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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343263/genotypic-and-pathogenic-characterization-of-genotype-vii-newcastle-disease-viruses-isolated-from-commercial-farms-in-egypt-and-evaluation-of-heterologous-antibody-responses
#1
A M Saad, Ahmed Samy, M A Soliman, A Arafa, A Zanaty, M K Hassan, A H Sultan, A I Bazid, A H Hussein
Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) represent a major threat to poultry production worldwide. Recently in Egypt NDV circulated extensively, even in vaccinated farms. In the present study samples were collected from sixteen vaccinated broiler farms in animals exhibiting the typical gross lesions of NDV. Virus isolation and pathogenicity studies for positive samples were carried out in accordance to reference procedures and phylogenetic analysis was carried out based on partial sequences of the Fusion gene. Furthermore, in vivo investigation of the ability of heterologous antibody, induced by commercially available lentogenic strain-based vaccines, to efficiently reduce viral shedding was examined...
March 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343161/fulminant-invasive-meningococcal-disease-due-to-serogroup-y-infection-a-highly-unusual-case-reflecting-worrying-increases-in-carriage-and-incidence
#2
Akash Maniam, Sriram Ravichandran
A young man presented to accident and emergency with a short history of diarrhoea and vomiting, with no medical history. He deteriorated rapidly during triage and never regained consciousness. He was pronounced dead after hours of attempted resuscitation. He was found to have organisms suggestive of diplococci on his blood film and subsequently had MenY found via PCR testing. This case illustrates a highly unusual presentation of invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenY which is quietly and dangerously increasing in incidence in the UK, particularly in young healthy patients...
March 25, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342972/remodeling-the-th1-polarized-systemic-environment-contributes-to-neurogenesis-and-cognitive-function-via-the-wnt7a-pathway-in-neonatal-mice
#3
YunLong Xu, Fen He, FangFang Qi, Guangqi Yang, FuXiang Zheng, JunHua Yang, Xiao Wang, JunXiu Liu, JunTao Zou
Neonatal Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination results in a positive effect on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition. Serum cytokines are considered to be the chief culprit. In this study, serum from BCG-treated mice was identified as Th1 polarized serum. The serum showed an increased ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 and decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6. After Th1 polarized serum was injected intraperitoneally into postnatal mice, the levels of cytokines and ratio of IFN-γ to IL-4 in the serum and hippocampus of postnatal mice showed a similar alteration as those in Th1 polarized serum...
March 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342949/use-of-thiopurines-during-conception-and-pregnancy-not-associated-with-adverse-pregancy-outcomes-or-health-of-infants-at-1-year-in-a-prospective-study
#4
Shannon L Kanis, Alison de Lima-Karagiannis, Nanne K H de Boer, C Janneke van der Woude
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Most data on the safety of thiopurine therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during pregnancy come from retrospective studies, making it difficult to adjust for confounding factors. We performed a prospective cohort study to determine whether thiopurine use affects pregnancy outcomes or health outcomes of children. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of all women who visited the IBD preconception outpatient clinic at our tertiary health center in The Netherlands from December 2008 through May 2016...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342876/increased-activity-of-unlinked-zika-virus-ns2b-ns3-protease-compared-to-linked-zika-virus-protease
#5
Benjamin D Kuiper, Kristin Slater, Nicholas Spellmon, Joshua Holcomb, Prasanna Medapureddy, Kendall M Muzzarelli, Zhe Yang, Reuben Ovadia, Franck Amblard, Iulia A Kovari, Raymond F Schinazi, Ladislau C Kovari
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus spread by daytime-active Aedes spp. mosquitoes such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Previously thought to be a mild infection, the latest ZIKV outbreak in the Americas is causally associated with more severe symptoms as well as severe birth defects, such as microcephaly. Currently no vaccine or antiviral exists. However, recent progress has demonstrated the viral NS2B/NS3 protease may be a suitable target for the development of small-molecule antiviral agents. To better understand the ZIKV protease, we expressed, purified, and characterized unlinked and linked NS2B/NS3 protease corresponding to an isolate from the recent outbreak in Puerto Rico...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342742/should-hpv-vaccination-be-offered-to-mid-adult-women
#6
Meghan Plotnick, Catherine Craig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342711/epidemiological-profile-and-vaccination-coverage-in-splenectomy-patients-in-a-health-area-of-murcia-1993-2012
#7
Yolanda Molina-Salas, Francisco José Romera-Guirado, Jaime Jesús Pérez-Martín, María Nieves Peregrín-González, David Góngora-Soria
OBJECTIVE: Splenectomy patients have a high risk of suffering severe infections, many of them preventable by vaccination. The aim of the study was to analyse the clinical epidemiological characteristics and vaccine coverage of these patients in Health Area III of the Region of Murcia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of patients that were splenectomised during the period 1993-2012, according to the Register of the Basic Minimum Data Set...
March 22, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342669/extended-protection-capabilities-of-an-immature-dendritic-cell-targeting-malaria-sporozoite-vaccine
#8
Kun Luo, Fidel Zavala, James Gordy, Hong Zhang, Richard B Markham
Mouse studies evaluating candidate malaria vaccines have typically examined protective efficacy over the relatively short time frames of several weeks after the final of multiple immunizations. The current study examines the protective ability in a mouse model system of a novel protein vaccine construct in which the adjuvant polyinosinic polycytidilic acid (poly(I:C)) is used in combination with a vaccine in which the immature dendritic cell targeting chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP3α), is fused to the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum (P...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342668/the-herd-effects-of-infant-pcv7-pcv13-sequential-implementation-on-adult-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-six-years-post-implementation-a-nationwide-study-in-israel
#9
Gili Regev-Yochay, Michal Katzir, Jacob Strahilevitz, Galia Rahav, Talya Finn, Dan Miron, Yasmin Maor, Bibiana Chazan, Yehudith Schindler, Ron Dagan
BACKGROUND: Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has nearly eliminated vaccine-type (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children, yet the reported resulting reduction of adult IPD is variable. We present the indirect impact of sequential PCV7/PCV13 implementation in Israel on adult IPD. METHODS: An ongoing nationwide active surveillance was initiated on July 2009 when PCV7 was implemented (with Catch-up). PCV7 was gradually replaced by PCV13 since November 2010...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342667/a-fast-and-efficient-purification-platform-for-cell-based-influenza-viruses-by-flow-through-chromatography
#10
Yu-Fen Tseng, Tsai-Chuan Weng, Chia-Chun Lai, Po-Ling Chen, Min-Shi Lee, Alan Yung-Chih Hu
Since newly emerging influenza viruses with pandemic potentials occurred in recent years, the demand for producing pandemic influenza vaccines for human use is high. For the development of a quick and efficient vaccine production, we proposed an efficient purification platform from the harvest to the purified bulk for the cell-based influenza vaccine production. This platform based on flow-through chromatography and filtration steps and the process only involves a few purification steps, including depth filtration, inactivation by formaldehyde, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, anion-exchange and ligand-core chromatography and sterile filtration...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342666/stabilization-study-of-inactivated-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-vaccine-by-size-exclusion-hplc-and-differential-scanning-calorimetry
#11
Yanli Yang, Qizu Zhao, Zhengjun Li, Lijing Sun, Guanghui Ma, Songping Zhang, Zhiguo Su
The inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has a sedimentation coefficient of 146S, is crucial to the efficacy of vaccine preparations, but extremely unstable in vitro. It is prone to dissociate into smaller particles referred to as 12S with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity; therefore, it is of great importance to find the best condition for stabilizing the FMDV. In the present work, the effects of solution pH and temperature on the dissociation of 146S was investigated and potential stabilizers were screened, with aid of high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) for rapid and quantitative determination of 146S, together with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technology for thermal stability analysis...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342665/recombinant-newcastle-disease-virus-expressing-the-infectious-bronchitis-virus-s1-gene-protects-chickens-against-newcastle-disease-virus-and-infectious-bronchitis-virus-challenge
#12
Ran Zhao, Junfeng Sun, Tianming Qi, Wen Zhao, Zongxi Han, Xiaopu Yang, Shengwang Liu
The recombinant LaSota strain expressing a chimeric IBV S1 gene (rLaSota-S1) was constructed with the S1 gene of the LX4 type IBV ck/CH/LDL/091022. The expression of the S1 protein was detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. The rLaSota-S1 strain was slightly attenuated, and its growth dynamics were similar to that of the parental LaSota strain. Vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced NDV hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, and it protected chickens from challenge with virulent NDV...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342664/a-novel-live-attenuated-anthrax-spore-vaccine-based-on-an-acapsular-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-strain-with-mutations-in-the-htra-lef-and-cya-genes
#13
Theodor Chitlaru, Ma'ayan Israeli, Shahar Rotem, Uri Elia, Erez Bar-Haim, Sharon Ehrlich, Ofer Cohen, Avigdor Shafferman
We recently reported the development of a novel, next-generation, live attenuated anthrax spore vaccine based on disruption of the htrA (High Temperature Requirement A) gene in the Bacillus anthracis Sterne veterinary vaccine strain. This vaccine exhibited a highly significant decrease in virulence in murine, guinea pig and rabbit animal models yet preserved the protective value of the parental Sterne strain. Here, we report the evaluation of additional mutations in the lef and cya genes, encoding for the toxin components lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), to further attenuate the SterneΔhtrA strain and improve its compatibility for human use...
March 22, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342639/sendai-virus-mucosal-vaccination-establishes-lung-resident-memory-cd8%C3%A2-t-cell-immunity-and-boosts-bcg-primed-protection-against-tb-in-mice
#14
Zhidong Hu, Ka-Wing Wong, Hui-Min Zhao, Han-Li Wen, Ping Ji, Hui Ma, Kang Wu, Shui-Hua Lu, Feng Li, Zhong-Ming Li, Tsugumine Shu, Jian-Qing Xu, Douglas B Lowrie, Xiao-Yong Fan
Accumulating evidence has shown the protective role of CD8(+) T cells in vaccine-induced immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) despite controversy over their role in natural immunity. However, the current vaccine BCG is unable to induce sufficient CD8(+) T cell responses, especially in the lung. Sendai virus, a respiratory RNA virus, is here engineered firstly as a novel recombinant anti-TB vaccine (SeV85AB) that encodes Mtb immuno-dominant antigens, Ag85A and Ag85B. A single mucosal vaccination elicited potent antigen-specific T cell responses and a degree of protection against Mtb challenge similar to the effect of BCG in mice...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342625/development-of-a-theory-guided-storytelling-narrative-intervention-to-improve-hpv-vaccination-behavior-save-our-daughters-from-cervical-cancer
#15
Haeok Lee, Minjin Kim, Jeroan Allison, Peter Kiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342423/a-bioinformatics-approach-to-designing-a-zika-virus-vaccine
#16
Sumanta Dey, Ashesh Nandy, Subhash C Basak, Papiya Nandy, Sukhen Das
The Zika virus infections have reached epidemic proportions in the Latin American countries causing severe birth defects and neurological disorders. While several organizations have begun research into design of prophylactic vaccines and therapeutic drugs, computer assisted methods with adequate data resources can be expected to assist in these measures to reduce lead times through bioinformatics approaches. Using 60 sequences of the Zika virus envelope protein available in the GenBank database, our analysis with numerical characterization techniques and several web based bioinformatics servers identified four peptide stretches on the Zika virus envelope protein that are well conserved and surface exposed and are predicted to have reasonable epitope binding efficiency...
March 10, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340428/vaccination-as-a-control-strategy-against-salmonella-infection-in-pigs-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
M L de la Cruz, I Conrado, A Nault, A Perez, L Dominguez, J Alvarez
Consumption or handling of improperly processed or cooked pork is considered one of the top sources for foodborne salmonellosis, a common cause of intestinal disease worldwide. Asymptomatic carrier pigs may contaminate pork at slaughtering; therefore, pre-harvest reduction of Salmonella load can contribute to reduce public health risk. Multiple studies have evaluated the impact of vaccination on controlling Salmonella in swine farms, but results are highly variable due to the heterogeneity in vaccines and vaccination protocols...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340348/the-evolutionary-pathway-to-virulence-of-an-rna-virus
#18
Adi Stern, Ming Te Yeh, Tal Zinger, Matt Smith, Caroline Wright, Guy Ling, Rasmus Nielsen, Andrew Macadam, Raul Andino
Paralytic polio once afflicted almost half a million children each year. The attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) has enabled world-wide vaccination efforts, which resulted in nearly complete control of the disease. However, poliovirus eradication is hampered globally by epidemics of vaccine-derived polio. Here, we describe a combined theoretical and experimental strategy that describes the molecular events leading from OPV to virulent strains. We discover that similar evolutionary events occur in most epidemics...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340344/modified-mrna-vaccines-protect-against-zika-virus-infection
#19
Justin M Richner, Sunny Himansu, Kimberly A Dowd, Scott L Butler, Vanessa Salazar, Julie M Fox, Justin G Julander, William W Tang, Sujan Shresta, Theodore C Pierson, Giuseppe Ciaramella, Michael S Diamond
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340335/experimental-evolution-to-study-virus-emergence
#20
Nathan D Grubaugh, Kristian G Andersen
Understanding how viruses adapt to new environments and acquire new phenotypes is critical for developing comprehensive responses to outbreaks. By studying the emergence of vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks, Stern et al. describe how a combination of sequence analysis and experimental evolution can be used to reveal adaptive pathways.
March 23, 2017: Cell
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