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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324794/the-socio-political-context-of-migration-and-reproductive-health-disparities-the-case-of-early-sexual-initiation-among-mexican-origin-immigrant-young-women
#1
Kate Coleman-Minahan
Prior research often explains the lower risk of early sexual initiation among foreign-born Mexican-origin young women by a patriarchal and sexually conservative "traditional Latino culture." This definition overlooks structural factors such as exploitation of migrant workers, and conflates gender inequality and sexual expectations. I use an intersectional framework and the theory of gender and power to explore how gender inequality and sexual expectations are both influenced by structural factors and affect reproductive health outcomes...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324792/tolerance-of-uncertainty-conceptual-analysis-integrative-model-and-implications-for-healthcare
#2
REVIEW
Marij A Hillen, Caitlin M Gutheil, Tania D Strout, Ellen M A Smets, Paul K J Han
RATIONALE: Uncertainty tolerance (UT) is an important, well-studied phenomenon in health care and many other important domains of life, yet its conceptualization and measurement by researchers in various disciplines have varied substantially and its essential nature remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to: 1) analyze the meaning and logical coherence of UT as conceptualized by developers of UT measures, and 2) develop an integrative conceptual model to guide future empirical research regarding the nature, causes, and effects of UT...
March 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323583/pilots-attention-distributions-between-chasing-a-moving-target-and-a-stationary-target
#3
Wen-Chin Li, Chung-San Yu, Graham Braithwaite, Matthew Greaves
INTRODUCTION: Attention plays a central role in cognitive processing; ineffective attention may induce accidents in flight operations. The objective of the current research was to examine military pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. METHOD: In the current research, 37 mission-ready F-16 pilots participated. Subjects' eye movements were collected by a portable head-mounted eye-tracker during tactical training in a flight simulator...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#4
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319257/hunger-and-thirst-interact-to-regulate-ingestive-behavior-in-flies-and-mammals
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas Jourjine
In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors...
March 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318973/the-dual-nature-of-early-life-experience-on-somatosensory-processing-in-the-human-infant-brain
#6
Nathalie L Maitre, Alexandra P Key, Olena D Chorna, James C Slaughter, Pawel J Matusz, Mark T Wallace, Micah M Murray
Every year, 15 million preterm infants are born, and most spend their first weeks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) [1]. Although essential for the support and survival of these infants, NICU sensory environments are dramatically different from those in which full-term infants mature and thus likely impact the development of functional brain organization [2]. Yet the integrity of sensory systems determines effective perception and behavior [3, 4]. In neonates, touch is a cornerstone of interpersonal interactions and sensory-cognitive development [5-7]...
March 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318327/pathologic-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-patients-evolution-of-the-traditional-clinical-pathologic-paradigm-toward-precision-cancer-therapy
#7
B M Turner, D G Hicks
We present an updated account of breast cancer treatment and of progress toward "precision" cancer therapy; we focus on new developments in diagnostic molecular pathology and breast cancer that have emerged during the past 2 years. Increasing awareness of new prognostic and predictive methodologies, and introduction of next generation sequencing has increased understanding of both tumor biology and clinical behavior, which offers the possibility of more appropriate therapeutic choices. It remains unclear which of these testing methodologies provides the most informative and cost-effective actionable results for predictive and prognostic pathology...
March 20, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318091/insulin-responsive-glucagon-delivery-for-prevention-of-hypoglycemia
#8
Jicheng Yu, Yuqi Zhang, Wujin Sun, Anna R Kahkoska, Jinqiang Wang, John B Buse, Zhen Gu
Hypoglycemia, the state of abnormally low blood glucose level, is an acute complication of insulin and sulfonylurea therapy in diabetes management. Frequent insulin dosing and boluses during daily diabetes care leads to an increased risk of dangerously low glucose levels, which can cause behavioral and cognitive disturbance, seizure, coma, and even death. This study reports an insulin-responsive glucagon delivery method based on a microneedle (MN)-array patch for the prevention of hypoglycemia. The controlled release of glucagon is achieved in response to elevated insulin concentration by taking advantage of the specific interaction between insulin aptamer and target insulin...
March 20, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317958/the-collective-behavior-of-spring-like-motifs-tethered-to-a-dna-origami-nanostructure
#9
E-C Schöneweiß, B Saccà
Dynamic DNA nanotechnology relies on the integration of small switchable motifs at suitable positions of DNA nanostructures, thus enabling the manipulation of matter with nanometer spatial accuracy in a trigger-dependent fashion. Typical examples of such motifs are hairpins, whose elongation into duplexes can be used to perform long-range, translational movements. In this work, we used temperature-dependent FRET spectroscopy to determine the thermal stabilities of distinct sets of hairpins integrated into the central seam of a DNA origami structure...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317037/the-role-of-familismo-and-acculturation-as-moderators-of-the-association-between-family-conflict-and-substance-abuse-on-latino-adult-males
#10
Roberto Lopez-Tamayo, Alexa Seda, Leonard A Jason
The significant research gap on Latino adults who completed substance abuse treatment (SAT) impacts the provision of substance use prevention and treatment for this population. Given the need for culturally-appropriate SAT for Latinos, research that examines the role of cultural constructs and acculturation in relation to substance use behavior is warranted. The purpose of the present study is to test, based on the social control theory, a multiple moderation model using the PROCESS macro(1) to examine the moderating effect of Familismo on the association between history of family conflict and years of substance abuse on Latino males who completed SAT at different levels of acculturation (i...
August 2016: Public Health (Fairfax)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315760/medication-adherence-outcomes-of-771-intervention-trials-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Vicki S Conn, Todd M Ruppar
Excellent medication adherence contributes to decreases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Although researchers have tested many interventions to increase adherence, results are sometimes conflicting and often unclear. This systematic review applied meta-analytic procedures to integrate primary research that tested medication adherence interventions. Comprehensive searching completed in 2015 located 771 published and unpublished intervention studies with adherence behavior outcomes. Random-effects model analysis calculated standardized mean difference effect sizes...
March 15, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315524/a-cellular-mechanism-for-inverse-effectiveness-in-multisensory-integration
#12
Torrey Ls Truszkowski, Oscar A Carrillo, Julia Bleier, Carolina Ramirez-Vizcarrondo, Molly McQuillan, Christopher P Truszkowski, Arseny S Khakhalin, Carlos D Aizenman
To build a coherent view of the external world, an organism needs to integrate multiple types of sensory information from different sources, a process known as multisensory integration (MSI). In a prior study (Felch et al. 2016) we showed that the temporal dependence of MSI in the optic tectum of Xenopus laevis tadpoles is mediated by the network dynamics of the recruitment of local inhibition by sensory input. This was one of the first cellular-level mechanisms described for MSI. Here we expand this cellular level view of MSI by focusing on the principle of inverse effectiveness, another central feature of MSI stating that the amount of multisensory enhancement observed inversely depends on the size of unisensory responses...
March 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314818/allometric-analysis-detects-brain-size-independent-effects-of-sex-and-sex-chromosome-complement-on-human-cerebellar-organization
#13
Catherine Mankiw, Min Tae M Park, P K Reardon, Ari M Fish, Liv S Clasen, Deanna Greenstein, Jay N Giedd, Jonathan D Blumenthal, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty, Armin Raznahan
The cerebellum is a large hindbrain structure that is increasingly recognized for its contribution to diverse domains of cognitive and affective processing in human health and disease. Although several of these domains are sex-biased, our fundamental understanding of cerebellar sex differences - including their spatial distribution, potential biological determinants, and independence from brain volume variation - lags far behind that for the cerebrum. Here, we harness automated neuroimaging methods for cerebellar morphometrics in 417 individuals to (i) localize normative male-female differences in raw cerebellar volume, (ii) compare these to sex chromosome effects estimated across five rare X-/Y-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) syndromes, and (iii) clarify brain size-independent effects of sex and SCA on cerebellar anatomy using a generalizable allometric approach which considers scaling relationships between regional cerebellar volume and brain volume in health...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314817/fef-controlled-alpha-delay-activity-precedes-stimulus-induced-gamma-band-activity-in-visual-cortex
#14
Tzvetan Popov, Sabine Kastner, Ole Jensen
Recent findings in the visual system of non-human primates have demonstrated an important role of gamma band activity (40 - 100 Hz) in the feed-forward flow of sensory information, whereas feedback control appears to be dynamically established by oscillations in the alpha (8 - 13 Hz) and beta bands (13 - 18 Hz) (van Kerkoerle et al., 2014; Bastos et al., 2015). It is not clear, however, how alpha oscillations are controlled and how they interact with the flow of visual information mediated by gamma band activity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314191/robust-detection-and-segmentation-of-cell-nuclei-in-biomedical-images-based-on-a-computational-topology-framework
#15
Rodrigo Rojas-Moraleda, Wei Xiong, Niels Halama, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Steven Dooley, Luis Salinas, Dieter W Heermann, Nektarios A Valous
The segmentation of cell nuclei is an important step towards the automated analysis of histological images. The presence of a large number of nuclei in whole-slide images necessitates methods that are computationally tractable in addition to being effective. In this work, a method is developed for the robust segmentation of cell nuclei in histological images based on the principles of persistent homology. More specifically, an abstract simplicial homology approach for image segmentation is established. Essentially, the approach deals with the persistence of disconnected sets in the image, thus identifying salient regions that express patterns of persistence...
March 6, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306273/chaos-and-correlated-avalanches-in-excitatory-neural-networks-with-synaptic-plasticity
#16
Fabrizio Pittorino, Miguel Ibáñez-Berganza, Matteo di Volo, Alessandro Vezzani, Raffaella Burioni
A collective chaotic phase with power law scaling of activity events is observed in a disordered mean field network of purely excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with short-term synaptic plasticity. The dynamical phase diagram exhibits two transitions from quasisynchronous and asynchronous regimes to the nontrivial, collective, bursty regime with avalanches. In the homogeneous case without disorder, the system synchronizes and the bursty behavior is reflected into a period doubling transition to chaos for a two dimensional discrete map...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304060/bio-inspired-hybrid-nanoparticles-promote-vascularized-bone-regeneration-in-a-morphology-dependent-manner
#17
Gaojie Yang, Haoming Liu, Xixi Hu, Zetao Chen, Thor E Friis, Jianglin Wang, Yin Xiao, Shengmin Zhang
Current major obstacles for translating the nanoparticle (NP) morphology-related function into therapeutic purposes come from the challenges in understanding the mechanisms that determine cell lineage commitment and constructing a NP-based 3D functional structure, and few studies have successfully demonstrated clear evidence of regulating in vivo tissue regeneration by NP morphology so far. Here, we show that nanoparticle geometry can be harnessed to mediate bone regeneration in a rat cranial defect model. We successfully synthesized hydroxyapatite NPs with well-defined morphologies using a modified liquid-solution-solid (LSS) method...
March 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303623/endothelial-signaling-and-the-dynamic-regulation-of-arterial-tone-a-surreptitious-relationship
#18
Donald G Welsh, Thomas A Longden
The endothelium is an integrated layer of cells whose dynamic regulation governs arterial tone development and the matching of blood flow delivery to tissue energetic demand. Investigating the structural and electrical properties of native endothelial cells has been a challenging prospect, with efforts often restricted to traditional myographic techniques. Concerted experimental attention, along with recent technical advances, has broadened the investigative tool kit, deepening mechanistic insights. This overview in part of a Special Topics Issue centered on the endothelium and how key structural/electrical properties guide arterial tone development and integrated network behavior...
March 16, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303526/a-herbivore-tag-and-trace-system-reveals-contact-and-density-dependent-repellence-of-a-root-toxin
#19
Zoe Bont, Carla Arce, Meret Huber, Wei Huang, Adrien Mestrot, Craig J Sturrock, Matthias Erb
Foraging behavior of root feeding organisms strongly affects plant-environment-interactions and ecosystem processes. However, the impact of plant chemistry on root herbivore movement in the soil is poorly understood. Here, we apply a simple technique to trace the movement of soil-dwelling insects in their habitats without disturbing or restricting their interactions with host plants. We tagged the root feeding larvae of Melolontha melolontha with a copper ring and repeatedly located their position in relation to their preferred host plant, Taraxacum officinale, using a commercial metal detector...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303100/a-neural-dynamic-architecture-for-reaching-and-grasping-integrates-perception-and-movement-generation-and-enables-on-line-updating
#20
Guido Knips, Stephan K U Zibner, Hendrik Reimann, Gregor Schöner
Reaching for objects and grasping them is a fundamental skill for any autonomous robot that interacts with its environment. Although this skill seems trivial to adults, who effortlessly pick up even objects they have never seen before, it is hard for other animals, for human infants, and for most autonomous robots. Any time during movement preparation and execution, human reaching movement are updated if the visual scene changes (with a delay of about 100 ms). The capability for online updating highlights how tightly perception, movement planning, and movement generation are integrated in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
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