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Svenn-Erik Mamelund
BACKGROUND: Whether morbidity from the 1918-19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was "socially neutral". OBJECTIVES: To study the associations between Influenza like illness (ILI) and socioeconomic status (SES), gender and wave during the 1918-19 influenza pandemic. METHODS: Availability of incidence data on the 1918-19 pandemic is scarce, in particular for waves other than the "fall wave" October-December 1918...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
John M Wood, Jerry P Weir
The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and its applicability to the different types of influenza vaccine being produced at that time. Clinical evidence indicated the relevance of SRID as a potency assay. Unique features of the SRID assay are likely responsible for its longevity even as newer technologies for vaccine characterization have been developed and refined...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Muhammad Akram, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Zahed Mahmood, Awais Altaf, Khalil Ahmad, Naveed Munir, Muhammad Daniyal, Suhaila Nasir, Huma Mehboob
Viral infections are being managed therapeutically through available antiviral regimens with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. The refractory viral infections resistant to available antiviral drugs are alarming threats and a serious health concern. For viral hepatitis, the interferon and vaccine therapies solely are not ultimate solutions due to recurrence of hepatitis C virus. Owing to the growing incidences of viral infections and especially of resistant viral strains, the available therapeutic modalities need to be improved, complemented with the discovery of novel antiviral agents to combat refractory viral infections...
January 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Timothy J Beebe, Robert M Jacobson, Sarah M Jenkins, Kandace A Lackore, Lila J Finney Rutten
OBJECTIVE: To compare response rate and nonresponse bias across two mixed-mode survey designs and two single-mode designs. DATA SOURCES: This experiment was embedded in a clinician survey of knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV vaccination (n = 275). STUDY DESIGN: Clinicians were randomly assigned one of two mixed-mode (mail/web or web/mail) or single-mode designs (mail-only/web-only). Differences in response rate and nonresponse bias were assessed...
January 22, 2018: Health Services Research
Chao-Fen Lin, Han-Kai Jiang, Nai-Chi Chen, Ting-Yu Wang, Tzong-Yueh Chen
Viral nervous necrosis caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is one of the most severe diseases resulting in high fish mortality rates and high economic losses in the giant grouper industry. Various NNV vaccines have been evaluated, such as inactivated viruses, virus-like particles (VLPs), recombinant coat proteins, synthetic peptides of coat proteins, and DNA vaccines. However, a cheaper manufacturing process and effective protection of NNV vaccines for commercial application are yet to be established. Hence, the present study developed a novel subunit vaccine composed of a carrier protein, receptor-binding domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, and tandem-repeated NNV coat protein epitopes by using the structural basis of epitope prediction and the linear array epitope (LAE) technique...
January 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Dong-Qun Liu, Shuai Lu, Ling-Xiao Zhang, Mei Ji, Shu-Ying Liu, Shao-Wei Wang, Rui-Tian Liu
Therapeutic vaccine is a promising approach in cancer therapy. But tumor-associated antigen peptides have weak immunogenicity and cancer patients are often characterized by immunosuppression and tolerance, leading to less efficiency of immunotherapy. We here successfully developed indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) siRNA nanoparticle-coated and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (Trp2)-displayed recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YCP). YCPs had positive charges with a diameter of approximately 5μm, resulting in selective phagocytosis by APC cells...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Ricardo Durães-Carvalho, Marco Salemi
This study applied High-Performance Computing to explore the high-resolution phylodynamics and the evolutionary dynamics of Influenza viruses (IVs) A and B and their subtypes in-depth to identify peptide-based candidates for broad-spectrum vaccine targets. For this purpose, we collected all the available Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) nucleotide and amino acid sequences (more than 100,000) of IVs isolated from all the reservoirs and intermediate hosts species, from all geographic ranges and from different isolation sources, covering a period of almost one century of sampling years...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Krishnamurthy Konduru, Amy C Shurtleff, Sina Bavari, Gerardo Kaplan
Ebola virus (EBOV), classified as a category A agent by the CDC and NIH, requires BSL-4 containment and induces high morbidity and mortality in humans. The 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa underscored the urgent need to develop vaccines and therapeutics to prevent and treat EBOV disease. Neutralization assays are needed to evaluate the efficacy of EBOV vaccines and antibody therapies. Pseudotyped viruses based on nonpathogenic or attenuated vectors reduce the risks involved in the evaluation of neutralizing antibodies against highly pathogenic viruses...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Lucas Deecke, Hana M Dobrovolny
Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of the virus. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic since for new strains there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply drugs periodically. During treatment phases the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
John W Loggie, Shawn R Garner, Charlyn G Partridge, Brian Dixon, Rosemary Knapp, Bryan D Neff
The immunosuppressive effects of androgens are a key component of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH). Here, we use bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test two predictions arising from this hypothesis: (1) natural circulating concentrations of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) will be negatively related with measures of immunity, and (2) immune stimulation will lower circulating 11-KT concentration. We found no evidence for a relationship between natural circulating 11-KT concentration and measures of immunity (lymphocyte and granulocyte counts, respiratory burst, cytokine mRNA levels), and an immune stimulation with Vibrio vaccine did not affect circulating 11-KT concentration...
January 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Runle Li, Quanyu Yang, Le Guo, Lin Feng, Wei Wang, Kunmei Liu, Feng Tang, Ri-Li Ge
Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the infection of the larval stage Echinococcus multilocularis with worldwide distribution especially in the northwest China. It is important to develop a well-tolerated immunoprophylaxis against E. multilocularis for alveolar echinococcosis control. In this study, a prokaryotic expression system for recombinant immunogen LTB-EMY162 was established, and the immunological features, sensitized lymphocyte, IL-4/IFN-γ secreted, prophylactic effect, and therapeutic effect were also evaluated...
January 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Augustus M Kilgore, Seth Welsh, Elizabeth E Cheney, Alisha Chitrakar, Trevor J Blain, Benjamin J Kedl, Chris A Hunter, Nathan D Pennock, Ross M Kedl
It is well accepted that the innate response is a necessary prerequisite to the formation of the adaptive response. This is true for T cell responses against infections or adjuvanted subunit vaccination. However, specific innate parameters with predictive value for the magnitude of an adjuvant-elicited T cell response have yet to be identified. We previously reported how T cell responses induced by subunit vaccination were dependent on the cytokine IL-27. These findings were unexpected, given that T cell responses to an infection typically increase in the absence of IL-27...
January 1, 2018: ImmunoHorizons
Alastair Heffernan, Ella Barber, Nicola A Cook, Asmaa I Gomaa, Yolande X Harley, Christopher R Jones, Aaron G Lim, Zameer Mohamed, Shevanthi Nayagam, Gibril Ndow, Rajiv Shah, Mark W Sonderup, C Wendy Spearman, Imam Waked, Robert J Wilkinson, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
A recent international workshop, organized by the authors, analyzed the obstacles facing the ambitious goal of eliminating viral hepatitis globally. We identified several policy areas critical to reaching elimination targets. These include providing hepatitis B birth-dose vaccination to all infants within 24 hours of birth, preventing the transmission of blood-borne viruses through the expansion of national hemovigilance schemes, implementing the lessons learned from the HIV epidemic regarding safe medical practices to eliminate iatrogenic infection, adopting point-of-care testing to improve coverage of diagnosis, and providing free or affordable hepatitis C treatment to all...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Eunjeong Gweon, Chanwoong Choi, Jaeok Kim, Byungkuk Kim, Hyunkyung Kang, Taejun Park, Sangja Ban, Minseok Bae, Sangjin Park, Jayoung Jeong
Objectives: To circumvent the limitations of the current golden standard method, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, for viability of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, we developed a new method to rapidly and accurately determine the potency of BCG vaccines. Methods: Based on flow cytometry (FACS) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) as the most appropriate fluorescent staining reagent, 17 lots of BCG vaccines for percutaneous administration and 5 lots of BCG vaccines for intradermal administration were analyzed in this study...
December 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Pei Li, Qing Liu, Hongyan Luo, Kang Liang, Yue Han, Kenneth L Roland, Roy Curtiss, Qingke Kong
Salmonella Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, responsible for approximately 21 million infections and 222,000 deaths globally each year. The current licensed vaccines provide moderate protection to recipients aged >2 years. Prior work on typhoid vaccines has focused on injectable Vi capsular polysaccharide or Vi-protein conjugates and live, oral attenuated S. Typhi vaccines to induce humoral anti-Vi antibodies, while the value and importance of anti-O9 antibodies is less well established...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Changfa Xia, Chao Ding, Rongshou Zheng, Siwei Zhang, Hongmei Zeng, Jinfeng Wang, Yilan Liao, Ningxu Zhang, Zhixun Yang, Wanqing Chen
Objective: This study was designed to explore the time trends in geographical variations of cervical cancer mortality in mainland China over the period 1973 to 2013, to provide subnational spatio-temporal patterns for targeted promotion of human papillomavirus vaccine in China. Methods: Data were extracted from three national retrospective death surveys and cancer registry. The rate ratio (RR) was estimated for the aggregated data for seven geographical regions using generalized linear models to evaluate time trends in geographical disparities of cervical cancer mortality...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Xueting Li, Rongshou Zheng, Xuemei Li, Haibin Shan, Qi Wu, Yan Wang, Wanqing Chen
Objective: To analyze the trends of incidence rate and age at diagnosis for cervical cancer incidence in China using population-based cancer registration data from 2000 to 2014. Methods: Data were from National Central Cancer Registry of China. Crude incidence rates (CIRs), age-specific incidence rate, age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), age percentage distribution, standardized age percentage distribution, mean age at diagnosis and standardized mean age at diagnosis for cervical cancer in all areas of China, urban China and rural China were calculated separately...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Bingbing Song, Chao Ding, Wangyang Chen, Huixin Sun, Maoxiang Zhang, Wanqing Chen
Objective: Estimating the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer became necessary to establish prevention measures and healthy policies. The aim of this study was to estimate the updated incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer in 2013 in China. Methods: According to the evaluation criteria developed by the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the data submitted from 255 cancer registries met the required standards in 2013. Cervical cancer cases were retrieved from the national database and combined with the 2013 national population data...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2018: Lancet
Gebeyaw Getnet Mekonnen, Mark Pearson, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Helminths are multicellular parasites affecting nearly three billion people worldwide. To orchestrate a parasitic existence, helminths secrete different molecules, either in soluble form or contained within extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are secreted by most cell types and organisms, and have varied roles in intercellular communication, including immune modulation and pathogenesis. Areas covered: In this review, we describe the nucleic acid and proteomic composition of EVs from helminths, with a focus on the protein vaccine candidates present on the EV surface membrane, and discuss the potential utility of helminth EVs and their constituent proteins in the fight against helminth infections...
January 22, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
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