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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445754/probing-the-dynamics-of-clot-bound-thrombin-at-venous-shear-rates
#1
Laura M Haynes, Thomas Orfeo, Kenneth G Mann, Stephen J Everse, Kathleen E Brummel-Ziedins
In closed system models of fibrin formation, exosite-mediated thrombin binding to fibrin contributes to clot stability and is resistant to inhibition by antithrombin/heparin while still susceptible to small, active-site inhibitors. Each molecule of fibrin can bind ∼1.6 thrombin molecules at low-affinity binding sites (Kd = 2.8 μM) and ∼0.3 molecules of thrombin at high-affinity binding sites (Kd = 0.15 μM). The goal of this study is to assess the stability of fibrin-bound thrombin under venous flow conditions and to determine both its accessibility and susceptibility to inhibition...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445470/the-credibility-crisis-in-research-can-economics-tools-help
#2
Thomas Gall, John P A Ioannidis, Zacharias Maniadis
The issue of nonreplicable evidence has attracted considerable attention across biomedical and other sciences. This concern is accompanied by an increasing interest in reforming research incentives and practices. How to optimally perform these reforms is a scientific problem in itself, and economics has several scientific methods that can help evaluate research reforms. Here, we review these methods and show their potential. Prominent among them are mathematical modeling and laboratory experiments that constitute affordable ways to approximate the effects of policies with wide-ranging implications...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445057/experimental-and-numerical-study-of-the-evaporation-of-water-at-low-pressures
#3
Mohammad Amin Kazemi, David S Nobes, Janet A W Elliott
Although evaporation is considered to be a surface phenomenon, the rate of molecular transport across a liquid-vapor boundary is strongly dependent on the coupled fluid dynamics and heat transfer in the bulk fluids. Recent experimental thermocouple measurements of the temperature field near the interface of evaporating water into its vapor have begun to show the role of heat transfer in evaporation. However, the role of fluid dynamics has not been explored sufficiently. Here, we have developed a mathematical model to describe the coupling of the heat, mass, and momentum transfer in the fluids with the transport phenomena at the interface...
April 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444398/plasma-transfusion-demystified-a-review-of-the-key-factors-influencing-the-response-to-plasma-transfusion
#4
Allen W Bryan, Elizabeth M Staley, Timothy Kennell, Alexander Z Feldman, Lance A Williams, Huy P Pham
Many studies have suggested that inappropriate plasma usage is common. An important factor contributing to futile plasma administration in most patients is the nonlinear relationship between coagulation-factor levels and the volume of plasma transfused. In this review, a validated mathematical model and data from the literature will be used to illuminate 3 key properties of plasma transfusion. Those properties are as follows: the effect of plasma transfusion on international normalized ratio (INR) is transient; for the same volume of transfused plasma, a greater reduction in INR is observed at higher initial INRs; and the effect of plasma transfusion on INR correction (ie, the difference between initial and final INRs) diminishes as more plasma is transfused...
April 24, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444384/e-science-technologies-in-a-workflow-for-personalized-medicine-using-cancer-screening-as-a-case-study
#5
Ola Spjuth, Andreas Karlsson, Mark Clements, Keith Humphreys, Emma Ivansson, Jim Dowling, Martin Eklund, Alexandra Jauhiainen, Kamila Czene, Henrik Grönberg, Pär Sparén, Fredrik Wiklund, Abbas Cheddad, Þorgerður Pálsdóttir, Mattias Rantalainen, Linda Abrahamsson, Erwin Laure, Jan-Eric Litton, Juni Palmgren
Objective: We provide an e-Science perspective on the workflow from risk factor discovery and classification of disease to evaluation of personalized intervention programs. As case studies, we use personalized prostate and breast cancer screenings. Materials and Methods: We describe an e-Science initiative in Sweden, e-Science for Cancer Prevention and Control (eCPC), which supports biomarker discovery and offers decision support for personalized intervention strategies...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444126/cimbinator-a-web-based-tool-for-drug-synergy-analysis-in-small-and-large-scale-datasets
#6
Åsmund Flobak, Miguel Vazquez, Astrid Lægreid, Alfonso Valencia
Motivation: Drug synergies are sought to identify combinations of drugs particularly beneficial. User-friendly software solutions that can assist analysis of large-scale datasets are required. Results: CImbinator is a web-service that can aid in batch-wise and in-depth analyzes of data from small-scale and large-scale drug combination screens. CImbinator offers to quantify drug combination effects, using both the commonly employed median effect equation, as well as advanced experimental mathematical models describing dose response relationships...
April 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444104/psychomotor-ability-and-short-term-memory-and-reading-and-mathematics-achievement-in-children
#7
Cherée Murrihy, Maria Bailey, John Roodenburg
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine whether the findings from previous research, indicating the role of short-term memory as a mediator of the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement in adolescents, is also evident in a younger child population. Method: The study utilized a quantative cross-sectional design involving 133 children aged 8-12. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) provided four indicators of psychomotor ability (Finger Nose, Walking, Balancing, and Jumping)...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443696/the-development-and-modelling-of-devices-and-paradigms-for-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#8
Stefan M Goetz, Zhi-De Deng
Magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that can evoke action potentials and modulate neural circuits through induced electric fields. Biophysical models of magnetic stimulation have become a major driver for technological developments and the understanding of the mechanisms of magnetic neurostimulation and neuromodulation. Major technological developments involve stimulation coils with different spatial characteristics and pulse sources to control the pulse waveform. While early technological developments were the result of manual design and invention processes, there is a trend in both stimulation coil and pulse source design to mathematically optimize parameters with the help of computational models...
April 26, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443630/accelerating-recovery-from-jet-lag-prediction-from-a-multi-oscillator-model-and-its-experimental-confirmation-in-model-animals
#9
Hiroshi Kori, Yoshiaki Yamaguchi, Hitoshi Okamura
The endogenous circadian clock drives oscillations that are completely synchronized with the environmental day-night rhythms with a period of approximately 24 hours. Temporal misalignment between one's internal circadian clock and the external solar time often occurs in shift workers and long-distance travelers; such misalignments are accompanied by sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal distress. Repeated exposure to jet lag and rotating shift work increases the risk of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular complaints and metabolic insufficiencies...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443363/a-mathematical-model-of-aerobic-methane-oxidation-coupled-to-denitrification
#10
Oskar Modin
Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria use methane as their only source of energy and carbon. They release organic compounds that can serve as electron donors for co-existing denitrifiers. This interaction between methanotrophs and denitrifiers is known to contribute to nitrogen losses in natural environments and has also been exploited by researchers for denitrification of nitrate-contaminated wastewater. The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model describing aerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification in suspended growth reactors...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442631/p53-dynamics-in-response-to-dna-damage-vary-across-cell-lines-and-are-shaped-by-efficiency-of-dna-repair-and-activity-of-the-kinase-atm
#11
Jacob Stewart-Ornstein, Galit Lahav
Cellular systems show a wide range of signaling dynamics. Many of these dynamics are highly stereotyped, such as oscillations at a fixed frequency. However, most studies looking at the role of signaling dynamics focus on one or a few cell lines, leaving the diversity of dynamics across tissues or cell lines a largely unexplored question. We focused on the dynamics of the tumor suppressor protein p53, which regulates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. We established live-cell reporters for 12 cancer cell lines expressing wild-type p53 and quantified p53 dynamics in response to double-strand break-inducing DNA damage...
April 25, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442497/an-in-silico-model-of-retinal-cholesterol-dynamics-rcd-model-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-dry-age-related-macular-degeneration
#12
Seyedeh Maryam Zekavat, James Lu, Cyrille Maugeais, Norman A Mazer
We developed an in-silico mathematical model of retinal cholesterol (Ch) dynamics (RCD) to quantify the physiological rate of Ch turnover in the rod outer segment (ROS), the lipoprotein transport mechanisms by which Ch enters and leaves the outer retina, and the rates of drusen growth and macrophage-mediated clearance in dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Based on existing experimental data and mechanistic hypotheses, we estimate the Ch turnover rate in the ROS to be 1-6 pg/mm2/min, dependent on the rate of Ch recycling in the outer retina, and find comparable rates for LDL receptor-mediated endocytosis of Ch by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), ABCA1-mediated Ch transport from the RPE to outer retina, ABCA1-mediated Ch efflux from the RPE to choroid, and the secretion of 70 nm ApoB-Ch particles from the RPE...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442239/roadmap-to-control-hbv-and-hdv-epidemics-in-china
#13
Ashish Goyal, John M Murray
PURPOSE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in China. Almost 10% of HBV infected individuals are also infected with hepatitis D virus (HDV) which has a 5-10 times higher mortality rate than HBV mono-infection. The aim of this manuscript is to devise strategies that can not only control HBV infections but also HDV infections in China under the current health care budget in an optimal manner. METHODS: Using a mathematical model, an annual budget of $10 billion was optimally allocated among five interventions namely, testing and HBV adult vaccination, treatment for mono-infected and dually-infected individuals, second line treatment for HBV mono-infections, and awareness programs...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442043/preantral-follicle-density-in-ovarian-biopsy-fragments-and-effects-of-mare-age
#14
K A Alves, B G Alves, G D A Gastal, K T Haag, M O Gastal, J R Figueiredo, M L Gambarini, E L Gastal
The aims of the present study were to: (1) evaluate preantral follicle density in ovarian biopsy fragments within and among mares; (2) assess the effects of mare age on the density and quality of preantral follicles; and (3) determine the minimum number of ovarian fragments and histological sections needed to estimate equine follicle density using a mathematical model. The ovarian biopsy pick-up method was used in three groups of mares separated according to age (5-6, 7-10 and 11-16 years). Overall, 336 preantral follicles were recorded with a mean follicle density of 3...
April 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442006/meta-modeling-based-groundwater-remediation-optimization-under-flexibility-in-environmental-standard
#15
Li He, Zongda Xu, Xing Fan, Jing Li, Hongwei Lu
  This study develops a meta-modeling based mathematical programming approach with flexibility in environmental standards. It integrates numerical simulation, meta-modeling analysis, and fuzzy programming within a general framework. A set of models between remediation strategies and remediation performance can well guarantee the mitigation in computational efforts in the simulation and optimization process. In order to prevent the occurrence of over-optimistic and pessimistic optimization strategies, a high satisfaction level resulting from the implementation of a flexible standard can indicate the degree to which the environmental standard is satisfied...
May 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441862/spatial-temporal-dispersion-of-aerosolized-nanoparticles-during-the-use-of-consumer-spray-products-and-estimates-of-inhalation-exposure
#16
Jihoon Park, Seunghon Ham, Miyeon Jang, Jinho Lee, Sunju Kim, Sungkyoon Kim, Kiyoung Lee, Donguk Park, Jung-Taek Kwon, Hyunmi Kim, Pilje Kim, Kyunghee Choi, Chungsik Yoon
We evaluated the spatial-temporal dispersion of airborne nanomaterials during the use of spray consumer products and estimated the level of consumer inhalation exposure. A total of eight spray products including five propellant and three pump types were selected to evaluate the dispersion of airborne nanoparticles across time and space in a cleanroom which could control the background particles. Four products were advertised to contain silver and one contained titanium nanoparticles, while three products were specified no ENM but as being manufactured through the use of nanotechnology...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441437/quantitative-modeling-of-responses-to-chronic-ionizing-radiation-exposure-using-targeted-and-non-targeted-effects
#17
Igor Shuryak
The biological effects of chronic ionizing radiation exposure can be difficult to study, but important to understand in order to protect the health of occupationally-exposed persons and victims of radiological accidents or malicious events. They include targeted effects (TE) caused by ionizations within/close to nuclear DNA, and non-targeted effects (NTE) caused by damage to other cell structures and/or activation of stress-signaling pathways in distant cells. Data on radiation damage in animal populations exposed over multiple generations to wide ranges of dose rates after the Chernobyl nuclear-power-plant accident are very useful for enhancing our understanding of these processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441329/implementation-of-an-electronic-ionosonde-to-monitor-the-earth-s-ionosphere-via-a-projected-column-through-usrp
#18
Jhon Jairo Barona Mendoza, Carlos Fernando Quiroga Ruiz, Carlos Rafael Pinedo Jaramillo
This document illustrates the processes carried out for the construction of an ionospheric sensor or ionosonde, from a universal software radio peripheral (USRP), and its programming using GNU-Radio and MATLAB. The development involved the in-depth study of the characteristics of the ionosphere, to apply the corresponding mathematical models used in the radar-like pulse compression technique and matched filters, among others. The sensor operates by firing electromagnetic waves in a frequency sweep, which are reflected against the ionosphere and are received on its return by the receiver of the instrument, which calculates the reflection height through the signal offset...
April 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440837/modelling-of-thermal-transport-through-a-nanocellular-polymer-foam-toward-the-generation-of-a-new-superinsulating-material
#19
Guilong Wang, Chongda Wang, Jinchuan Zhao, Guizhen Wang, Chul B Park, Guoqun Zhao
Superinsulating materials play a pivotal role in achieving the sustainable development of our modern world by improving energy efficiency, and reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. Nanocellular polymer foams have been considered as a promising superinsulating material, but their development is yet to be achieved. The understanding of thermal transport through the nanocellular foam is crucial for developing this superinsulating material. Herein, we report an accurate mathematical model for the first time to quantitatively estimate thermal transport through the nanocellular polymer foam...
April 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440010/self-concept-mediates-the-relation-between-achievement-and-emotions-in-mathematics
#20
Jojanneke P J Van der Beek, Sanne H G Van der Ven, Evelyn H Kroesbergen, Paul P M Leseman
BACKGROUND: Mathematics achievement is related to positive and negative emotions. Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions suggests that students' self-concept (i.e., self-appraisal of ability) may be an important mediator of the relation between mathematics achievement and emotions. AIMS: The aims were (1) to investigate the mediating role of mathematical self-concept in the relation between mathematics achievement and the achievement emotions of enjoyment and anxiety in a comprehensive model, and (2) to test possible differences in this mediating role between low-, average-, and high-achieving students...
April 25, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
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