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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343569/myxoma-virus-m083-is-a-virulence-factor-which-mediates-systemic-dissemination
#1
A M Wolfe, K M Dunlap, A C Smith, M Y Bartee, E Bartee
Poxviruses are large, DNA viruses whose protein capsid is surrounded by one or more lipid envelopes. Embedded into these lipid envelopes are three conserved viral proteins which are thought to mediate binding of virions to target cells. While the function of these proteins has been studied in vitro, their specific roles during the pathogenesis of poxviral disease remains largely unclear. Here we present data demonstrating that the putative chondroitin binding protein, M083, from the leporipoxvirus myxoma is a significant virulence factor during infection of susceptible Oryctolagus rabbits...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341524/-what-s-new-in-ambulatory-general-internal-medicine%C3%A2
#2
Annick Gerber, Camille Buffle Genecand, Thierry Mach, David Schrumpf, Ana Rita Forte Marques, Jean Dupraz, Thomas Schmid
Many treatments are used every day in general medicine without any evidence of their efficacy. This last year, three randomised studies tried to prove the clinical utility of chondroitin/glucosamine in arthritis, cranberry in urinary infections, and acupuncture in migraine. Screening and management of prostate cancer are still controversial. Two recent studies help us advising our patients on this difficult topic. Muscle side effects from statins are well known and have been widely relayed by the press these last years, although myopathies are rare in clinical trials...
January 17, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341502/advances-in-intravesical-therapy-for-bladder-pain-syndrome-bps-interstitial-cystitis-ic
#3
REVIEW
En Meng, Yu-Chao Hsu, Yao-Chi Chuang
Bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic symptom complex that may cause bothersome storage symptoms and pain or discomfort of the bladder, adversely affecting a patient's quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS remains unclear, and its cause may be multifactorial. Diagnosis of IC/BPS is based on clinical features, and the possibility of other conditions must be ruled out first. Although no definitive treatment is currently available for IC/BPS, various intravesical therapies are used for IC/BPS, including heparin, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, liposomes, and botulinum onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A)...
January 2018: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332576/current-understanding-of-physicochemical-mechanisms-for-cell-membrane-penetration-of-arginine-rich-cell-penetrating-peptides-role-of-glycosaminoglycan-interactions
#4
Yuki Takechi-Haraya, Hiroyuki Saito
Arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are very promising drug carriers to deliver membrane-impermeable pharmaceuticals, such as siRNA, bioactive peptides and proteins. CPPs directly penetrate into cells across cell membranes via a spontaneous energy-independent process, in which CPPs appear to interact with acidic lipids in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. However, acidic lipids represent only 10 to 20% of the total membrane lipid content and in mammalian cell membranes they are predominantly located in the inner leaflet...
January 11, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331090/enhanced-chondrogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-over-silk-fibroin-chitosan-chondroitin-sulfate-three-dimensional-scaffold-in-dynamic-culture-condition
#5
Parinita Agrawal, Krishna Pramanik, Varshini Vishwanath, Amit Biswas, Akalabya Bissoyi, Pradeep Kumar Patra
Chondroitin sulfate (Ch) is one of the main structural components of cartilage tissue, therefore, its presence in tissue engineered scaffold is expected to enhance cartilage regeneration. Previously, silk fibroin/chitosan (SF/CS) blend was proven to be a potential biomaterial for tissue development. In this study, the effect of Ch on physicochemical and biological properties of SF/CS blend was investigated and scaffolds with 0.8 wt% Ch was found to be favorable. The scaffolds possess pore size of 37-212 µm, contact angle 46...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327222/-3-2-d-1h-13c-birdr-x-hsqc-tocsy-for-nmr-structure-elucidation-of-mixtures-application-to-complex-carbohydrates
#6
Natalia Brodaczewska, Zuzana Košťálová, Dušan Uhrín
Overlap of NMR signals is the major cause of difficulties associated with NMR structure elucidation of molecules contained in complex mixtures. A 2D homonuclear correlation spectroscopy in particular suffers from low dispersion of 1H chemical shifts; larger dispersion of 13C chemical shifts is often used to reduce this overlap, while still providing the proton-proton correlation information e.g. in the form of a 2D 1H, 13C HSQC-TOCSY experiment. For this methodology to work, 13C chemical shift must be resolved...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326877/natural-history-of-morquio-a-patient-with-tracheal-obstruction-from-birth-to-death
#7
Caitlin Doherty, Lauren W Averill, Mary Theroux, William G Mackenzie, Christian Pizarro, Robert W Mason, Shunji Tomatsu
Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IVA, MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase, resulting in systemic accumulation of the partially degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. The accumulation of these GAGs leads to distinguishing features as skeletal dysplasia with disproportionate dwarfism, short neck, kyphoscoliosis, pectus carinatum, tracheal obstruction, coxa valga, genu valgum, and joint laxity...
March 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311492/innate-immunity-mediated-by-dendritic-cells-macrophages-plays-a-central-role-in-the-early-period-in-tumor-treatment-using-gene-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigen
#8
Takahiro Ushigusa, Yoshiyuki Koyama, Tomoko Ito, Kenichi Watanabe, James K Chambers, Aya Hasegawa, Kazuyuki Uchida, Ryoji Kanegi, Shingo Hatoya, Toshio Inaba, Kikuya Sugiura
By using a complex of DNA, polyethylenimine and chondroitin sulfate, the in vivo transfection of early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) gene into tumor cells was found to cause significant suppression of the tumor growth. In order to apply the method in clinical cancer treatment in dogs and cats, mechanisms underlying the suppressive effects were investigated in a tumor-bearing mouse model. The transfection efficiency was only about 10%, but the transfection of ESAT-6 DNA nevertheless induced systemic immune responses against ESAT-6...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310785/isolation-and-functional-analysis-of-syndecans
#9
Pyong Woo Park
Syndecans comprise a major family of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Syndecans are composed of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), heparan sulfate (HS) or both HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS), attached covalently to core proteins. Syndecans regulate many cellular processes, such as adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Syndecans bind and regulate molecules primarily through their HS chains, but do not bind to all HS/heparin-binding molecules. Furthermore, mice ablated for the syndecan-1 or -4 gene do not show major developmental abnormalities, but they do show striking pathological phenotypes when challenged with infectious or inflammatory stimuli and conditions, suggesting that certain functions of syndecans are specific and cannot be compensated for by other syndecans or other HSPGs...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310784/quantification-of-hyaluronan-ha-using-a-simplified-fluorophore-assisted-carbohydrate-electrophoresis-face-procedure
#10
Ronald J Midura, Valbona Cali, Mark E Lauer, Anthony Calabro, Vincent C Hascall
Hyaluronan (HA) exhibits numerous important roles in physiology and pathologies, and these facts necessitate an ability to accurately and reproducibly measure its quantities in tissues and cell cultures. Our group previously reported a rigorous and analytical procedure to quantify HA (and chondroitin sulfate, CS) using a reductive amination chemistry and separation of the fluorophore-conjugated, unsaturated disaccharides unique to HA and CS on high concentration acrylamide gels. This procedure is known as fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and has been adapted for the detection and quantification of all glycosaminoglycan types...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310782/the-biochemistry-and-immunohistochemistry-of-versican
#11
Stephen P Evanko, Christina K Chan, Pamela Y Johnson, Charles W Frevert, Thomas N Wight
Versican is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan found in the extracellular matrix that is important for changes in cell phenotype associated with development and disease. Versican has been shown to be involved in cardiovascular disorders, as well as lung disease and fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and several other diseases that have an inflammatory component. Versican was first identified as a fibroblast proteoglycan and forms large multimolecular complexes with hyaluronan and other components of the provisional matrix during wound healing and inflammation...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306815/chondroitin-sulfate-stabilized-silver-nanoparticles-improved-synthesis-and-their-catalytic-antimicrobial-and-biocompatible-activities
#12
Jenn-Jong Young, Kuang-Ming Cheng, Yen-An Young, Xin-An Chen, Yu-Hao Chen, Tein-Yao Chang, Hui-Ju Yen, Cheng-Cheung Chen
Herein, we describe an improved procedure for the green synthesis of chondroitin sulfate stabilized silver nanoparticles (ChS-AgNPs). Glucose was used as a reducing agent under alkaline conditions to obtain a small particle size (<10 nm), and the reduction was complete within one hour at room temperature. The concentration of NaOH affected the reaction rate, formation yield, and particle size of ChS-AgNPs. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed using UV-vis, TEM, XRD, and XPS. ChS-AgNPs showed excellent catalytic activities in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH4, and the reaction rate increased linearly with increasing catalyst amounts...
December 14, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305777/glycosaminoglycans-from-bovine-eye-vitreous-humour-and-interaction-with-collagen-type-ii
#13
Yanfei Peng, Yanlei Yu, Lei Lin, Xinyue Liu, Xing Zhang, Peipei Wang, Pauline Hoffman, So Young Kim, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in stabilizing the gel state of eye vitreous humour. In this study, the composition of GAGs present in bovine eye vitreous was characterized through disaccharide analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The interaction of GAGs with collagen type II was assessed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The percentage of hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS), of total GAG, were 96.2%, 3.5% and 0.3%, respectively. The disaccharide composition of CS consisted of 4S (49%), 0S (38%) 6S (12%), 2S6S (1...
January 5, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302076/candidate-cspg4-mutations-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-modeling-implicate-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-in-familial-schizophrenia
#14
Femke M de Vrij, Christian G Bouwkamp, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Guy Shpak, Bas Lendemeijer, Maarouf Baghdadi, Shreekara Gopalakrishna, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Tracy M Li, Marialuisa Quadri, Simone Olgiati, Guido J Breedveld, Michiel Coesmans, Edwin Mientjes, Ton de Wit, Frans W Verheijen, H Berna Beverloo, Dan Cohen, Rob M Kok, P Roberto Bakker, Aviva Nijburg, Annet T Spijker, P M Judith Haffmans, Erik Hoencamp, Veerle Bergink, Jacob A Vorstman, Timothy Wu, Loes M Olde Loohuis, Najaf Amin, Carolyn D Langen, Albert Hofman, Witte J Hoogendijk, Cornelia M van Duijn, M Arfan Ikram, Meike W Vernooij, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Ype Elgersma, Ben Distel, Joost Gribnau, Tonya White, Vincenzo Bonifati, Steven A Kushner
Schizophrenia is highly heritable, yet its underlying pathophysiology remains largely unknown. Among the most well-replicated findings in neurobiological studies of schizophrenia are deficits in myelination and white matter integrity; however, direct etiological genetic and cellular evidence has thus far been lacking. Here, we implement a family-based approach for genetic discovery in schizophrenia combined with functional analysis using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We observed familial segregation of two rare missense mutations in Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) (c...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301568/surfen-a-proteoglycan-binding-agent-reduces-inflammation-but-inhibits-remyelination-in-murine-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Jordan R Warford, Anna-Claire Lamport, Derek R Clements, Alicia Malone, Barry E Kennedy, Youra Kim, Shashi A Gujar, David W Hoskin, Alexander S Easton
Proteoglycans are promising therapeutic targets in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), because they regulate many aspects of the immune response. This was studied using surfen, an agent that binds both heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Initial cell culture work on bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) found that surfen reduced concentrations of the chemokines CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, with reduced messenger (m)RNA expression for Tumor Necrosis Factor, IL-6, IL-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase...
January 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290949/neurocan-an-extracellular-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-stimulates-neuroblastoma-cells-to-promote-malignant-phenotypes
#16
Zhendong Su, Satoshi Kishida, Shoma Tsubota, Kazuma Sakamoto, Dongliang Cao, Shinichi Kiyonari, Miki Ohira, Takehiko Kamijo, Atsushi Narita, Yinyan Xu, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, Kenji Kadomatsu
Neurocan (NCAN), a secreted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is one of the major inhibitory molecules for axon regeneration in nervous injury. However, its role in cancer is not clear. Here we observed that high NCAN expression was closely associated with the unfavorable outcome of neuroblastoma (NB). NCAN was also highly and ubiquitously expressed in the early lesions and terminal tumor of TH-MYCN mice, a NB model. Interestingly, exogenous NCAN (i.e., overexpression, recombinant protein and conditioned medium) transformed adherent NB cells into spheres whose malignancies in vitro (anchorage-independent growth and chemoresistance) and in vivo (xenograft tumor growth) were potentiated...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287114/postnatal-lethality-and-chondrodysplasia-in-mice-lacking-both-chondroitin-sulfate-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1-and-2
#17
Miki Shimbo, Riku Suzuki, Sayaka Fuseya, Takashi Sato, Katsue Kiyohara, Kozue Hagiwara, Risa Okada, Hiromasa Wakui, Yuki Tsunakawa, Hideto Watanabe, Koji Kimata, Hisashi Narimatsu, Takashi Kudo, Satoru Takahashi
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. In cartilage, CS plays important roles as the main component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), existing as side chains of the major cartilage proteoglycan, aggrecan. Six glycosyltransferases are known to coordinately synthesize the backbone structure of CS; however, their in vivo synthetic mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that two glycosyltransferases, Csgalnact1 (t1) and Csgalnact2 (t2), are critical for initiation of CS synthesis in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282325/creation-of-disease-inspired-biomaterial-environments-to-mimic-pathological-events-in-early-calcific-aortic-valve-disease
#18
Ana M Porras, Jennifer A Westlund, Austin D Evans, Kristyn S Masters
An insufficient understanding of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) pathogenesis remains a major obstacle in developing treatment strategies for this disease. The aim of the present study was to create engineered environments that mimic the earliest known features of CAVD and apply this in vitro platform to decipher relationships relevant to early valve lesion pathobiology. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) enrichment is a dominant hallmark of early CAVD, but culture of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) in biomaterial environments containing pathological amounts of hyaluronic acid (HA) or chondroitin sulfate (CS) did not directly increase indicators of disease progression such as VIC activation or inflammatory cytokine production...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280619/dual-role-of-a-fluorescent-peptidyl-probe-based-on-the-self-assembly-for-the-detection-of-heparin-and-for-the-inhibition-of-the-heparin-digestive-enzyme-reaction
#19
Hyeri Lee, Byunggyu In, Pramod Kumar Mehta, Mallela Y L N Kishore, Keun-Hyeung Lee
The detection of fluorescent probes for biomolecules and control of the function of a complex through a recognition process have not been investigated intensively. A fluorescent peptidyl probe (1) based on the self-assembly stimulated by heparin was synthesized. The fluorescent probe with an aggregation-induced emission fluorophore formed a self-assembling complex with heparin, resulting in the sensitive and selective turn-on response to heparin compared to its biological competitors. The detection limit for heparin was measured to be 138...
December 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276444/widespread-vasculopathy-in-a-patient-with-morquio-a-syndrome
#20
Adam W Powell, Michael D Taylor, T Andrew Burrow, Robert J Hopkin, Carlos E Prada, John L Jefferies
Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis IV type A), an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by a defective N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase gene, leads to lysosomal accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate. This accumulation affects multiple systems and causes notable cardiovascular manifestations, such as thickening of the left-sided valves, ventricular hypertrophy, and intimal stenosis of the coronary arteries. There have been few reports of vasculopathy in this population...
December 2017: Texas Heart Institute Journal
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