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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334694/home-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-effects-of-individual-housing-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-visceral-fat-mass-in-rodents
#1
REVIEW
L Schipper, L Harvey, E M van der Beek, G van Dijk
Rats and mice are widely used to study environmental effects on psychological and metabolic health. Study designs differ widely and are often characterized by varying (social) housing conditions. In itself, housing has a profound influence on physiology and behaviour of rodents, affecting energy balance and sustainable metabolic health. However, evidence for potential long-term consequences of individual versus social housing on body weight and metabolic phenotype is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses assessing effects of individual versus social housing of rats and mice, living under well-accepted laboratory conditions, on measures of metabolic health, including body weight, food intake and visceral adipose tissue mass...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334372/pharmacological-blockade-of-asct2-dependent-glutamine-transport-leads-to-antitumor-efficacy-in-preclinical-models
#2
Michael L Schulte, Allie Fu, Ping Zhao, Jun Li, Ling Geng, Shannon T Smith, Jumpei Kondo, Robert J Coffey, Marc O Johnson, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Joe T Sharick, Melissa C Skala, Jarrod A Smith, Jordan Berlin, M Kay Washington, Michael L Nickels, H Charles Manning
The unique metabolic demands of cancer cells underscore potentially fruitful opportunities for drug discovery in the era of precision medicine. However, therapeutic targeting of cancer metabolism has led to surprisingly few new drugs to date. The neutral amino acid glutamine serves as a key intermediate in numerous metabolic processes leveraged by cancer cells, including biosynthesis, cell signaling, and oxidative protection. Herein we report the preclinical development of V-9302, a competitive small molecule antagonist of transmembrane glutamine flux that selectively and potently targets the amino acid transporter ASCT2...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333665/clinical-and-metabolic-effects-associated-with-weight-changes-and-obeticholic-acid-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
B Hameed, N A Terrault, R M Gill, R Loomba, N Chalasani, J H Hoofnagle, M L Van Natta
BACKGROUND: In a 72-week, randomised controlled trial of obeticholic acid (OCA) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), OCA was superior to placebo in improving serum ALT levels and liver histology. OCA therapy also reduced weight. AIMS: Because weight loss by itself can improve histology, to perform a post hoc analysis of the effects of weight loss and OCA treatment in improving clinical and metabolic features of NASH. METHODS: The analysis was limited to the 200 patients with baseline and end-of-treatment liver biopsies...
January 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332272/comparative-study-of-selenium-and-selenium-nanoparticles-with-reference-to-acute-toxicity-biochemical-attributes-and-histopathological-response-in-fish
#4
Neeraj Kumar, Kishore Kumar Krishnani, Narendra Pratap Singh
Recent studies have demonstrated that selenium (Se) and selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) exhibited toxicity at a higher concentration. The lethal concentration of Se and Se-NPs was estimated as 5.29 and 3.97 mg/L at 96 h in Pangasius hypophthalmus. However, the effect of different definite concentration of Se (4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 mg/L) and Se-NPs (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mg/L) was decided for acute experiment. Selenium and Se-NPs alter the biochemical attributes such as anti-oxidative status [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities], neurotransmitter enzyme, cellular metabolic enzymes, stress marker, and histopathology of P...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332191/genome-wide-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-genes-provides-insights-into-regulatory-network-of-heat-stress-response-in-radish-raphanus-sativus-l
#5
Ronghua Wang, Yi Mei, Liang Xu, Xianwen Zhu, Yan Wang, Jun Guo, Liwang Liu
Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways...
January 13, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332119/autofluorescence-of-skin-advanced-glycation-end-products-as-a-risk-factor-for-open-angle-glaucoma-the-alienor-study
#6
Cedric Schweitzer, Audrey Cougnard-Gregoire, Vincent Rigalleau, Jean-Francois Dartigues, Florence Malet, Marie-Benedicte Rougier, Marie-Noelle Delyfer, Catherine Helmer, Jean-Francois Korobelnik, Cecile Delcourt
Purpose: To analyze the association between skin autofluorescence (sAF), estimating tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and open angle glaucoma (OAG) in an elderly population. Methods: The Antioxydants, Lipides Essentiels, Nutrition and maladies OculaiRes (ALIENOR) study is an on-going epidemiologic population-based study on age-related eye diseases. In 2009 to 2010, 624 subjects, aged 74 years or older, were recruited. All subjects underwent a complete eye examination, including optic disc color photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) examination...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331924/gene-expression-patterns-regulating-the-seed-metabolism-in-relation-to-deterioration-ageing-of-primed-mung-bean-vigna-radiata-l-seeds
#7
Satyendra Nath Sharma, Ankita Maheshwari, Chitra Sharma, Nidhi Shukla
We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD...
January 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331464/somatic-cell-count-based-selection-reduces-susceptibility-to-energy-shortage-during-early-lactation-in-a-sheep-model
#8
J Bouvier-Muller, C Allain, F Enjalbert, Y Farizon, D Portes, G Foucras, R Rupp
During the transition from late gestation to early lactation ruminants experience a negative energy balance (NEB), which is considered to increase susceptibility to mammary infections. Our previous study in 2 divergent lines of sheep selected for high and low somatic cell score (SCS) suggested an association between the response to NEB and genetic susceptibility to mastitis. Forty-eight early-lactation primiparous dairy ewes from the 2 SCS genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups-an NEB group, which was energy restricted and received 60% of the energy requirements for 15 d, and a control-fed group-to obtain 4 balanced groups of 12 ewes: high-SCS positive energy balance, low-SCS positive energy balance, high-SCS NEB, and low-SCS NEB...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331411/tailoring-cyanobacterial-cell-factory-for-improved-industrial-properties
#9
REVIEW
Guodong Luan, Xuefeng Lu
Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. In actual outdoor conditions, active cell growth and product synthesis is restricted to narrow light exposure windows of the day-night cycles and is threatened by diverse physical, chemical, and biological environmental stresses...
January 10, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331284/effects-of-an-experimental-heat-wave-on-fatty-acid-composition-in-two-mediterranean-seagrass-species
#10
Pedro Beca-Carretero, Freddy Guihéneuf, Lázaro Marín-Guirao, Jaime Bernardeau-Esteller, Rocío García-Muñoz, Dagmar B Stengel, Juan M Ruiz
Global warming is emerging as one of the most critical threats to terrestrial and marine species worldwide. This study assessed the effects of simulated warming events in culture on two seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, which play a key role in coastal ecosystems of the Mediterranean Sea. Changes in fatty acids as key metabolic indicators were assessed in specimens from two geographical populations of each species adapted to different in situ temperature regimes. Total fatty acid (TFA) content and composition were compared in C...
January 10, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#11
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330893/mitogenomic-differences-between-the-normal-and-tumour-cells-of-colorectal-cancer-patients
#12
Katarzyna Skonieczna, Boris Malyarchuk, Arkadiusz Jawień, Andrzej Marszałek, Zbigniew Banaszkiewicz, Paweł Jarmocik, Tomasz Grzybowski
So far, a reliable spectrum of mitochondrial DNA mutations in colorectal cancer cells is still unknown, and neither is their significance in carcinogenesis. Indeed, it remains debatable whether mtDNA mutations are "drivers" or "passengers" of colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, we analyzed 200 mitogenomes from normal and cancer tissues of 100 colorectal cancer patients. Minority variant mutations were detected at the 1% level. We showed that somatic mutations frequently occur in colorectal cancer cells (75%) and are randomly distributed across the mitochondrial genome...
January 12, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330822/biochemical-changes-in-mussels-submitted-to-different-time-periods-of-air-exposure
#13
Madalena Andrade, Amadeu Soares, Etelvina Figueira, Rosa Freitas
Intertidal species face multiple stressors on a daily basis due to their particular habitat. The submergence at high tide in the aquatic environment and emergence at low tide to the aerial environment, associated with a wide variation of abiotic parameters, along with anthropogenic contamination are some of the daily stresses that these organisms are exposed to. With such a dynamic environment, organisms developed strategies that allow them to avoid or tolerate these stressors. Among these species, bivalves are some of the most hypoxia tolerant, being commonly used as a biomonitoring tool due to their capacity to accumulate pollutants from the environment and reflect the imposed toxic impacts...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330721/transcriptomic-analysis-and-discovery-of-genes-in-the-response-of-arachis-hypogaea-to-drought-stress
#14
Xiaobo Zhao, Chunjuan Li, Shubo Wan, Tingting Zhang, Caixia Yan, Shihua Shan
The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop species that is threatened by drought stress. The genome sequences of peanut, which was officially released in 2016, may help explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie drought tolerance in this species. We report here a gene expression profiling of A. hypogaea to gain a global view of its drought resistance. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we analysed differential gene expression in response to drought stress in the drought-resistant peanut cultivar J11...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330620/impact-of-sirtuin-1-expression-on-h3k56-acetylation-and-oxidative-stress-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-with-resveratrol-supplementation
#15
Simona Bo, Gabriele Togliatto, Roberto Gambino, Valentina Ponzo, Giusy Lombardo, Rosalba Rosato, Maurizio Cassader, Maria Felice Brizzi
AIMS: Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) down-regulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with epigenetic markers of oxidative stress. We herein aim to evaluate whether an increase in SIRT-1 expression affects histone 3 acetylation at the 56 lysine residue (H3K56ac) in T2DM patients randomly selected to receive either resveratrol (40 mg or 500 mg) or a placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome is changes in the H3K56ac level by variation in SIRT-1 expression and the secondary outcome is the evidence of association between SIRT-1 level, antioxidant markers (TAS), and metabolic variables...
January 12, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330559/a-post-translational-balancing-act-the-good-and-the-bad-of-sumoylation-in-pancreatic-islets
#16
EDITORIAL
Patrick E MacDonald
Post-translational modification of proteins contributes to the control of cell function and survival. The balance of these in insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells is important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Protection from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species is required for beta cell survival, but if this happens at the expense of insulin secretory function then the ability of islets to respond to changing metabolic conditions may be compromised. In this issue of Diabetologia, He et al ( https://doi...
January 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329860/ethyl-carbamate-an-emerging-food-and-environmental-toxicant
#17
REVIEW
Vemana Gowd, Hongming Su, Petr Karlovsky, Wei Chen
Ethyl carbamate (EC), a chemical substance widely present in fermented food products and alcoholic beverages, has been classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). New evidence indicates that long-term exposure to EC may cause neurological disorders. Formation of EC in food and its metabolism have therefore been studied extensively and analytical methods for EC in various food matrices have been established. Due to the potential threat of EC to human health, mitigation strategies for EC in food products by physical, chemical, enzymatic, and genetic engineering methods have been developed...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#18
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329783/comparative-genome-based-cis-elements-analysis-in-the-5-upstream-and-3-downstream-region-of-cell-wall-invertase-and-phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#19
S A Sheshadri, M J Nishanth, N Harita, P Brindha, S Bindu
Plant secondary metabolites are widely used in human disease treatment; though primary metabolism provides precursors for secondary metabolism, not much has been studied to unravel the link connecting both the processes. Most common form of gene regulation interconnecting diverse metabolism occurs at the transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional level mediated by regulatory cis-elements. The present study aims at understanding the common cis-elements network connecting the major primary metabolic enzyme, cell wall invertase (CWIN) and secondary metabolism genes in Nicotiana benthamiana (N...
November 13, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329517/genome-wide-analyses-of-direct-target-genes-of-four-rice-nac-domain-transcription-factors-involved-in-drought-tolerance
#20
Pil Joong Chung, Harin Jung, Yang Do Choi, Ju-Kon Kim
BACKGROUND: Plant stress responses and mechanisms determining tolerance are controlled by diverse sets of genes. Transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated in conferring drought tolerance under drought stress conditions, and the identification of their target genes can elucidate molecular regulatory networks that orchestrate tolerance mechanisms. RESULTS: We generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing the 4 rice TFs, OsNAC5, 6, 9, and 10, under the control of the root-specific RCc3 promoter...
January 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
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