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Chondroitin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209711/serotype-3-pneumococci-sequester-platelet-derived-human-thrombospondin-1-via-the-adhesin-and-immune-evasion-protein-hic
#1
Ulrike Binsker, Thomas P Kohler, Krystin Krauel, Sylvia Kohler, Johanna Habermeyer, Hansjörg Schwertz, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 strains emerge frequently within clinical isolates of invasive diseases. Bacterial invasion into deeper tissues is associated with colonization and immune evasion mechanisms. Thus, pneumococci express a versatile repertoire of surface proteins sequestering and interacting specifically with components of the human extracellular matrix and serum. Hic, a PspC-like pneumococcal surface protein possesses vitronectin and Factor H binding activity. Here, we show that heterologously expressed Hic domains interact, similar to the classical PspC molecule, with human matricellular thrombospondin-1 (hTSP-1)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209294/sulfated-glycosaminoglycans-and-non-classically-secreted-proteins-basic-fgf-and-epimorphin-coordinately-regulate-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-cell-behaviors-of-human-scar-dermal-fibroblasts
#2
Tomoatsu Horigome, Shinya Takumi, Kota Shirai, Takumi Kido, Natsumi Hagiwara-Chatani, Ayumi Nakashima, Naoki Adachi, Hiroko Yano, Yohei Hirai
BACKGROUND: Upon skin injuries, dermal fibroblasts actively produce transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which leads to the formation of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive granulation tissues. The hyperplasia or incomplete regression of these tissues subsequently causes scar formation in the skin, where sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), side chains of unique proteoglycans, are supposed to play important roles. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of sulfated GAGs on dermal cell behaviors triggered by the TGF-β signaling, along with its possible regulators basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and cell surface epimorphin...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207930/elevation-of-glycosaminoglycans-in-the-amniotic-fluid-of-a-fetus-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-vii
#3
Francyne Kubaski, Ana Carolina Brusius-Facchin, Robert W Mason, Pravin Patel, Maira G Burin, Kristiane Michelin-Tirelli, Rejane Gus Kessler, Fernanda Bender, Sandra Leistner-Segal, Carolina A Moreno, Denise P Cavalcanti, Roberto Giugliani, Shunji Tomatsu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify GAGs in amniotic fluid (AF) from an MPS VII fetus compared with age-matched fetuses obtained from normal pregnancies. METHOD: Disaccharides were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), compared to age-matched controls. Enzyme assay was performed in AF supernatant or cultured amniocytes. GUSB was analyzed by next generation sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine with a customized panel...
February 16, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198185/irmpd-spectroscopy-sheds-new-infrared-light-on-the-sulfate-pattern-of-carbohydrates
#4
Baptiste Schindler, Loic Barnes, Christopher John Gray, Stéphane Chambert, Sabine L Flitsch, Jos Oomens, Régis Daniel, Abdul-Rahman Allouche, Isabelle Compagnon
IR spectroscopy of gas phase ions is proposed to resolve positional isomers of sulfated carbohydrates. Mass spectrometric fingerprints and gas phase vibrational spectra in the near and mid IR regions were obtained for sulfated monosaccharides, yielding unambiguous signatures of sulfated isomers. We report the first systematic exploration of the biologically relevant but notoriously challenging deprotonated state in the near IR region. Remarkably, anions displayed very atypical vibrational profiles, which challenge the well-established DFT (Density Functionnal Theory) modeling...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197173/targeting-cell-surface-receptors-for-axon-regeneration-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Menghon Cheah, Melissa R Andrews
Axon regeneration in the CNS is largely unsuccessful due to excess inhibitory extrinsic factors within lesion sites together with an intrinsic inability of neurons to regrow following injury. Recent work demonstrates that forced expression of certain neuronal transmembrane receptors can recapitulate neuronal growth resulting in successful growth within and through inhibitory lesion environments. More specifically, neuronal expression of integrin receptors such as alpha9beta1 integrin which binds the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C, trk receptors such as trkB which binds the neurotrophic factor BDNF, and receptor PTPσ which binds chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, have all been show to significantly enhance regeneration of injured axons...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192611/deficiency-of-trek-1-potassium-channel-exacerbates-secondary-injury-following-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#6
Yongkang Fang, Xiaojiang Huang, Yue Wan, Hao Tian, Yeye Tian, Wei Wang, Suiqiang Zhu, Minjie Xie
Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves complex pathological process which can be complicated by secondary injury. TREK-1 is a member of the two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel family, which can be modulated by a number of physiological and pathological stimuli. Recent studies suggest that TREK-1 plays an active role in depression, pain and neuroprotection. However, its role in the pathological process after SCI remains unclear. In this study, we tested the expression and function of TREK-1 in spinal cord of mice after traumatic SCI...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192075/the-effect-of-additive-compounds-on-glycerol-induced-damage-to-human-chondrocytes
#7
Joshua Hahn, Leila Laouar, Janet A W Elliott, Gregory S Korbutt, Nadr M Jomha
High concentrations of cryoprotective agents are required for cryopreservation techniques such as vitrification. Glycerol is a common cryoprotective agent used in cryopreservation protocols but this agent is toxic at high concentrations. This work is an attempt to mitigate the toxic effects of high concentrations of glycerol on intact chondrocytes in human knee articular cartilage from total knee arthroplasty patients by simultaneous exposure to glycerol and a variety of additive compounds. The resulting cell viability in the cartilage samples as measured by membrane integrity staining showed that, in at least one concentration or in combination, all of the tested additive compounds (tetramethylpyrazine, ascorbic acid, chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine sulphate) were able to reduce the deleterious effects of glycerol exposure when examination of membrane integrity took place on a delayed time frame...
February 10, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170539/objective-quantification-of-changes-in-corneal-clouding-over-time-in-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis
#8
Ahmed Javed, Tariq Aslam, Simon A Jones, Jane Ashworth
Purpose: We determine objective changes in corneal opacification levels over time in patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) treated with enzyme replacement therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. A prospective cohort study was done of 9 patients with MPS I (Hurler) or VI (Maroteaux-Lamy). Methods: Quantification of corneal clouding using the Iris camera and full ophthalmic examination, including subjective assessment of corneal clouding, was done in 2011 and repeated in 2015/2016...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170164/perineuronal-nets-and-vocal-plasticity-in-songbirds-a-proposed-mechanism-to-explain-the-difference-between-closed-ended-and-open-ended-learning
#9
Gilles Cornez, Farrah N Madison, Annemie Van der Linden, Charlotte Cornil, Kathleen M Yoder, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Perineuronal nets (PNN) are aggregations of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans surrounding the soma and proximal processes of neurons, mostly GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin. They limit the plasticity of their afferent synaptic connections. In zebra finches PNN develop in an experience-dependent manner in the song control nuclei HVC and RA (nucleus robustus arcopallialis) when young birds crystallize their song. Because songbird species that are open-ended learners tend to recapitulate each year the different phases of song learning until their song crystallizes at the beginning of the breeding season, we tested whether seasonal changes in PNN expression would be found in the song control nuclei of a seasonally breeding species such as the European starling...
February 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159857/glycosylation-is-a-global-target-for-androgen-control-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#10
Jennifer Munkley
Changes in glycan composition are common in cancer and can play important roles in all of the recognised hallmarks of cancer. We recently identified glycosylation as a global target for androgen control in prostate cancer cells and further defined a set of 8 glycosylation enzymes (GALNT7, ST6GalNAc1, GCNT1, UAP1, PGM3, CSGALNACT1, ST6GAL1 and EDEM3), which are also significantly up-regulated in prostate cancer tissue. These 8 enzymes are under direct control of the androgen receptor (AR) and are linked to the synthesis of important cancer-associated glycans such as sialyl-Tn (sTn), sialyl LewisX (SLeX), O-GlcNAc and chondroitin sulphate...
February 3, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156029/cationic-imprinting-of-pb-ii-within-composite-networks-based-on-bovine-or-fish-chondroitin-sulfate
#11
Vanessa R A Ferreira, Manuel A Azenha, M Teresa Mêna, Cosme Moura, Carlos M Pereira, Ricardo I Pérez-Martín, José A Vázquez, A Fernando Silva
Imprinting chondroitin sulfate (CS)/silica composites with Pb(II) and Cu(II) cations was explored with CS of bovine and different fish species origin. The process was based on the assumption that particular arrangements of the linear CS chains in aqueous solution, induced so as to accommodate cross complexation with the cations, would be embodied into a tridimensional matrix created through an organoalkoxysilane sol-gel scheme. The presence of Cu(II) in the synthesis of the composites did not result in the production of significantly stronger Cu(II)-oriented binding arrangements, and therefore, the imprinting was not successful...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155831/chondroitin-application-in-the-treatment-of-degenerative-joint-disease
#12
Wiesław Tomaszewski
Chondroitin is an organic compound, belonging to the group of glycosaminoglycans. In the treatment of degenerative joint disease, aka osteoarthritis, chondroitin sulphate is applied as a medicine or a dietary supplement. The biological importance of chondroitin sulphate has been already largely determined. The newest data on glycobiology research suggest that proteoglycans, as well as their complex polysaccharide macroparticles not only are the structural elements, but also they participate in multiple metabolic processes at a molecular level as well as in the physiological processes, regulating this type of mechanisms...
November 30, 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153461/purification-structural-characterization-and-anticoagulant-properties-of-fucosylated-chondroitin-sulfate-isolated-from-holothuria-mexicana
#13
Jiaojiao Mou, Cong Wang, Wenjing Li, Jie Yang
A novel fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (HmG) was isolated from sea cucumber Holothuria mexicana, the structure of which was characterized by monosaccharide composition, disaccharide composition, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectrum, additionally with two dimensional NMR spectrum of degraded HmG (DHmG). The backbone of HmG was identified as chondroitin 6-O sulfate, while the major O-4 sulfated fucose branches linked to O-3 position of glucuronic acid in almost every disaccharide unit. The anticoagulant activities of HmG and DHmG were assessed and compared with heparin and low molecular weight heparin...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151637/interaction-of-zika-virus-envelope-protein-with-glycosaminoglycans
#14
So Young Kim, Jing Zhao, Xinyue Liu, Keith Fraser, Lei Lin, Xing Zhang, Fuming Zhang, Jonathan S Dordick, Robert J Linhardt
In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on Zika Virus (ZIKV), due to its association with severe fetal anomalies of congenitally infected humans. This has led to urgent efforts by academic, federal, and industry research groups to better understand pathogenesis of ZIKV and to developing detection methods, therapeutic strategies and vaccines. Although we still do not have the entire picture of the pathogenesis of ZIKV, extensive research has been conducted on related pathogenic flaviviruses (i...
February 2, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144573/glucosamine-and-chondroitin-for-the-treatment-of-osteoarthritis
#15
EDITORIAL
Haris S Vasiliadis, Konstantinos Tsikopoulos
The prevalence of primary or idiopathic osteoarthritis (OA) of knee and hip joints has substantially increased in general population during the last decades. Analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are currently extensively used as non-surgical treatment options. However, they act as symptomatic treatments, not offering a cure of OA and they are accused for an increased risk of adverse events. Glucosamine (GL) and chondroitin (CH) are nutritional supplements that have recently gained widespread use as treatment options for OA...
January 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138236/deposition-of-insoluble-elastin-by-pulmonary-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-copd-is-increased-by-treatment-with-versican-sirna
#16
Lian Wu, Jing Zhang, Jie Ming Qu, Chun-Xue Bai, Mervyn J Merrilees
A reduced content of alveolar elastic fibers is a key feature of COPD lung. Despite continued elastogenic potential by alveolar fibroblasts in the lung affected by COPD, repair of elastic fibers does not take place, which is due to increased levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican that inhibits the assembly of tropoelastin into fibers. In this study, primary pulmonary fibroblast cell lines from COPD and non-COPD patients were treated with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against versican to determine if knockdown of versican could restore the deposition of insoluble elastin...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132717/corrigendum-to-chondroitin-sulfate-is-involved-in-the-hypercalcification-of-the-organic-matrix-of-bovine-peritubular-dentin-archives-of-oral-biology-62-2016-93-100
#17
Jason R Dorvee, Lauren Gerkowicz, Sara Bahmanyar, Alix Deymier-Black, Arthur Veis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132690/mutations-in-extl3-cause-neuro-immuno-skeletal-dysplasia-syndrome
#18
Machteld M Oud, Paul Tuijnenburg, Maja Hempel, Naomi van Vlies, Zemin Ren, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Machiel H Jansen, René Santer, Jessika Johannsen, Chiara Bacchelli, Marielle Alders, Rui Li, Rosalind Davies, Lucie Dupuis, Catherine M Cale, Ronald J A Wanders, Steven T Pals, Louise Ocaka, Chela James, Ingo Müller, Kai Lehmberg, Tim Strom, Hartmut Engels, Hywel J Williams, Phil Beales, Ronald Roepman, Patricia Dias, Han G Brunner, Jan-Maarten Cobben, Christine Hall, Taila Hartley, Polona Le Quesne Stabej, Roberto Mendoza-Londono, E Graham Davies, Sérgio B de Sousa, Davor Lessel, Heleen H Arts, Taco W Kuijpers
EXTL3 regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), important for both skeletal development and hematopoiesis, through the formation of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). By whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous missense mutations c.1382C>T, c.1537C>T, c.1970A>G, and c.2008T>G in EXTL3 in nine affected individuals from five unrelated families. Notably, we found the identical homozygous missense mutation c.1382C>T (p.Pro461Leu) in four affected individuals from two unrelated families. Affected individuals presented with variable skeletal abnormalities and neurodevelopmental defects...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131394/novel-adenovirus-encoded-virus-like-particles-displaying-the-placental-malaria-associated-var2csa-antigen
#19
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Mafalda Resende, Ali Salanti, Morten A Nielsen, Peter J Holst
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum presents antigens on the infected erythrocyte surface that bind human receptors expressed on the vascular endothelium. The VAR2CSA mediated binding to a distinct chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) is a crucial step in the pathophysiology of placental malaria and the CSA binding region of VAR2CSA has been identified as a promising vaccine target against placental malaria. Here we designed adenovirus encoded virus-like particles (VLP) by co-encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) gag and VAR2CSA...
January 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130993/gold-nanoclusters-as-switch-off-fluorescent-probe-for-detection-of-uric-acid-based-on-the-inner-filter-effect-of-hydrogen-peroxide-mediated-enlargement-of-gold-nanoparticles
#20
Yanyan Liu, Hongchang Li, Bin Guo, Lijuan Wei, Bo Chen, Youyu Zhang
Herein we report a novel switch-off fluorescent probe for highly selective determination of uric acid (UA) based on the inner filter effect (IFE), by using poly-(vinylpyrrolidone)-protected gold nanoparticles (PVP-AuNPs) and chondroitin sulfate-stabilized gold nanoclusters (CS-AuNCs) as the IFE absorber/fluorophore pair. In this IFE-based fluorometric assay, the newly designed CS-AuNCs were explored as an original fluorophore and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -driven formed PVP-AuNPs can be a powerful absorber to influence the excitation of the fluorophore, due to the complementary overlap between the absorption band of PVP-AuNPs and the emission band of CS-AuNCs...
January 17, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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