endothelium by culturing human corneal endothelial cells on a human purified type I collagen membrane...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905661/artificial-cartilage-bio-matrix-formed-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-mg2-polyphosphate
#4
X Wang, M Ackermann, E Tolba, M Neufurth, F Wurm, Q Feng, S Wang, H C Schröder, W E Müller
Here we show that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polyanionic metabolic regulator consisting of multiple phosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is present in the synovial fluid. In a biomimetic approach, to enhance cartilage synthesis and regeneration, we prepared amorphous polyP microparticles with Mg2+ as counterions. The particles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analyses. Similar particles were obtained after addition of Mg2+ ions to a solution containing hyaluronic acid, as a major component of the synovial fluid, and soluble Na-polyP...
November 29, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901621/perfluorooctanoic-acid-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblast-cells
#5
Eun Mi Choi, Kwang Sik Suh, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Youngmi Kim Pak, Suk Chon
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a stable organic perfluorinated compound, is an emerging persistent organic pollutant, found widely in human and wildlife populations. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to environmental toxicants can be associated with higher risks of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied the cellular toxicology of PFOA in MC3T3-E1osteoblast cells. To examine the effect of PFOA, we measured cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial superoxide, and mitochondrial parameters including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cardiolipin content, and cytochrome c release in MC3T3-E1 cells...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898103/glyoxalase-1-knockdown-in-human-aortic-endothelial-cells-effect-on-the-proteome-and-endothelial-function-estimates
#6
Bernd Stratmann, Britta Engelbrecht, Britta C Espelage, Nadine Klusmeier, Janina Tiemann, Thomas Gawlowski, Yvonne Mattern, Martin Eisenacher, Helmut E Meyer, Naila Rabbani, Paul J Thornalley, Diethelm Tschoepe, Gereon Poschmann, Kai Stühler
Methylglyoxal (MG), an arginine-directed glycating agent, is implicated in diabetic late complications. MG is detoxified by glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) of the cytosolic glyoxalase system. The aim was to investigate the effects of MG accumulation by GLO1-knockdown under hyperglycaemic conditions in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) hypothesizing that the accumulation of MG accounts for the deleterious effects on vascular function. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of GLO1 was performed and MG concentrations were determined...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894297/pulmonary-hypertension-and-vascular-remodeling-in-mice-exposed-to-crystalline-silica
#7
Igor N Zelko, Jianxin Zhu, Jeffrey D Ritzenthaler, Jesse Roman
BACKGROUND: Occupational and environmental exposure to crystalline silica may lead to the development of silicosis, which is characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. A substantial number of patients diagnosed with silicosis develop pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension associated with silicosis and with related restrictive lung diseases significantly reduces survival in affected subjects. An animal model of silicosis has been described previously however, the magnitude of vascular remodeling and hemodynamic effects of inhaled silica are largely unknown...
November 28, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894284/proarrhythmic-risk-and-determinants-of-cardiac-autonomic-dysfunction-in-collagen-induced-arthritis-rats
#8
Ting-Tse Lin, Yen-Ling Sung, Chih-En Wu, Hong Zhang, Yen-Bin Liu, Shien-Fong Lin
BACKGROUNDS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), which is two-fold higher than general population. The driving cause of SCD was considered due to lift-threatening arrhythmia where systemic inflammation acts as the pathophysiological basis linking RA to autonomicdysfunction. METHODS: To assess the sympathetic over-activity of "inflammatory reflex", we measured heart rate variability (HRV) in a rat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model, whose arthritis is induced in Lewis rats by intradermal injection of emulsion of type II collagen...
November 29, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889803/reducing-rbm20-activity-improves-diastolic-dysfunction-and-cardiac-atrophy
#9
Florian Hinze, Christoph Dieterich, Michael H Radke, Henk Granzier, Michael Gotthardt
: Impaired diastolic filling is a main contributor to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a syndrome with increasing prevalence and no treatment. Both collagen and the giant sarcomeric protein titin determine diastolic function. Since titin's elastic properties can be adjusted physiologically, we evaluated titin-based stiffness as a therapeutic target. We adjusted RBM20-dependent cardiac isoform expression in the titin N2B knockout mouse with increased ventricular stiffness...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884085/the-roles-of-myeloperoxidase-in-coronary-artery-disease-and-its-potential-implication-in-plaque-rupture
#10
Nathaniel Teng, Ghassan J Maghzal, Jihan Talib, Imran Rashid, Antony K Lau, Roland Stocker
Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction, are caused by the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps. Several lines of evidence mechanistically link the heme peroxidase myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammation as well as acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis. MPO and MPO-derived oxidants have been shown to contribute to the formation of foam cells, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, the activation of latent matrix metalloproteinases, and the expression of tissue factor that can promote the development of vulnerable plaque...
November 25, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882355/cullin-3-mutation-causes-arterial-stiffness-and-hypertension-through-a-vascular-smooth-muscle-mechanism
#11
Larry N Agbor, Stella-Rita C Ibeawuchi, Chunyan Hu, Jing Wu, Deborah R Davis, Henry L Keen, Frederick W Quelle, Curt D Sigmund
Cullin-3 (CUL3) mutations (CUL3Δ9) were previously identified in hypertensive patients with pseudohypoaldosteronism type-II (PHAII), but the mechanism causing hypertension and whether this is driven by renal tubular or extratubular mechanisms remains unknown. We report that selective expression of CUL3Δ9 in smooth muscle acts by interfering with expression and function of endogenous CUL3, resulting in impaired turnover of the CUL3 substrate RhoA, increased RhoA activity, and augmented RhoA/Rho kinase signaling...
November 17, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882191/protective-effects-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-the-ageing-kidney
#12
Cui-Lan Hou, Ming-Jie Wang, Chen Sun, Yong Huang, Sheng Jin, Xue-Pan Mu, Ying Chen, Yi-Chun Zhu
Aims. The study aimed to examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation changed in the kidney of the ageing mouse and its relationship with impaired kidney function. Results. H2S levels in the plasma, urine, and kidney decreased significantly in ageing mice. The expression of two known H2S-producing enzymes in kidney, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), decreased significantly during ageing. Chronic H2S donor (NaHS, 50 μmol/kg/day, 10 weeks) treatment could alleviate oxidative stress levels and renal tubular interstitial collagen deposition...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881411/three-distinct-cell-populations-express-extracellular-matrix-proteins-and-increase-in-number-during-skeletal-muscle-fibrosis
#13
Mark A Chapman, Kavitha Mukund, Shankar Subramaniam, David Brenner, Richard L Lieber
Tissue extracellular matrix provides structural support and creates unique environments for resident cells. However, the identities of cells responsible for creating specific ECM components have not been determined. In striated muscle, the identity of these cells becomes important in disease when ECM changes result in fibrosis and subsequent increased tissue stiffness and dysfunction. Here we describe a novel approach to isolate and identify cells that maintain the ECM in both healthy and fibrotic muscle. Using a collagen I reporter mouse, we show that there are three distinct cell populations that express collagen I in both healthy and fibrotic skeletal muscle...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880844/atorvastatin-improves-ventricular-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction-by-interfering-with-collagen-metabolism
#14
Karla Reichert, Helison Rafael Pereira do Carmo, Anali Galluce Torina, Daniela Diógenes de Carvalho, Andrei Carvalho Sposito, Karlos Alexandre de Souza Vilarinho, Lindemberg da Mota Silveira-Filho, Pedro Paulo Martins de Oliveira, Orlando Petrucci
PURPOSE: Therapeutic strategies that modulate ventricular remodeling can be useful after acute myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, statins may exert effects on molecular pathways involved in collagen metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with atorvastatin for 4 weeks would lead to changes in collagen metabolism and ventricular remodeling in a rat model of MI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were used in this study. MI was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872616/novel-approach-for-evaluation-of-bacteroides-fragilis-protective-role-against-bartonella-henselae-liver-damage-in-immunocompromised-murine-model
#15
Chiara Pagliuca, Annunziata G Cicatiello, Roberta Colicchio, Adelaide Greco, Raimondo Cerciello, Luigi Auletta, Sandra Albanese, Elena Scaglione, Caterina Pagliarulo, Gabiria Pastore, Gelsomina Mansueto, Arturo Brunetti, Bice Avallone, Paola Salvatore
Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease. Our previous data have established that Bacteroides fragilis colonization is able to prevent B. henselae damages through the polysaccharide A (PSA) in an experimental murine model. In order to determine whether the PSA is essential for the protection against pathogenic effects of B. henselae in immunocompromised hosts, SCID mice were co-infected with B. fragilis wild type or its mutant B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858401/intervertebral-disc-degeneration-ectopic-calcification-advanced-glycation-end-products-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#16
S Illien-Jünger, O M Torre, W F Kindschuh, X Chen, D M Laudier, J C Iatridis
Ectopic calcifications in intervertebral discs (IVDs) are known characteristics of IVD degeneration that are not commonly reported but may be implicated in structural failure and dysfunctional IVD cell metabolic responses. This study investigated the novel hypothesis that ectopic calcifications in the IVD are associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) via hypertrophy and osteogenic differentiation. Histological analyses of human IVDs from several degeneration stages revealed areas of ectopic calcification within the nucleus pulposus and at the cartilage endplate...
November 18, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856308/dysregulation-of-hyaluronan-homeostasis-during-aortic-valve-disease
#17
Varun K Krishnamurthy, Andrew J Stout, Matthew C Sapp, Brittany Matuska, Mark E Lauer, K Jane Grande-Allen
Aortic valve disease (AVD) is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular mortality. Abnormal expression of hyaluronan (HA) and its synthesizing/degrading enzymes have been observed during latent AVD however, the mechanism of impaired hyaluronan homeostasis prior to and after the onset of AVD remains unexplored. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathway defects and biomechanical dysfunction are hallmarks of AVD, however their association with altered hyaluronan regulation is understudied. Expression of HA homeostatic markers was evaluated in diseased human aortic valves and TGFβ1-cultured porcine aortic valve tissues using histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting...
November 14, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852133/timp1-promotes-multi-walled-carbon-nanotube-induced-lung-fibrosis-by-stimulating-fibroblast-activation-and-proliferation
#18
Jie Dong, Qiang Ma
Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) may cause fibrosing lesions in animal lungs, raising health concerns about such exposure in humans. The mechanisms underlying fibrosis development remain unclear, but they are believed to involve the dysfunction of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Using a mouse model of MWCNT exposure, we found that the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1) gene was rapidly and highly induced in the lungs by MWCNTs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, a pronounced elevation of secreted TIMP1 was observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum...
November 17, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845246/palmitate-promotes-inflammatory-responses-and-cellular-senescence-in-cardiac-fibroblasts
#19
Marina Sokolova, Leif Erik Vinge, Katrine Alfsnes, Maria Belland Olsen, Lars Eide, Ole Jørgen Kaasbøll, Håvard Attramadal, May-Kristin Torp, Linn E Fosshaug, Azita Rashidi, Egil Lien, Alexandra Vanessa Finsen, Øystein Sandanger, Pål Aukrust, Trine Ranheim, Arne Yndestad
Palmitate triggers inflammatory responses in several cell types, but its effects on cardiac fibroblasts are at present unknown. The aims of the study were to (1) assess the potential of palmitate to promote inflammatory signaling in cardiac fibroblasts through TLR4 and the NLRP3 inflammasome and (2) characterize the cellular phenotype of cardiac fibroblasts exposed to palmitate. We examined whether palmitate induces inflammatory responses in cardiac fibroblasts from WT, NLRP3(-/-) and ASC(-/-)mice (C57BL/6 background)...
November 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836751/activation-of-gper-ameliorates-experimental-pulmonary-hypertension-in-male-rats
#20
Allan K Alencar, Guilherme C Montes, Tadeu Montagnoli, Ananssa M S Silva, Sabrina T Martinez, Aline G Fraga, Hao Wang, Leanne Groban, Roberto T Sudo, Gisele Zapata-Sudo
RATIONALE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling that leads to pulmonary congestion, uncompensated right-ventricle (RV) failure, and premature death. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is cardioprotective in male rats and that its activation elicits vascular relaxation in rats of either sex. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of GPER on the cardiopulmonary system by the administration of its selective agonist G1 in male rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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