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Metabolic stress

X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, X M Li, D D Ma, S S Chang
The intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3-4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Mary C Davis, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, Ellen WanHeung Yeung, Linda J Luecken, Alex J Zautra, Michael R Irwin
Background: Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of cognitive deficits in adulthood, a relation that is likely mediated by stress-sensitive psychological and physiological indicators. Purpose: To evaluate whether the link between exposure to childhood abuse and cognitive function in middle adulthood is mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6), metabolic risk, and depressive mood symptoms. Methods: Participants were 770 adults aged 40-65 recruited from the community, who completed the following: (i) a questionnaire assessing exposure to abuse prior to age 18, (ii) a phone interview assessing current depressive mood symptoms, and (iii) a home visit that included blood sampling for evaluation of IL-6 and assessment of metabolic risk indices...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Jie Meng, Wen-Xiong Wang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Lead (Pb) is one of the ubiquitous and toxic elements in aquatic environment. In oysters, gills and digestive glands are the main target organs for Pb-induced toxicity, but there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity. The present study investigated the Pb-induced toxicity mechanisms in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) based on transcriptome, phenotypic anchoring, and validation of targeted gene expression. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the differential Pb toxicity mechanisms in the tissues...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Soad Saleh, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
RATIONALE: Aspartame (L-aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester) is a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) approved for use in more than 6000 dietary products and pharmaceuticals consumed by the general public including adults and children, pregnant and nursing mothers. However a recent prospective study reported a doubling of the risk of being overweight amongst 1-year old children whose mothers consumed NNS-sweetened beverages daily during pregnancy. We have previously shown that chronic aspartame (ASP) exposure commencing in utero may detrimentally affect adulthood adiposity status, glucose metabolism and aspects of behavior and spatial cognition, and that this can be modulated by developmental N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade with the competitive antagonist CGP 39551 (CGP)...
2018: PloS One
Jie Han, Leslie A Goldstein, Wen Hou, Suman Chatterjee, Timothy F Burns, Hannah Rabinowich
Macroautophagy/autophagy has emerged as a resistance mechanism to anticancer drug treatments that induce metabolic stress. Certain tumors, including a subset of KRAS-mutant NSCLCs have been shown to be addicted to autophagy, and potentially vulnerable to autophagy inhibition. Currently, autophagy inhibition is being tested in the clinic as a therapeutic component for tumors that utilize this degradation process as a drug resistance mechanism. The current study provides evidence that HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) inhibition diminishes the expression of ATG7, thereby impeding the cellular capability of mounting an effective autophagic response in NSCLC cells...
March 21, 2018: Autophagy
Sheila Sharp, Scott J Mitchell, Monique Vallée, Elena Kuzmanova, Michelle Cooper, Delia Belelli, Jeremy J Lambert, Jeffrey T-J Huang
Neurosteroids are brain-derived steroids, capable of rapidly modulating neuronal excitability in a non-genomic manner. Dysregulation of their synthesis, or metabolism has been implicated in many pathological conditions. Here, we describe an isotope dilution based targeted and non-targeted (ID-TNT) profiling of carbonyl neurosteroids/steroids. The method combines stable isotope dilution, hydroxylamine derivatization, high-resolution MS scanning and data dependent MS/MS analysis, allowing absolute quantification of pregnenolone, progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone, 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone and 3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone, and relative quantification of other carbonyl containing steroids...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Diego de Souza Gonçalves, Marina da Silva Ferreira, Susie Coutinho Liedke, Kamilla Xavier Gomes, Gabriel Afonso de Oliveira, Pedro Ernesto Lopes Leão, Gabriele Vargas Cesar, Sergio H Seabra, Juliana Reis Cortines, Arturo Casadevall, Leonardo Nimrichter, Gilberto Barbosa Domont, Magno Rodrigues Junqueira, Jose Mauro Peralta, Allan J Guimaraes
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and by contaminating medical devices such as heart valves and contact lenses, they cause a broad range of clinical presentations to humans. Although several molecules have been described to play a role in Ac pathogenesis, including parasite host-tissue invasion and escaping of host-defense, little information is available on their mechanisms of secretion. Herein, we describe the molecular components secreted by Ac, under different protein availability conditions to simulate host niches...
March 21, 2018: Virulence
Maria Del Mar Amador, Marion Masingue, Rabab Debs, Foudil Lamari, Vincent Perlbarg, Emmanuel Roze, Bertrand Degos, Fanny Mochel
BACKGROUND: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare neurodegenerative disease related to sterols metabolism. It affects both central and peripheral nervous systems but treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) has been reported to stabilize clinical scores and improve nerve conduction parameters. Few quantitative brain structural studies have been conducted to assess the effect of CDCA in CTX. METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected retrospectively clinical, neurophysiological, and quantitative brain structural data in a cohort of 14 patients with CTX treated by CDCA over a mean period of 5 years...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Shimpei Morimoto, Koji Yahara
Protein expression is regulated by the production and degradation of mRNAs and proteins but the specifics of their relationship are controversial. Although technological advances have enabled genome-wide and time-series surveys of mRNA and protein abundance, recent studies have shown paradoxical results, with most statistical analyses being limited to linear correlation, or analysis of variance applied separately to mRNA and protein datasets. Here, using recently analyzed genome-wide time-series data, we have developed a statistical analysis framework for identifying which types of genes or biological gene groups have significant correlation between mRNA and protein abundance after accounting for potential time delays...
March 2018: Heliyon
Peng Cui, Hongxia Niu, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Persister cells are metabolically quiescent multi-drug tolerant fraction of a genetically sensitive bacterial population and are thought to be responsible for relapse of many persistent infections. Persisters can be formed naturally in the stationary phase culture, and also can be induced by bacteriostatic antibiotics. However, the molecular basis of bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister formation is unknown. Here, we established a bacteriostatic antibiotic induced persister model and screened the Escherichia coli single gene deletion mutant library for mutants with defect in rifampin or tetracycline induced persistence to ofloxacin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Laurence Vico, Alan Hargens
Space sojourns are challenging for life. The ability of the human body to adapt to these extreme conditions has been noted since the beginning of human space travel. Skeletal alterations that occur during spaceflight are now better understood owing to tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT, and murine models help researchers to understand cellular and matrix changes that occur in bone and that are difficult to measure in humans. However, questions remain with regard to bone adaptation and osteocyte fate, as well as to interactions of the skeleton with fluid shifts towards the head and with the vascular system...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Wei-Wei Chen, Yu-Jen Chao, Wan-Hsin Chang, Jui-Fen Chan, Yuan-Hao Howard Hsu
Chronic inflammation and concomitant oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial dysfunction due to cardiolipin (CL) abnormalities in the mitochondrial inner membrane. To examine the responses of mitochondria to inflammation, macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were activated by Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA) in our inflammation model, and then the mitochondrial CL profile, mitochondrial activity, and the mRNA expression of CL metabolism-related genes were examined. The results demonstrated that KLA activation caused CL desaturation and the partial loss of mitochondrial activity...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alex B Addinsall, Craig R Wright, Sof Andrikopoulos, Chris van der Poel, Nicole Stupka
Chronic metabolic stress leads to cellular dysfunction, characterized by excessive reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The ER is gaining recognition as a key organelle in integrating cellular stress responses. ER homeostasis is tightly regulated by a complex antioxidant system, which includes the seven ER-resident selenoproteins - 15 kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins S, N, K, M and T...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Cristhiaan D Ochoa, Ru Feng Wu, Lance S Terada
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces the vast majority of all proteins secreted into the extracellular space, including hormones and cytokines, as well as cell surface receptors and other proteins which interact with the environment. Accordingly, this organelle controls essentially all vital links to a cell's external milieu, responding to systemic metabolic, inflammatory, endocrine, and mechanical stimuli. The central role the ER plays in meeting protein synthetic and quality control requirements in the face of such demands is matched by an extensive and versatile ER stress response signaling network...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Jelena Krstic, Markus Galhuber, Tim J Schulz, Michael Schupp, Andreas Prokesch
Lifestyle-related disorders, such as the metabolic syndrome, have become a primary risk factor for the development of liver pathologies that can progress from hepatic steatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis, to the most severe condition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While the prevalence of liver pathologies is steadily increasing in modern societies, there are currently no approved drugs other than chemotherapeutic intervention in late stage HCC. Hence, there is a pressing need to identify and investigate causative molecular pathways that can yield new therapeutic avenues...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wilson Huanca-Mamani, Raúl Arias-Carrasco, Steffany Cárdenas-Ninasivincha, Marcelo Rojas-Herrera, Gonzalo Sepúlveda-Hermosilla, José Carlos Caris-Maldonado, Elizabeth Bastías, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been defined as transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, which lack significant protein coding potential and possess critical roles in diverse cellular processes. Long non-coding RNAs have recently been functionally characterized in plant stress-response mechanisms. In the present study, we perform a comprehensive identification of lncRNAs in response to combined stress induced by salinity and excess of boron in the Lluteño maize, a tolerant maize landrace from Atacama Desert, Chile...
March 20, 2018: Genes
Keith G Avin, Julian A Vallejo, Neal X Chen, Kun Wang, Chad D Touchberry, Marco Brotto, Sarah L Dallas, Sharon M Moe, Michael J Wacker
Skeletal muscle dysfunction accompanies the clinical disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. In both disorders fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, becomes chronically elevated. FGF23 has been shown to play a direct role in cardiac muscle dysfunction; however, it is unknown whether FGF23 signaling can also directly induce skeletal muscle dysfunction. We found expression of potential FGF23 receptors ( Fgfr1-4) and α-Klotho in muscles of two animal models (CD-1 and Cy/+ rat, a naturally occurring rat model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral Bone Disorder) as well as C2 C12 myoblasts and myotubes...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chao-Liang Tang, Juan Li, Zhe-Tao Zhang, Bo Zhao, Shu-Dong Wang, Hua-Ming Zhang, Si Shi, Yang Zhang, Zhong-Yuan Xia
Dexmedetomidine has sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-sympathetic, and anti-shivering effects. Dexmedetomidine might be effective in combination with sevoflurane for anesthesia, but prospective randomized controlled clinical trials with which to verify this hypothesis are lacking. In total, 120 patients who underwent embolization of an intracranial aneurysm were recruited from Anhui Provincial Hospital and Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University of China and randomly allocated to two groups. After intraoperative administration of 2% to 3% sevoflurane inhalation, one group of patients received pump-controlled intravenous injection of 1...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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