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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937526/comparison-of-corneal-wetting-properties-of-different-dispersive-ophthalmic-viscosurgical-devices-an-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#1
Cagatay Karaca, Mustafa Ozkose, Metin Unlu, Duygu Gulmez Sevim, Ertugrul Mirza
PURPOSE: To compare corneal wetting performances of different dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical devices. METHODS: Three different types of dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose %2 (HPMC), sodium hyaluronate %3-sodium chondroitin sulphate %4 (HACS), and sodium hyaluronate %3 (HA), were applied on corneal surfaces of 10 healthy volunteer subjects repeatedly at 3 different time points. Corneal wetting properties of the ophthalmic viscosurgical devices were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by anterior segment optical coherence tomography for 30 minutes...
September 20, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934876/comparison-of-intra-articular-injection-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-the-treatment-of-knee-osteoarthritis-a-pilot-study
#2
Mustafa Ozcamdalli, Abdulhamit Misir, Turan Bilge Kizkapan, Erdal Uzun, Fuat Duygulu, Cevat Yazici, Ibrahim Halil Kafadar
Objective To compare the relative effectiveness of intra-articular N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain, function and cartilage degradation markers in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design We prospectively conducted a clinical trial with 20 patients having a diagnosis of Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2-3 knee OA, and randomly allocated to the HA or NAC groups. Groups were matched on age, sex, and body mass index. Injections of 3-mL HA (Hylan G-F 20) or 3-mL NAC (Asist ampoule) were administered as a single shot...
October 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927595/stability-and-binding-affinity-of-dna-chitosan-complexes-by-polyanion-competition
#3
Pei Lian Ma, Marc Lavertu, Françoise M Winnik, Michael D Buschmann
The stability of DNA/chitosan complexes upon exposure to hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin, was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify DNA release. Only the highly charged heparin was found to release DNA from the complexes. Complex stability upon exposure to heparin increased with the degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of chitosan and with the ratio of chitosan amino groups to DNA phosphate groups (N/P ratio) in the complexes. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry revealed that among polyanions tested, only heparin has a binding affinity to chitosan approaching that of DNA and can therefore release DNA from the complexes...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921700/low-dose-fractionated-irradiation-promotes-axonal-regeneration-beyond-reactive-gliosis-and-facilitates-locomotor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-beagle-dogs
#4
Qiang Zhang, Ying Xiong, Bo Zhu, Bifeng Zhu, Daishi Tian, Wei Wang
Injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS) results in the formation of glial scar tissues. Glial scar-induced failure of regenerative axon pathfinding may limit axon regrowth beyond the lesion site and cause incorrect reinnervation and dystrophic appearance of stalled growth after CNS trauma. Glial scars also upregulate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and expression of proinflammatory factor(s) that form a barrier to axonal regeneration. Therefore, interventions for glial scarring are an attractive strategy for augmenting axonal sprouting and regeneration and overcoming the physical and molecular barriers impeding functional repair...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920399/-atdc-5-growth-promoted-by-sustained-releasing-chitosan-microspheres-loading-tgf-%C3%AE-1-in-artificial-cartilage-scaffolds
#5
Ya'nan Chang, Hao Liu, Chengbao Feng, Xiaoliang He, Xiaohui Zhou
In order to promote the growth of chondrocyte ATDC-5 in collagen type II-hyaluronic acid-chondroitin sulfate composite scaffolds constructed previously in vitro, the sustained-releasing chitosan microspheres loading TGF-β1 were prepared by emulsification and cross-linking. In addition, ATDC-5 was inoculated into the scaffolds incorporating the chitosan microspheres with TGF-β1. Results show that the morphology of microsphere was round and uniform, mean diameter was about 100 nm, absorption rate was up to 983...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917911/injectable-glycosaminoglycan-protein-nano-complex-in-semi-interpenetrating-networks-a-biphasic-hydrogel-for-hyaline-cartilage-regeneration
#6
Janani Radhakrishnan, Anuradha Subramanian, Swaminathan Sethuraman
Articular hyaline cartilage regeneration remains challenging due to its less intrinsic reparability. The study develops injectable biphasic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN) hydrogel impregnated with chondroitin sulfate (ChS) nanoparticles for functional cartilage restoration. ChS loaded zein nanoparticles (∼150nm) prepared by polyelectrolyte-protein complexation were interspersed into injectable SIPNs developed by blending alginate with poly(vinyl alcohol) and calcium crosslinking. The hydrogel exhibited interconnected porous microstructure (39...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917905/characterization-of-a-water-soluble-chitosan-derivative-and-its-potential-for-submucosal-injection-in-endoscopic-techniques
#7
Hidemi Hattori, Hironori Tsujimoto, Kazuo Hase, Masayuki Ishihara
To examine the potential of chitosan-based agents for submucosal injection in endoscopic techniques, a chitosan derivative was prepared with lactose moieties linked to the amino groups of its glucosamine units (CH-LA). After dissolving CH-LA in neutral pH solutions, including physiological saline (CH-LA-S), its response to different concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans and proteins in the surrounding environment was examined. The CH-LA-S form changed in the presence of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and mucin) and protein (fibrinogen)...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915391/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-incorporated-in-dissolvable-microneedle-array-patch-is-antigenic-and-thermostable
#8
Danielle Poirier, Frédéric Renaud, Vincent Dewar, Laurent Strodiot, Florence Wauters, Jim Janimak, Toshio Shimada, Tatsuya Nomura, Koki Kabata, Koji Kuruma, Takayuki Kusano, Masaki Sakai, Hideo Nagasaki, Takayoshi Oyamada
Alternatives to syringe-based administration are considered for vaccines. Intradermal vaccination with dissolvable microneedle arrays (MNA) appears promising in this respect, as an easy-to-use and painless method. In this work, we have developed an MNA patch (MNAP) made of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and chondroitin sulphate (CS). In swines, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) formulated with the saponin QS-21 as adjuvant, both incorporated in HES-based MNAP, demonstrated the same level of immunogenicity as a commercially available aluminum-adjuvanted HBsAg vaccine, after two immunizations 28 days apart...
August 29, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905887/an-efficient-non-viral-dendritic-vector-for-gene-delivery-in-tissue-engineering
#9
D P Walsh, A Heise, F J O'Brien, S-A Cryan
Recent developments within the field of tissue engineering (TE) have shown that biomaterial scaffold systems can be augmented via the incorporation of gene therapeutics. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of the activated polyamidoamine dendrimer (dPAMAM) transfection reagent (Superfect(TM)) as a gene delivery system to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in both monolayer and 3D culture on collagen based scaffolds. dPAMAM-pDNA polyplexes at a mass ratio (M:R) 10:1 (dPAMAM : pDNA) (1 ug pDNA) were capable of facilitating prolonged reporter gene expression in monolayer MSCs which was superior to that facilitated using polyethylenimine (PEI)-pDNA polyplexes (2 ug pDNA)...
September 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904929/diagnosing-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-iv-a-by-the-fluorometric-assay-of-n-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate-sulfatase-activity
#10
Sedigheh Shams, Maliheh Barazandeh Tehrani, Gabriel Civallero, Koosha Minookherad, Roberto Giugliani, Aria Setoodeh, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani
BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA, also known as Morquio A or MPS IV A, is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). The loss of GALNS activity leads to the impaired breakdown of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) keratan sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. The accumulation of GAGs results in multiple organ damage. The accurate and early diagnosis of this disorder helps enhance the effectiveness of the treatment...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901718/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-negatively-regulate-the-positioning-of-mitochondria-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-distal-axons
#11
Rajiv Sainath, Lorena Armijo-Weingart, Andrea Ketscheck, Zhuxuan Xu, Shuxin Li, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are components of the extracellular matrix that inhibit the extension and regeneration of axons. However, the underlying mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are functionally inter-linked organelles important to axon development and maintenance. We report that CSPGs impair the targeting of mitochondria and ER to the growth cones of chicken embryonic sensory axons. The effect of CSPGs on the targeting of mitochondria is blocked by inhibition of the LAR receptor for CSPGs...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901031/isomer-separation-and-effect-of-the-polymerization-degree-on-the-gas-phase-structure-of-chondroitin-sulfate-oligosaccharides-analyzed-by-ion-mobility-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
Salomé Poyer, Chrystel Lopin-Bon, Jean-Claude Jacquinet, Jean-Yves Salpin, Régis Daniel
RATIONALE: Chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans are bioactive sulfated polysaccharides comprising repeating units of uronic acid and N-acetyl galactose sulfated at various positions. The optimal length and sulfation pattern of the CS bioactive sequences remain elusive so that structure-activity relationship cannot be easily established. Development of efficient analytical methods allowing the differentiation of the various sulfation patterns of CS sequences is therefore of particular importance to correlate their biological functions to the sulfation pattern...
September 12, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899488/investigating-the-structural-and-functional-features-of-representative-recombinants-of-chondroitinase-abc-i
#13
Khadijeh Moradi, Seyedeh Akram Shirdel, Masoumeh Shamsi, Vahab Jafarian, Khosrow Khalifeh
Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main inhibitors for axon regeneration after damaging of Central Nervous System (CNS). Chondroitinase ABC I (cABC I) can degrade CSPGs by removing chondroitin and dermatan sulfate side chains from proteoglycans. Hence, it may be considered as an attractive candidate in biomedicine. For practical applications of this enzyme, increasing the effective circulating level and reducing the number and volume of injections for patients is one of the main concerns which is directly related to conformational stability and catalytic efficiency of the enzyme...
December 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893995/n-glycolyl-groups-of-nonhuman-chondroitin-sulfates-survive-in-ancient-fossils
#14
Anne K Bergfeld, Roger Lawrence, Sandra L Diaz, Oliver M T Pearce, Darius Ghaderi, Pascal Gagneux, Meave G Leakey, Ajit Varki
Biosynthesis of the common mammalian sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) was lost during human evolution due to inactivation of the CMAH gene, possibly expediting divergence of the Homo lineage, due to a partial fertility barrier. Neu5Gc catabolism generates N-glycolylhexosamines, which are potential precursors for glycoconjugate biosynthesis. We carried out metabolic labeling experiments and studies of mice with human-like Neu5Gc deficiency to show that Neu5Gc degradation is the metabolic source of UDP-GlcNGc and UDP-GalNGc and the latter allows an unexpectedly selective incorporation of N-glycolyl groups into chondroitin sulfate (CS) over other potential glycoconjugate products...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890654/chondroitin-sulfate-inhibits-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-release-from-3t3-l1-adipocytes-a-new-treatment-opportunity-for-obesity-related-inflammation
#15
Thomas V Stabler, Eulàlia Montell, Josep Vergés, Janet L Huebner, Virginia Byers Kraus
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) overproduction from inflamed adipose tissue is a major contributor to obesity-related metabolic syndromes. 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts were cultured and differentiated into adipocytes using an established protocol. Adipocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and thus MCP-1 release. At the same time, varying concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS) were added in a physiologically relevant range (10-200 µg/mL) to determine its impact on MCP-1 release...
2017: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890301/antibody-recognizing-4-sulfated-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-restores-memory-in-tauopathy-induced-neurodegeneration
#16
Sujeong Yang, Sam Hilton, João Nuno Alves, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy Bussey, Russell T Matthews, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Maria Grazia Spillantini, Jessica C F Kwok, James W Fawcett
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main active component of perineuronal nets (PNNs). Digestion of the glycosaminoglycan chains of CSPGs with chondroitinase ABC or transgenic attenuation of PNNs leads to prolongation of object recognition memory and activation of various forms of plasticity in the adult central nervous system. The inhibitory properties of the CSPGs depend on the pattern of sulfation of their glycosaminoglycans, with chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S) being the most inhibitory form. In this study, we tested a number of candidates for functional blocking of C4S, leading to selection of an antibody, Cat316, which specifically recognizes C4S and blocks its inhibitory effects on axon growth...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890259/silk-fibroin-chondroitin-sulfate-scaffold-with-immuno-inhibition-property-for-articular-cartilage-repair
#17
Feifei Zhou, Xianzhu Zhang, Dandan Cai, Jun Li, Qin Mu, Wei Zhang, Shouan Zhu, Yangzi Jiang, Weiliang Shen, Shufang Zhang, Hong Wei Ouyang
The demand of favorable scaffolds has increased for the emerging cartilage tissue engineering. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and silk fibroin have been investigated and reported with safety and excellent biocompatibility as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the rapid degradation rate of pure CS scaffolds presents a challenge to effectively recreate neo-tissue similar to natural articular cartilage. Meanwhile the silk fibroin is well used as a structural constituent material because its remarkable mechanical properties, long-lasting in vivo stability and hypoimmunity...
September 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884960/genotypic-phenotypic-features-and-enzyme-replacement-therapy-outcome-in-patients-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-vi-from-turkey
#18
Mustafa Kılıç, Ali Dursun, Turgay Coşkun, Ayşegül Tokatlı, Rıza K Özgül, Didem Yücel-Yılmaz, Mehmet Karaca, Deniz Doğru, Dursun Alehan, Sibel Kadayıfçılar, Aydan Genç, Handan Turan-Dizdar, Burhanettin Gönüldaş, Sema Savcı, Melda Sağlam, Cemalettin Aksoy, Umut Arslan, Hatice-Serap Sivri
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) characterized by a chronic, progressive course with multiorgan involvement. In our study, clinical, biochemical, molecular findings, and response to enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for at least 6 months were evaluated in 20 patients with MPS VI. Treatment effects on clinical findings such as liver and spleen sizes, cardiac and respiratory parameters, visual and auditory changes, joints' range of motions, endurance tests and changes in urinary glycosaminoglycan excretions, before and after ERT were analyzed...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884364/a-new-chemical-complex-can-rapidly-concentrate-lentivirus-and-significantly-enhance-gene-transduction
#19
Jing-Yu Lee, Hu-Hui Lee
In this study, we developed a new purification method using chondroitin sulfate C (CSC) and protamine sulfate (PS) to concentrate lentivirus. To evaluate the efficiency of this new method, we compared it with several previously described purification protocols, including virus concentrated by ultracentrifugation (Ultra), precipitated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), and sedimented by CSC combined with polybrene (PB). After using the different methods to purify and concentrate equivalent amounts of lentivirus supernatant, the virus pellets precipitated by the different methods were resuspended using the equivalent volumes of DMEM...
September 7, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881287/recent-advances-in-polysaccharides-for-osteoarthritis-therapy
#20
Qixin Chen, Xintian Shao, Peixue Ling, Fei Liu, Guanying Han, Fengshan Wang
The polysaccharides used in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) mainly include sodium hyaluronate, chondroitin sulfate, chitosan, xanthan gum, Low molecular weight heparin, alginate and other polysaccharides. This review summarizes the recent advances in the chemistry and biological activities of polysaccharides for the treatment of OA.
August 24, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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