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Low income cancer

Chaevia Clendinen, Yapei Zhang, Rebecca N Warburton, Donald W Light
BACKGROUND: Nearly all of the 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 270,000 deaths occur in middle or lower income countries. Yet the two most prevalent HPV vaccines are unaffordable to most. Even prices to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, are unaffordable to graduating countries, once they lose Gavi subsidies. Merck and Glaxosmithkline (GSK) claim their prices to Gavi equal their manufacturing costs; but these costs remain undisclosed. We undertook this investigation to estimate those costs...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
Kathy A Møen, Bernadette Kumar, Samera Qureshi, Esperanza Diaz
The prevalence of cervical cancer is high among some groups of immigrants. Although there is evidence of low participation in cervical cancer screening programs among immigrants, studies have been subject to selection bias and accounted for few immigrant groups. The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of several groups of immigrants versus nonimmigrants attending the cervical cancer-screening program in Norway. In addition, we aimed to study predictors for attendance to the screening program. Register-based study using merged data from four national registries...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Subas Neupane, Freddie Bray, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: Macroeconomic indicators are likely associated with prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality globally, but have rarely been assessed. METHODS: Data on PCa incidence in 2003-2007 for 49 countries with either nationwide cancer registry or at least two regional registries were obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Vol X and national PCa mortality for 2012 from GLOBOCAN 2012. We compared PCa incidence and mortality rates with various population-level indicators of health, economy and development in 2000...
October 15, 2016: World Journal of Urology
Penelope M Webb, Susan J Jordan
Globally, ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women and the eighth most common cause of cancer death, with five-year survival rates below 45%. Although age-standardised rates are stable or falling in most high-income countries, they are rising in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, with increasing life-expectancy, the number of cases diagnosed each year is increasing. To control ovarian cancer we need to understand the causes. This will allow better prediction of those at greatest risk for whom screening might be appropriate, while identification of potentially modifable causes provides an opportunity for intervention to reduce rates...
October 3, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Betul Tas, Kamuran Turker, Elcin Balci
BACKGROUND: Anogenital warts (AGWs) are epithelial tumors which develop as a result of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. We aimed to assess the sociodemographic, sexual and other possible risk-factors, and awareness of the HPV infection among Turkish people with AGW in the Bagcilar district of Istanbul. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 273 patients (183 men, 90 women) with AGW between October 2014 - March 2015. The patients' sociodemographics were recorded along with their possible risk-factors and clinical findings...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Sara E Fischer, Olusegun I Alatise, Akinwunmi O Komolafe, Aba I Katung, Adedeji A Egberongbe, Samuel A Olatoke, Olayide S Agodirin, Oladapo A Kolawole, Olaejerinde O Olaofe, Omobolaji O Ayandipo, Olorunda Rotimi, Murray F Brennan, T Peter Kingham
PURPOSE: There is an increasing effort in the global public health community to strengthen research capacity in low- and middle-income countries, but there is no consensus on how best to approach such endeavors. Successful consortia that perform research on HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases exist, but few papers have been published detailing the challenges faced and lessons learned in setting up and running a successful research consortium. METHODS: Members of the African Research Group for Oncology (ARGO) participated in generating lessons learned regarding the foundation and maintenance of a cancer research consortium in Nigeria...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Joël Ladner, Marie-Hélène Besson, Etienne Audureau, Mariana Rodrigues, Joseph Saba
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the greatest cause of age-weighted years of life lost in the developing world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a high proportion of cervical cancers, and HPV vaccination may help to reduce the incidence of cancer. The aim of the study was to identify barriers, obstacles, and strategies and to analyze key concerns and lessons learned with respect to the implementation of HPV vaccination program in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The Gardasil Access Program (GAP) is a donation program established to enable organizations and institutions in eligible low-resource countries to gain operational experience designing and implementing HPV vaccination programs...
October 13, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
Junne Kamihara, Clement Ma, Soad Linneth Fuentes Alabi, Claudia Garrido, A Lindsay Frazier, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Manuela A Orjuela
Global variations in the incidence of pediatric cancers have been described; however, the causes of such differences are not known. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of embryonal tumors and human development index on a global scale. Increasing incidence of neuroblastoma correlates significantly with an increasing index of human development, with greater incidence among countries with high socioeconomic development, in apparent contrast to the incidence of retinoblastoma. While more data are needed to corroborate this observation, our findings suggest new avenues for etiological research and serve as a call for support of population-based cancer registries in low-middle-income countries...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Emily Stone, Anil Vachani
The lung cancer epidemic of the twentieth century grew out of increasing tobacco consumption in the first half of that century. Tobacco control policies have been instituted in many high-income countries since the mid-1960s. Since then smoking rates have declined in these countries, particularly in men where lung cancer rates have stabilized. Tobacco control measures are not strong enough in many countries around the world, particularly low and middle income countries in Eastern Europe and Asia. In these countries, smoking rates and lung cancer rates remain high...
October 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Paula J Robson, Nathan M Solbak, Tiffany R Haig, Heather K Whelan, Jennifer E Vena, Alianu K Akawung, William K Rosner, Darren R Brenner, Linda S Cook, Ilona Csizmadi, Karen A Kopciuk, S Elizabeth McGregor, Christine M Friedenreich
BACKGROUND: Prospective cohorts have the potential to support multifactorial, health-related research, particularly if they are drawn from the general population, incorporate active and passive follow-up and permission is obtained to allow access by researchers to data repositories. This paper describes Phase I of the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort, a broad-based research platform designed to support investigations into factors that influence cancer and chronic disease risk. METHODS: Adults aged 35-69 years living in Alberta, Canada, with no previous cancer diagnosis other than nonmelanoma skin cancer were recruited to the project by telephone-based random digit dialling...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Paul C Pearlman, Rao Divi, Michael Gwede, Pushpa Tandon, Brian S Sorg, Miguel R Ossandon, Lokesh Agrawal, Vinay Pai, Houston Baker, Tiffani Bailey Lash
Point-of-care (POC) technologies have proved valuable in cancer detection, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment in the developed world, and have shown promise in low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC) as well. Despite this promise, the unique design constraints presented in low-resource settings, coupled with the variety of country-specific regulatory and institutional dynamics, have made it difficult for investigators to translate successful POC cancer interventions to the LMIC markets. In response to this need, the National Cancer Institute has partnered with the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering to create the National Institutes of Health Affordable Cancer Technologies (ACTs) program...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Shravani Koyande, Sujha Subramanian, Patrick Edwards, Sonja Hoover, Vinay Deshmane, Florence Tankga, Rajesh Dikshit, Mona Saraiya
BACKGROUND: The Mumbai Cancer Registry is a population-based cancer registry that has been in operation for more than five decades and has successfully initiated and integrated three satellite registries in Pune, Nagpur, and Aurangabad, each covering specific urban populations of the Indian state Maharashtra. Data collectors at the satellites perform data abstraction, but Mumbai carries out all other core registration activities such as data analysis and quality assurance. Each of the three satellite registries follows the same data collection methodology as the main Mumbai Cancer Registry...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Sujha Subramanian, Florence Tangka, Patrick Edwards, Sonja Hoover, Maggie Cole-Beebe
BACKGROUND: This article reports on the methods and framework we have developed to guide economic evaluation of noncommunicable disease registries. METHODS: We developed a cost data collection instrument, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) International Registry Costing Tool (IntRegCosting Tool), based on established economics methods We performed in-depth case studies, site visit interviews, and pilot testing in 11 registries from multiple countries including India, Kenya, Uganda, Colombia, and Barbados to assess the overall quality of the data collected from cancer and cardiovascular registries...
October 7, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Robert Carr, Hilal Ozdag, Nilgun Tekin, Timothy Morris, Paulette Conget, Flavia Bruna, Botond Timar, Eva Gagyi, Ranjan Basak, Omkar Naik, Chirayu Auewarakul, Narongrit Srithana, Mark Pierre Dimamay, Filipinas Natividad, June-Key Chung, Nevin Belder, Isinsu Kuzu, Nader Omidvar, Diana Paez, Rose Ann Padua
Addressing the global burden of cancer, understanding its diverse biology, and promoting appropriate prevention and treatment strategies around the world has become a priority for the United Nations and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the WHO, and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The IAEA sponsored an international prospective cohort study to better understand biology, treatment response, and outcomes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in low and middle-income countries across five UN-defined geographical regions...
October 10, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Sophie Desmonde, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The number of HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants exposed to both HIV and multiple antiretroviral drugs in utero and during prolonged breastfeeding is increasing in low-income countries where HIV prevalence is the highest. We review recent evidence on the effects of perinatal/postnatal exposure to maternal HIV and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on health outcomes of HEU children (mitochondrial and metabolic toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes, neurodevelopment, growth, infectious morbidity, and mortality)...
September 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Nicole G Campos, Monisha Sharma, Andrew Clark, Jane J Kim, Stephen C Resch
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women, with 85% of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While organized screening programs have reduced cervical cancer incidence in high-income countries through detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, the implementation of organized screening has not been effective in low-resource settings due to lack of infrastructure and limited budgets. Our objective was to estimate the cost of comprehensive primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: PloS One
Matthew J Maurice, Simon P Kim, Robert Abouassaly
PURPOSE: To assess socioeconomic disparities in urinary diversion utilization in a contemporary American cohort. METHODS: In the National Cancer Database, we identified 4538 patients who underwent cystectomy with urinary diversion for clinical T1-2N0M0 bladder cancer from 2010 to 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of urinary diversion type: ileal conduit (IC), continent cutaneous reservoir (CCR), or orthotopic neobladder (ON)...
September 30, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Dante Cicchetti, Susan Hetzel, Fred A Rogosch, Elizabeth D Handley, Sheree L Toth
In the present investigation, differential methylation analyses of the whole genome were conducted among a sample of 548 school-aged low-income children (47.8% female, 67.7% Black, M age = 9.40 years), 54.4% of whom had a history of child maltreatment. In the context of a summer research camp, DNA samples via saliva were obtained. Using GenomeStudio, Methylation Module, and the Illumina Custom Model, differential methylation analyses revealed a pattern of greater methylation at low methylation sites (n = 197 sites) and medium methylation sites (n = 730 sites) and less methylation at high methylation sites (n = 907 sites) among maltreated children...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
S Hassanipour-Azgomi, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Mahshid Ghoncheh, Farhad Towhidi, Saeid Jamehshorani, Hamid Salehiniya
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. METHODS: This study was an ecological study conducted based on the GLOBOCAN project of the World Health Organization. The correlation between standardized incidence rate (SIR) and standardized mortality rate (SMR) of prostate cancer with HDI and its components was assessed using SPSS Inc Version 18...
September 2016: Prostate International
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