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Ramy El-Diwany, Valerie J Cohen, Madeleine C Mankowski, Lisa N Wasilewski, Jillian K Brady, Anna E Snider, William O Osburn, Ben Murrell, Stuart C Ray, Justin R Bailey
Broadly-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) may guide vaccine development for highly variable viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), since they target conserved viral epitopes that could serve as vaccine antigens. However, HCV resistance to bNAbs could reduce the efficacy of a vaccine. HC33.4 and AR4A are two of the most potent anti-HCV human bNAbs characterized to date, binding to highly conserved epitopes near the amino- and carboxy-terminus of HCV envelope (E2) protein, respectively. Given their distinct epitopes, it was surprising that these bNAbs showed similar neutralization profiles across a panel of natural HCV isolates, suggesting that some viral polymorphisms may confer resistance to both bNAbs...
February 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Lucila Okuyama Fukasawa, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Fábio Takenori Higa, Euclides Ayres Castilho, Ana Belén Ibarz-Pavón, Claudio Tavares Sacchi
BACKGROUND: The lack of information regarding the burden of acute bacterial meningitis in Latin America leads to a reduction in the estimated incidence rates of the disease, and impairs public health decisions on the use and follow-up of preventive interventions, particularly, the evaluation of existing vaccination policies. The use of the real-time PCR in diagnostic routine procedures has resulted in a substantial increase in confirmed bacterial meningitis cases. However, in resource-poor countries, these assays are only available in reference laboratories...
2017: PloS One
David Easterhoff, M Anthony Moody, Daniela Fera, Hao Cheng, Margaret Ackerman, Kevin Wiehe, Kevin O Saunders, Justin Pollara, Nathan Vandergrift, Rob Parks, Jerome Kim, Nelson L Michael, Robert J O'Connell, Jean-Louis Excler, Merlin L Robb, Sandhya Vasan, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Faruk Sinangil, James Tartaglia, Sanjay Phogat, Thomas B Kepler, S Munir Alam, Hua-Xin Liao, Guido Ferrari, Michael S Seaman, David C Montefiori, Georgia D Tomaras, Stephen C Harrison, Barton F Haynes
: The canary pox vector and gp120 vaccine (ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120) in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial conferred an estimated 31% vaccine efficacy. Although the vaccine Env AE.A244 gp120 is antigenic for the unmutated common ancestor of V1V2 broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAbs), no plasma bnAb activity was induced. The RV305 (NCT01435135) HIV-1 clinical trial was a placebo-controlled randomized double-blinded study that assessed the safety and efficacy of vaccine boosting on B cell repertoires...
February 24, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Jeremy J Bearss, Melissa Hunter, Jennifer L Dankmeyer, Kristen A Fritts, Christopher P Klimko, Chris H Weaver, Jennifer L Shoe, Avery V Quirk, Ronald G Toothman, Wendy M Webster, David P Fetterer, Joel A Bozue, Patricia L Worsham, Susan L Welkos, Kei Amemiya, Christopher K Cote
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a Gram negative bacterium designated as a Tier 1 threat. This bacterium is known to be endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. Inhalational melioidosis has been associated with monsoonal rains in endemic areas and is also a significant concern in the biodefense community. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by non-specific symptomology and also the high rate of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains...
2017: PloS One
Guoyuan Wen, Lintao Li, Qingzhong Yu, Hongling Wang, Qingping Luo, Tengfei Zhang, Rongrong Zhang, Wanpo Zhang, Huabin Shao
In-ovo vaccination is an attractive immunization approach for poultry industry. However, most of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine strains used after hatch are unsafe, as in-ovo vaccines, due to their high pathogenicity for chicken embryos. In this study, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a thermostable NDV strain TS09-C, derived from V4 strain, as in-ovo vaccine. Chickens in-ovo vaccinated with the parental V4 strain displayed greatly reduced hatchability and severe histopathological lesions in both trachea and intestine tissues, while the hatchability was not affected by in-ovo vaccination withTS09-C strain...
2017: PloS One
Marina N Matos, Silvia I Cazorla, Kai Schulze, Thomas Ebensen, Carlos A Guzmán, Emilio L Malchiodi
The development of new adjuvants enables fine modulation of the elicited immune responses. Ideally, the use of one or more adjuvants should result in the induction of a protective immune response against the specific pathogen. We have evaluated the immune response and protection against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice vaccinated with recombinant Tc52 or its N- and C-terminal domains (NTc52 and CTc52) adjuvanted either with the STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) agonist cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a pegylated derivative of α-galactosylceramide (αGC-PEG), or oligodeoxynucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (ODN-CpG)...
February 24, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jun-Hong Ch'ng, Madle Sirel, Arash Zandian, Maria Del Pilar Quintana, Sherwin Chun Leung Chan, Kirsten Moll, Asa Tellgren-Roth, IngMarie Nilsson, Peter Nilsson, Ulrika Qundos, Mats Wahlgren
Variable surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum have been a major research focus since they facilitate parasite sequestration and give rise to deadly malaria complications. Coupled with its potential use as a vaccine candidate, the recent suggestion that the repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) mediate blood group A rosetting and influence blood group distribution has raised the research profile of these adhesins. Nevertheless, detailed investigations into the functions of this highly diverse multigene family remain hampered by the limited number of validated reagents...
February 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Chimeremma Nnadi, Eunice Damisa, Lisa Esapa, Fiona Braka, Ndadilnasiya Waziri, Anisur Siddique, Jaume Jorba, Gatei Wa Nganda, Chima Ohuabunwo, Omotayo Bolu, Eric Wiesen, Usman Adamu
On August 10, 2016, 2 years after the most recent wild poliovirus (WPV) case was reported in Nigeria (in July 2014) (1), two WPV cases were reported in the northeastern state of Borno, which has been severely affected by insurgency-related insecurity since 2013. On September 9 and 26, 2016, two additional WPV cases were reported in Borno in children whose families migrated from security-compromised, inaccessible areas of the state. All four cases were WPV serotype 1 (WPV1), with genetic differences indicating prolonged undetected transmission...
February 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Karoliina Koivisto, Laura Puhakka, Maija Lappalainen, Soile Blomqvist, Harri Saxén, Tea Nieminen
Healthcare workers (HCWs) pose a risk to themselves and their patients if not protected against vaccine-preventable diseases. Alarmingly, lacking immunity has been reported in several studies. We assessed the immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in 157 pediatric HCWs in Helsinki Children's Hospital. The HCWs enrolled answered a questionnaire and gave a serum sample. Antibodies were measured with EIA against MMR-diseases, tetanus and diphtheria toxins, Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis A (HAV), varicella zoster and pertussis toxin...
February 20, 2017: Vaccine
Nicola P Klein, Edwin Lewis, Julia McDonald, Bruce Fireman, Allison Naleway, Jason Glanz, Lisa A Jackson, James G Donahue, Steven J Jacobsen, Eric Weintraub, Roger Baxter
BACKGROUND: Seven to ten days after a first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV; i.e., MMR or MMRV), children have elevated fever risk which can be associated with febrile seizures. This study investigated individual and familial factors associated with fever 7-10days after MCV. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study among children who were <36months of age at receipt of MCV in six sites of the Vaccine Safety Datalink from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2012. We evaluated medically-attended clinic or emergency department visits with a code for fever 7-10days after any MCV ("MCV- associated")...
February 20, 2017: Vaccine
Geraldine Gourru-Lesimple, Cyrille Mathieu, Thomas Thevenet, Vanessa Guillaume-Vasselin, Jean-François Jégou, Cindy G Boer, Katarzyna Tomczak, Louis-Marie Bloyet, Celine Giraud, Sophie Grande, Catherine Goujon, Catherine Cornu, Branka Horvat
BACKGROUND: Measles virus (MV) infection is marked with a skin rash in the acute phase of the disease, which pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Moreover, the association between measles and progression of skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), is still elusive. OBJECTIVE: We have thus analysed the susceptibility of human keratinocytes to MV infection and explore the potential relationship between MV vaccination and the pathogenesis the AD. METHODS: We performed immunovirological characterisation of MV infection in human keratinocytes and then tested the effect of live attenuated measles vaccine on the progression of AD in adult patients, in a prospective, double-blind study...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
Jeremiah James Trausch, Mary Shank-Retzlaff, Thorsten Verch
Measuring vaccine potency is critical for vaccine release and is often accomplished using antibody-based ELISAs. Antibodies can be associated with significant drawbacks that are often overlooked including lot-to-lot variability, problems with cell-line maintenance, limited stability, high cost, and long discovery lead times. Here, we address many of these issues through the development of an aptamer, known as a slow off-rate modified DNA aptamer (SOMAmer®), which targets a vaccine antigen in the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil®...
February 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Nahid Maspi, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Zohreh Sharifi, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Mohammad Saaid Dayer
There is no effective vaccine for the prevention and elimination of leishmaniasis. For this reason, we assessed the protective effects of DNA vaccines containing LeIF, TSA genes alone, or LeIF-TSA fusion against cutaneous leishmaniasis pEGFP-N1 plasmid (empty vector) and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were used as control groups. Therefore, cellular and humoral immune responses were evaluated before and after the challenge with Leishmania major. Lesion diameter was also measured 3-12 weeks after challenge. All immunized mice with plasmid DNA encoding Leishmania antigens induced the partial immunity characterized by increased IFN-γ and IgG2a levels compared with control groups (p < 0...
March 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
José Martins, Alberto Pinto
We use the reinfection SIRI epidemiological model to analyze the impact of education programs and vaccine scares on individuals decisions to vaccinate or not. The presence of the reinfection provokes the novelty of the existence of three Nash equilibria for the same level of the morbidity relative risk instead of a single Nash equilibrium as occurs in the SIR model studied by Bauch and Earn (PNAS 101:13391-13394, 2004). The existence of three Nash equilibria, with two of them being evolutionary stable, introduces two scenarios with relevant and opposite features for the same level of the morbidity relative risk: the low-vaccination scenario corresponding to the evolutionary stable vaccination strategy, where individuals will vaccinate with a low probability; and the high-vaccination scenario corresponding to the evolutionary stable vaccination strategy, where individuals will vaccinate with a high probability...
February 23, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
A J Mathew, A Ganapati, J Kabeerdoss, A Nair, N Gupta, P Chebbi, S K Mandal, Debashish Danda
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been involved in epidemics in African and Asian subcontinents and, of late, has transcended to affect the Americas. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the major vectors for CHIKV infection, which results in dissemination of virus to various vital organs. Entry of virus into these tissues causes infiltration of innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and adaptive immune cells. Macrophages bearing the replicating virus, in turn, secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-17...
February 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Manuel Saavedra-Montañez, Héctor Castillo-Juárez, Iván Sánchez-Betancourt, José Francisco Rivera-Benitez, Humberto Ramírez-Mendoza
Humans and swine are both affected by influenza viruses, and swine are considered a potential source of new influenza viruses. Transmission of influenza viruses across species is well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of different influenza virus subtypes in veterinarians working for the Mexican swine industry, using a hemagglutination inhibition test. All sera tested were collected in July 2011. The data were analysed using a generalized linear model and a linear model to study the possible association of seroprevalence with the age of the veterinarian, vaccination status, and biosecurity level of the farm where they work...
February 23, 2017: Archives of Virology
Xing-Wei Jin, Bo-Ke Liu, Xiang Zhang, Zhong-Hua Zhao, Yuan Shao
The aim of this study is to identify whether vaccinating twice with bladder homogenate can establish a new model of experimental autoimmune cystitis (EAC) in C57BL/6 strain mice. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with bladder homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and boost immunized with bladder homogenate in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) after 2 weeks were used as the EAC model. Mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in CFA or IFA were used as the control. Micturition habits and suprapubic-pelvic pain threshold were measured 4 weeks after primary immunization...
February 23, 2017: Inflammation
Ritu Gaur, Syed Imteyaz Alam, Dev Vrat Kamboj
Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, has attained the status of one of the high priority agents that could be used in the act of bioterrorism. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for this highly infectious intracellular pathogen. Being a listed 'Category A' agent of the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), vaccines and therapeutics are immediately required against this pathogen. In this study, an immunoproteomic approach based on the techniques of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and immunoblotting combined with mass spectrometry (MS) was used for elucidation of immunogenic components and putative vaccine candidates...
February 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
Riana A Arief, Katie Hampson, Andri Jatikusumah, Maria D W Widyastuti, Sunandar, Chaerul Basri, Anak A G Putra, Iwan Willyanto, Agnes T S Estoepangestie, I W Mardiana, I K G N Kesuma, I P Sumantra, Paul F Doherty, M D Salman, Jeff Gilbert, Fred Unger
[This corrects the article on p. 123 in vol. 3, PMID: 28119919.].
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Emilia Escalona, Darwin Sáez, Angel Oñate
Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease affecting several mammalian species that is transmitted to humans by direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. In cattle, brucellosis is almost invariably caused by Brucella abortus. Live, attenuated Brucella vaccines are commonly used to prevent illness in cattle, but can cause abortions in pregnant animals. It is, therefore, desirable to design an effective and safer vaccine against Brucella. We have used specific Brucella antigens that induce immunity and protection against B...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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