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Low income cancer

Sayeh S Nikpay, Margaret G Tebbs, Emily H Castellanos
BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act extends Medicaid coverage to millions of low-income adults, including many survivors of cancer who were unable to purchase affordable health insurance coverage in the individual health insurance market. METHODS: Using data from the 2011 to 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the authors compared changes in coverage and health care access measures for low-income cancer survivors in states that did and did not expand Medicaid...
April 17, 2018: Cancer
Emily E Anderson, Silvia Tejada, Richard B Warnecke, Kent Hoskins
Individual risk assessment (IRA) for breast cancer may increase adherence to risk-appropriate screening and prevention measures. However, knowledge gaps exist regarding how best to communicate IRA results and support women at increased risk in future health care decisions, in part because patients conceptualize and make meaning of risk differently from the medical community. Better understanding the views of low-income women of color identified as being at increased risk for breast cancer can inform efforts to conduct IRA in an ethical and respectful manner...
2018: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Rachael M Milwid, Federico Frascoli, Marc Steben, Jane M Heffernan
Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, is the necessary cause of cervical cancer, the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Prevention and control strategies include vaccination, screening, and treatment. While HPV prevention and control efforts are important worldwide, they are especially important in low-income areas with a high infection rate or high rate of cervical cancer. This study uses mathematical modeling to explore various vaccination and treatment strategies to control for HPV and cervical cancer while using Nepal as a case study...
April 12, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Sara Bravaccini, Sara Ravaioli, Dino Amadori, Emanuela Scarpi, Maurizio Puccetti, Andrea Rocca, Maria Maddalena Tumedei, Nestory Masalu, Jackson Kahima, Akwilina Pangan, Lucas Faustine, Alberto Farolfi, Roberta Maltoni, Massimiliano Bonafè, Patrizia Serra, Giuseppe Bronte
Purpose: Androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to have prognostic implication on breast cancer (BC). Data on the biological features of African BCs are poor. We decided for the first time to compare AR expression of Tanzanian and Italian BC patients. Patients and methods: Of the 69 consecutive patients seen at the Bugando Medical Center (Mwanza, Tanzania) from 2003 to 2010, who underwent resection of primary BC evaluable for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PgR), and HER2 only 65 were evaluable for AR by immunohistochemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Maria J Abou El-Ola, Mariam A Rajab, Dania I Abdallah, Ismail A Fawaz, Lyn S Awad, Hani M Tamim, Ahmad O Ibrahim, Anas M Mugharbil, Rima A Moghnieh
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established predisposing factor of cervical cancer. In this study, we assessed the awareness about genital warts, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine among mothers having girls who are at the age of primary HPV vaccination attending a group of schools in Lebanon. We also assessed the rate of HPV vaccination among these girls and the barriers to vaccination in this community. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional, school-based survey...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Philip Sutton, Joanne M Boag
Gastric adenocarcinoma is globally the third leading cause of death due to malignancy, with the bulk of this disease burden being suffered by low and middle income countries (LMIC), especially in Asia. The majority of these cancers develop as a result of a chronic gastritis that arises in response to infection with the stomach-dwelling bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. A vaccine against this pathogen would therefore be a powerful tool for preventing gastric adenocarcinoma. However, notwithstanding a proof-of-concept that vaccination can protect children from acquisition of H...
April 4, 2018: Vaccine
Louis W Niessen, Diwakar Mohan, Jonathan K Akuoku, Andrew J Mirelman, Sayem Ahmed, Tracey P Koehlmoos, Antonio Trujillo, Jahangir Khan, David H Peters
Five Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set targets that relate to the reduction of health inequalities nationally and worldwide. These targets are poverty reduction, health and wellbeing for all, equitable education, gender equality, and reduction of inequalities within and between countries. The interaction between inequalities and health is complex: better economic and educational outcomes for households enhance health, low socioeconomic status leads to chronic ill health, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) reduce income status of households...
April 4, 2018: Lancet
Alena N Skrundevskiy, Omar S Omar, Jungyoon Kim, Amr S Soliman, Theodore A Korolchuk, Fernando A Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a return-on-investment (ROI) analysis of a breast cancer screening program in Egypt by comparing net profit in treatment costs saved to program cost investment. METHODS: The breast cancer downstaging program targeted women living in an Egyptian slum, where residents have low access to health care. Program costs were estimated by using data from interviews with program administrative staff. Screening and treatment costs were estimated by using Ministry of Health medical reimbursement data...
April 4, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Andre Tsin Chih Chen, Geovanne Pedro Mauro, Flavia Gabrielli, Cristiane de Lacerda Gonçalves Chaves, Igor Castro, Karina Moutinho Vasconcelos, Milena Reis, Thalita Saraiva, Heloisa Andrade de Carvalho
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low-and-middle-income countries have resource constraints and waiting lists for radiotherapy (RT). In this context, we sought to determine the survival of inpatients evaluated for palliative RT in a large referral cancer center in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From November 2014 through December 2015, we enrolled 333 inpatients with palliative RT evaluation requests in this prospective observational study. We applied Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI) and Survival Prediction Score using Number of Risk Factors (NRF)...
April 3, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Edward A Shipton, Elspeth E Shipton, Ashleigh J Shipton
The opioid epidemic, with its noticeable increase in opioid prescriptions and related misuse, abuse and resultant deaths in the previous 12 years, is a particularly North American phenomenon. Europe, and particularly low- and middle-income countries, appear to be less influenced by this problem. There is undisputable value in using opioids not only in the treatment of acute pain, but in cancer pain as well. However, opioids are progressively being prescribed more and more for chronic non-cancer pain, despite inadequate data on their efficacy...
April 6, 2018: Pain and Therapy
Carolyn J Heckman, Elizabeth Handorf, Melissa V Auerbach
Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration recommends that indoor tanners (ITs) be screened regularly for skin cancer (SC). Objective: To investigate the association between indoor tanning and SC screening. Design, Setting, and Participants: The 2015 National Health Interview Survey was a multistage, clustered, cross-sectional design with 30 352 US adults participating. The response rate for the sample adult data used in this study was 55...
April 4, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Jeah Kyoungrae Jung, Roger Feldman, A Marshall McBean
Specialty drugs can bring substantial benefits to patients with debilitating conditions, such as cancer, but their costs are very high. Insurers/payers have increased patient cost-sharing for specialty drugs to manage specialty drug spending. We utilized Medicare Part D plan formulary data to create the initial price (cost-sharing in the initial coverage phase in Part D), and estimated the total demand (both on- and off-label uses) for specialty cancer drugs among elderly Medicare Part D enrollees with no low-income subsidies (non-LIS) as a function of the initial price...
December 2017: Forum for Health Economics & Policy
Karolina Lisy, Jared M Campbell, Catalin Tufanaru, Sandeep Moola, Craig Lockwood
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease are noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) that cause extensive social and economic burden worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. There is growing recognition of the importance of the disabilities that individuals experience as a consequence of these NCDs. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review examined the prevalence of disabilities associated with cancer, CVD, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes...
March 31, 2018: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
Atsumu Yuki, Rei Otsuka, Chikako Tange, Yukiko Nishita, Makiko Tomida, Fujiko Ando, Hiroshi Shimokata
AIM: The association between frailty and increased mortality risk is unknown. The present study assessed the longitudinal relationship between frailty and mortality risk in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Participants included 841 randomly chosen community-dwelling Japanese individuals, including 175 older adults aged 65-88 years with incomplete data at the baseline examination (July 2006-July 2008). Participants were followed from baseline to 31 December 2015 (mean 7...
April 2, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Cesaltina Lorenzoni, Laura Oliveras, Alba Vilajeliu, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo R Ismail, Paola Castillo, Orvalho Augusto, Mohsin Sidat, Clara Menéndez, Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro, Jaume Ordi
Cancer is an emerging public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa due to population growth, ageing and westernisation of lifestyles. The increasing burden of cancer calls for urgent policy attention to develop cancer prevention and control programmes. Cancer surveillance is an essential prerequisite. Only one in five low-income and middle-income countries have the necessary data to drive policy and reduce the cancer burden. In this piece, we use data from Mozambique over a 50-year period to illustrate cancer epidemiological trends in low-income and middle-income countries to hypothesise potential circumstances and factors that could explain changes in cancer burden and to discuss surveillance weaknesses and potential improvements...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Joshua K Muliira, Irene B Kizza, Gloria Nakitende
BACKGROUND: Family caregivers (FCGs) of adult cancer patients (ACPs) are typically involved in the entire trajectory of cancer disease, from diagnosis to survivorship or end of life. In developing countries, FCGs are more intensely involved in the process of providing care to the hospitalized ACPs because of lack of adequate cancer care resources. Active performance of tasks to meet the needs of ACPs in the hospital setting is likely to elicit significant caregiver burden. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the tasks performed and the caregiver burden experienced by FCGs of hospitalized ACPs in a sub-Saharan country...
March 30, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Sumadi L Anwar, Guritno Adistyawan, Wahyu Wulaningsih, Zulrahman Erlangga, Christoph Gutenbrunner, Boya Nugraha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
S Azimi, N Rafieian, S Manifar, Z Ghorbani, M Tennant, E Kruger
Our aim was to assess the association between different components of sociodemographic status and the risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck after we had adjusted for the influence of the known behavioural risk factors of smoking and drinking alcohol. We selected 146 patients with histopathologically-confirmed SCC of the head and neck, and matched them for age and sex with 266 healthy controls for this case-control study. Personal details, occupation, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcohol consumption were recorded...
March 26, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Chidinma P Anakwenze, Atara Ntekim, Bruce Trock, Iyobosa B Uwadiae, Brandi R Page
Introduction: Nigeria has the biggest gap between radiotherapy availability and need, with one machine per 19.4 million people, compared to one machine per 250,000 people in high-income countries. This study aims to identify its patient-level barriers to radiotherapy access. Material and methods: This was a cross sectional study consisting of patient questionnaires ( n  = 50) conducted in January 2016 to assess patient demographics, types of cancers seen, barriers to receiving radiotherapy, health beliefs and practices, and factors leading to treatment delay...
August 2017: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
L Golfetto, E V Alves, T R Martins, T C M Sincero, J B S Castro, C Dannebrock, J G Oliveira, J E Levi, A S C Onofre, M L Bazzo
Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an essential factor of cervical cancer. This study evaluated the analytical performance of restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP) assay compared to PapilloCheck® microarray to identify human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical cells. Three hundred and twenty-five women were analyzed. One sample was used for conventional cytology and another sample was collected using BD SurePath™ kit for HPV tests. Eighty samples (24...
March 26, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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