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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151181/screening-hcv-genotype-specific-epitope-peptides-based-on-conserved-sequence-analysis-and-b-cell-epitope-prediction-in-hcv-e2-region
#1
Rui Hua, Xiaoyu Jiang, Lingxia Qi, Shanshan Guan, Ziyu Kuai, Yongbo Qiao, Yan Xu, Xin Gong, Yuhua Shi, Wei Kong, Junqi Niu, Hao Zhang, Yaming Shan
The high mutation rate of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome increases the genotype diversity and renders the detection of the virus more difficult. Therefore, prediction and assessment of highly conserved and strongly antigenic epitope polypeptide sequences have become a focus of current research. The E2 region is the target binding region of neutralizing antibodies. HCV genomics, especially the high mutation rate of E2 region sequence, makes its genotyping more and more diverse, and the detection of HCV and genotype is becoming more and more strict...
November 18, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151123/a-coxsackievirus-b-vaccine-protects-against-virus-induced-diabetes-in-an-experimental-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#2
Virginia M Stone, Minna M Hankaniemi, Emma Svedin, Amirbabak Sioofy-Khojine, Sami Oikarinen, Heikki Hyöty, Olli H Laitinen, Vesa P Hytönen, Malin Flodström-Tullberg
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Epidemiological studies suggest a role for Coxsackievirus B (CVB) serotypes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, but their actual contribution remains elusive. In the present study, we have produced a CVB1 vaccine to test whether vaccination against CVBs can prevent virus-induced diabetes in an experimental model. METHODS: NOD and SOCS1-tg mice were vaccinated three times with either a formalin-fixed non-adjuvanted CVB1 vaccine or a buffer control...
November 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150937/cgmp-production-and-analysis-of-bg505-sosip-664-an-extensively-glycosylated-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-candidate
#3
Antu K Dey, Albert Cupo, Gabriel Ozorowski, Vaneet K Sharma, Anna-Janina Behrens, Eden P Go, Thomas J Ketas, Anila Yasmeen, Per J Klasse, Eddy Sayeed, Heather Desaire, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Rogier W Sanders, Thomas Hassell, Andrew Ward, John P Moore
We describe the properties of BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) conditions. These proteins are the first of a new generation of native-like trimers that are the basis for many structure-guided immunogen development programs aimed at devising how to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 by vaccination. The successful translation of this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of producing similar immunogens on an appropriate scale and of an acceptable quality for Phase I experimental medicine clinical trials...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150916/outbreak-investigation-and-molecular-diagnosis-of-lumpy-skin-disease-among-livestock-in-saudi-arabia-2016
#4
S Kasem, M Saleh, I Qasim, O Hashim, A Alkarar, A Abu-Obeida, A Gaafer, R Hussien, A Al-Sahaf, A Al-Doweriej, F Bayoumi, A Hodhood, M Abdelatif
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus of the Capripoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. The disease is a major concern for the dairy industry in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an outbreak of LSD in cattle herds was detected in Saudi Arabia in 2016. LSD outbreak was investigated in five regions of Saudi Arabia: Al-Hassa, Al-Sharqia, Al-Qassim, Riyadh and Al-Taif during the period from April to July 2016. Tissues from skin nodules were collected to characterize the virus by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR)...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150913/molecular-epidemiology-of-goat-pox-viruses
#5
P Roy, S Jaisree, S Balakrishnan, K Senthilkumar, R Mahaprabhu, A Mishra, B Maity, T K Ghosh, A P Karmakar
Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages...
November 18, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150700/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-companion-dogs-with-diarrhea-in-beijing-china-and-genetic-characteristics-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-species
#6
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
November 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150636/a-genetic-system-for-targeted-mutations-to-disrupt-and-restore-genes-in-the-obligate-bacterium-ehrlichia-chaffeensis
#7
Ying Wang, Lanjing Wei, Huitao Liu, Chuanmin Cheng, Roman R Ganta
Obligate intracellular bacteria (obligates) belonging to Rickettsiales and Chlamydiales cause diseases in hundreds of millions of people worldwide and in many animal species. Lack of an efficient system for targeted mutagenesis in obligates remains a major impediment in understanding microbial pathogenesis. Challenges in creating targeted mutations may be attributed to essential nature of majority of the genes and intracellular replication dependence. Despite success in generating random mutations, a method that works well in creating mutations in specific genes of interest followed by complementation remains problematic for obligates and is a highly sought-after goal...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150567/amplifying-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-by-cd11c-specific-loss-of-socs1-increases-innate-immunity-to-infection-while-decreasing-adaptive-immunity
#8
Alejandro F Alice, Gwen Kramer, Shelly Bambina, Jason R Baird, Keith S Bahjat, Michael J Gough, Marka R Crittenden
Although prophylactic vaccines provide protective humoral immunity against infectious agents, vaccines that elicit potent CD8 T cell responses are valuable tools to shape and drive cellular immunity against cancer and intracellular infection. In particular, IFN-γ-polarized cytotoxic CD8 T cell immunity is considered optimal for protective immunity against intracellular Ags. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 is a cross-functional negative regulator of TLR and cytokine receptor signaling via degradation of the receptor-signaling complex...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150562/the-role-of-mhc-e-in-t-cell-immunity-is-conserved-among-humans-rhesus-macaques-and-cynomolgus-macaques
#9
Helen L Wu, Roger W Wiseman, Colette M Hughes, Gabriela M Webb, Shaheed A Abdulhaqq, Benjamin N Bimber, Katherine B Hammond, Jason S Reed, Lina Gao, Benjamin J Burwitz, Justin M Greene, Fidel Ferrer, Alfred W Legasse, Michael K Axthelm, Byung S Park, Simon Brackenridge, Nicholas J Maness, Andrew J McMichael, Louis J Picker, David H O'Connor, Scott G Hansen, Jonah B Sacha
MHC-E is a highly conserved nonclassical MHC class Ib molecule that predominantly binds and presents MHC class Ia leader sequence-derived peptides for NK cell regulation. However, MHC-E also binds pathogen-derived peptide Ags for presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Given this role in adaptive immunity and its highly monomorphic nature in the human population, HLA-E is an attractive target for novel vaccine and immunotherapeutic modalities. Development of HLA-E-targeted therapies will require a physiologically relevant animal model that recapitulates HLA-E-restricted T cell biology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150519/biological-containment-of-genetically-modified-bacillus-subtilis
#10
Siamand Hosseini, Alex Curilovs, Simon M Cutting
Genetic manipulation of bacterial spores of the genus Bacillus has shown potential for vaccination and for delivery of drugs or enzymes. Remarkably, proteins displayed on the spore surface retain activity and generally are not degraded. The heat stability of spores coupled with their desiccation resistance makes them suitable for delivery to humans or to animals by the oral route. Despite these attributes one regulatory obstacle has remained regarding the fate of recombinant spores shed into the environment as viable spores...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150417/using-facebook-to-recruit-young-australian-men-into-a-cross-sectional-human-papillomavirus-study
#11
Roopa Das, Dorothy A Machalek, Edmund G Molesworth, Suzanne M Garland
BACKGROUND: Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. METHODS: We recruited male permanent residents of Australia, aged 18 to 35 years, into the HPV in Young Males (HYM) study through targeted advertising placed on Facebook...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150210/a-behavioral-economics-approach-to-the-failed-hpv-vaccination-program-in-japan
#12
Asami Yagi, Yutaka Ueda, Tadashi Kimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150209/exploring-the-relationship-between-polio-type-2-serum-neutralizing-antibodies-and-intestinal-immunity-using-data-from-two-randomized-controlled-trials-of-new-bopv-ipv-immunization-schedules
#13
Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Edwin J Asturias, Miguel O'Ryan, M Steven Oberste, William Weldon, Ralf Clemens, Ricardo Rüttimann, John F Modlin, Chris Gast
BACKGROUND: Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is now the only source of routine type 2 protection. The relationship, if any, between vaccine-induced type 2 humoral and intestinal immunity is poorly understood. METHODS: Two clinical trials in five Latin American countries of mixed or sequential bOPV-IPV schedules in 1640 infants provided data on serum neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and intestinal immunity, assessed as viral shedding following oral mOPV2 challenge. Analyses with generalized additive and quantile regression models examined the relationships between prechallenge NAb titers and proportion, duration and titers (magnitude) of viral shedding...
November 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150208/development-of-a-synthetic-vi-polysaccharide-vaccine-for-typhoid-fever
#14
Yawei Ni, Michael J Springer, Jianhua Guo, Isaac Finger-Baker, James P Wilson, Ronald R Cobb, Debra Turner, Ian Tizard
Typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem with a high impact on toddlers and young children. Vaccines against the Vi capsular polysaccharide are efficacious against typhoid fever demonstrating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. The currently licensed Vi typhoid vaccines have however limited efficacy and are manufactured by a complex process from wild-type bacteria. Due to these inherent issues with the current vaccines, an alternative vaccine based on an O-acetylated high molecular weight (HMW) polygalacturonic acid (GelSite-OAc™) was generated...
November 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150194/booster-influenza-vaccination-confers-additional-immune-responses-in-an-elderly-rural-community-dwelling-population
#15
Masahide Matsushita, Seisho Takeuchi, Naoko Kumagai, Masaaki Morio, Chise Matsushita, Kazumi Arise, Toshihide Awatani
This study aimed to examine the effects of a booster vaccination in elderly people using 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2012-2013 influenza epidemic. Seroprotection rates against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in younger elderly people (aged 61-75 years) and the A(H3N2) and B strains in both younger elderly people (aged 61-75 years) as well as very elderly people (aged 76-102 years) did not decrease at 22 weeks after vaccination. This approach confers long-lasting antibody responses and may be useful in clinical practice...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149907/mapping-evidence-on-the-distribution-of-human-papillomavirus-related-cancers-in-sub-saharan-africa-scoping-review-protocol
#16
Bridget K M Lekoane, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Themba G Ginindza
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck) in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa...
November 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149900/immunogenic-potential-of-a-salmonella-typhimurium-live-vaccine-for-pigs-against-monophasic-salmonella-typhimurium-dt-193
#17
Tobias Theuß, Elke Ueberham, Jörg Lehmann, Thomas Lindner, Sven Springer
BACKGROUND: Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mSTM) strains account for up to 8.6% of all human Salmonellosis cases. They have an increasing prevalence during recent years and several human cases with hospitalisation were reported. These strains are often isolated from pigs and pork - one primary source of human infection. A Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) live vaccine has been proven successful in controlling of STM infections in pigs for many years. The aim of this study was to test the immunogenicity of the vaccine in weaners during oral challenge with a virulent mSTM strain and to examine the kinetics of STM-specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies induced by vaccination and infection...
November 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149896/liposomal-vaccine-formulations-as-prophylactic-agents-design-considerations-for-modern-vaccines
#18
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano, David J Burkhart
Vaccinology is one of the most important cornerstones in modern medicine, providing better quality of life. The human immune system is composed of innate and adaptive immune processes that interplay when infection occurs. Innate immunity relies on pathogen-associated molecular patterns which are recognized by pathogen recognition receptors localized in antigen presenting cells. After antigen processing and presentation, CD4(+) T cell polarization occurs, further leading to B cell and CD8(+) activation and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149886/antibiotic-susceptibility-profiles-of-mycoplasma-synoviae-strains-originating-from-central-and-eastern-europe
#19
Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Dénes Grózner, Kinga M Sulyok, Kristin Nilsson, Veronika Hrivnák, Dušan Benčina, Miklós Gyuranecz
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma synoviae causes infectious synovitis and respiratory diseases in chickens and turkeys and may lead to egg shell apex abnormalities in chickens; hence possesses high economic impact on the poultry industry. Control of the disease consists of eradication, vaccination or medication. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to 14 different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of M. synoviae strains originating from Hungary and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe...
November 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149812/architectures-and-mechanical-properties-of-drugs-and-complexes-of-surface-active-compounds-at-air-water-and-oil-water-interfaces
#20
Dipak K Sarker
BACKGROUND: Drugs can represents a multitude of compounds from proteins and peptides, such as growth hormones and insulin and on to simple organic molecules such as flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and lidocaine. Given the chemical nature of these compounds two features are always present. A portion or portions of the molecule that has little affinity for apolar surfaces and media and the opposite a series of part or one large part that has considerable affinity for hydrophilic, polar or charged media and surfaces...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
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