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Integrated behavioral

Tara Nietzold, Bradley M West, Michael Stuckelberger, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Mariana I Bertoni
The quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy maps by fitting the raw spectra to a known standard is crucial for evaluating chemical composition and elemental distribution within a material. Synchrotron-based XRF has become an integral characterization technique for a variety of research topics, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and its high sensitivity. Today, synchrotrons can acquire fluorescence data at spatial resolutions well below a micron, allowing for the evaluation of compositional variations at the nanoscale...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jing Huang, Peng Guo, Marsha A Moses
The acquisition of the angiogenic phenotype is an essential component of the escape from tumor dormancy. Although several classic in vitro assays (e.g., proliferation, migration, and others) and in vivo models have been developed to investigate and characterize angiogenic and non-angiogenic cell phenotypes, these methods are time and labor intensive, and often require expensive reagents and instruments, as well as significant expertise. In a recent study, we used a novel quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique to conduct time-lapse and labeling-free characterizations of angiogenic and non-angiogenic human osteosarcoma KHOS cells...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chao Xiong, Zhiquan Zhang, Gurpreet S Baht, Niccolo Terrando
Surgery is commonly used to improve and maintain quality of life. Unfortunately, in vulnerable patients such as the elderly, complications may occur and significantly diminish the outcome. Indeed, after routine orthopedic surgery to repair a fracture, as many as 50% of elderly patients suffer from neurologic complications like delirium. Also, the capacity to heal and regenerate tissue after surgery decreases with age, and can impact the quality of fracture repair and even osseous integration of implants. Thus, a better understanding of mechanisms that drive these age-dependent changes could provide strategic targets to minimize risk for such complications and optimize outcomes...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jungman Chung, Wonjoon Oh, Dongyoub Baek, Sunwoong Ryu, Won Gu Lee, Hyunwoo Bang
This study presents a series of protocols of designing and manufacturing a glasses-type wearable device that detects the patterns of temporalis muscle activities during food intake and other physical activities. We fabricated a 3D-printed frame of the glasses and a load cell-integrated printed circuit board (PCB) module inserted in both hinges of the frame. The module was used to acquire the force signals, and transmit them wirelessly. These procedures provide the system with higher mobility, which can be evaluated in practical wearing conditions such as walking and waggling...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Julie H Hernandez, Mbadu Muanda, Mélissa Garcia, Grace Matawa
CONTEXT: Despite the commitment of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to expand the family planning method mix and increase access to services, awareness of emergency contraception is low among women, and the method remains underused and poorly integrated in family planning programming. METHODS: Data from 15 focus group discussions conducted in 2016 among women aged 15-35 were used to examine awareness and perceptions of, and attitudes toward, emergency contraceptives...
September 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Jackie M Poos, Lize C Jiskoot, Janne M Papma, John C van Swieten, Esther van den Berg
OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis of the extent, nature and pattern of memory performance in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Multiple observational studies have challenged the relative sparing of memory in bvFTD as stated in the current diagnostic criteria. METHODS: We performed a meta-analytic review covering the period 1967 to February 2017 of case-control studies on episodic memory in bvFTD versus control participants (16 studies, 383 patients, 603 control participants), and patients with bvFTD versus those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (20 studies, 452 bvFTD, 874 AD)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Joselle M McCracken, Sheng Xu, Adina Badea, Kyung-In Jang, Zheng Yan, David J Wetzel, Kewang Nan, Qing Lin, Mengdi Han, Mikayla A Anderson, Jung Woo Lee, Zijun Wei, Matt Pharr, Renhan Wang, Jessica Su, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan V Sweedler, John A Rogers, Ralph G Nuzzo
Complex 3D organizations of materials represent ubiquitous structural motifs found in the most sophisticated forms of matter, the most notable of which are in life-sustaining hierarchical structures found in biology, but where simpler examples also exist as dense multilayered constructs in high-performance electronics. Each class of system evinces specific enabling forms of assembly to establish their functional organization at length scales not dissimilar to tissue-level constructs. This study describes materials and means of assembly that extend and join these disparate systems-schemes for the functional integration of soft and biological materials with synthetic 3D microscale, open frameworks that can leverage the most advanced forms of multilayer electronic technologies, including device-grade semiconductors such as monocrystalline silicon...
September 2017: Advanced Biosystems
Marc J Weigensberg, Cheryl Vigen, Paola Sequeira, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Magaly Juarez, Daniella Florindez, Joseph Provisor, Anne Peters, Elizabeth A Pyatak
Background: The transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from pediatric to adult care is challenging and frequently accompanied by worsening of diabetes-related health. To date, there are no reports which prospectively assess the effects of theory-based psycho-behavioral interventions during the transition period neither on glycemic control nor on psychosocial factors that contribute to poor glycemic control. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to develop and pilot test an integrative group intervention based on the underlying principles of self-determination theory (SDT), in young adults with T1D...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Hyungmin Rho, Victor Van Epps, Nicholas Wegley, Sharon L Doty, Soo-Hyung Kim
Bacterial and yeast endophytes isolated from the Salicaceae family have been shown to promote growth and alleviate stress in plants from different taxa. To determine the physiological pathways through which endophytes affect plant water relations, we investigated leaf water potential, whole-plant water use, and stomatal responses of rice plants to Salicaceae endophyte inoculation under CO2 enrichment and water deficit. Daytime stomatal conductance and stomatal density were lower in inoculated plants compared to controls...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ying Han, Yangmin Zheng, Jingpu Zhang, Changqin Hu
Most third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime, cefmenoxime, cefepime, and cefpirome, contain an aminothiazoyl ring at the C-7 position. Drug impurity, which may be produced either during synthesis or upon degradation, can induce adverse effects. Various reports have indicated that neurotoxicity is a side effect of cephalosporin. In this study, we developed methods for assessing the free-swimming activities and behaviors in zebrafish larvae in response to continuous darkness and stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition by chemical treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mateo Vélez-Fort, Edward F Bracey, Sepiedeh Keshavarzi, Charly V Rousseau, Lee Cossell, Stephen C Lenzi, Molly Strom, Troy W Margrie
To interpret visual-motion events, the underlying computation must involve internal reference to the motion status of the observer's head. We show here that layer 6 (L6) principal neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) receive a diffuse, vestibular-mediated synaptic input that signals the angular velocity of horizontal rotation. Behavioral and theoretical experiments indicate that these inputs, distributed over a network of 100 L6 neurons, provide both a reliable estimate and, therefore, physiological separation of head-velocity signals...
March 8, 2018: Neuron
Irit Shapira-Lichter, Ido Strauss, Noga Oren, Tomer Gazit, Francesco Sammartino, Peter Giacobbe, Sidney Kennedy, William D Hutchison, Itzhak Fried, Talma Hendler, Andres M Lozano
Life requires monitoring and adjusting behavior in the face of conflicts. The conflict monitoring theory implicates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in these processes; its ventral aspect (vACC) specializes in emotional conflict. To elucidate the underpinning neural mechanism, we recorded vACC extracellular activity from 12 patients with mood disorders or epilepsy who performed the face-emotional Stroop task. Behaviorally, both conflict detection and adaptation to conflict were evident. The firing rate of neurons in the vACC represented current conflict, i...
March 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Matthias Stangl, Johannes Achtzehn, Karin Huber, Caroline Dietrich, Claus Tempelmann, Thomas Wolbers
A progressive loss of navigational abilities in old age has been observed in numerous studies, but we have only limited understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying this decline [1]. A central component of the brain's navigation circuit are grid cells in entorhinal cortex [2], largely thought to support intrinsic self-motion-related computations, such as path integration (i.e., keeping track of one's position by integrating self-motion cues) [3-6]. Given that entorhinal cortex is particularly vulnerable to neurodegenerative processes during aging and Alzheimer's disease [7-14], deficits in grid cell function could be a key mechanism to explain age-related navigational decline...
March 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Elissa S Epel, Alexandra D Crosswell, Stefanie E Mayer, Aric A Prather, George M Slavich, Eli Puterman, Wendy Berry Mendes
Stress can influence health throughout the lifespan, yet there is little agreement about what types and aspects of stress matter most for human health and disease. This is in part because "stress" is not a monolithic concept but rather, an emergent process that involves interactions between individual and environmental factors, historical and current events, allostatic states, and psychological and physiological reactivity. Many of these processes has alone been labeled as "stress." Stress science would be further advanced if researchers adopted a common conceptual model that incorporates epidemiological, affective, and psychophysiological perspectives, with more precise language for describing stress measures...
March 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Lisa G Sorensen, Katie Neighbors, Regina M Hardison, Kathleen M Loomes, James W Varni, Vicky L Ng, Robert H Squires, Estella M Alonso
OBJECTIVE: To determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and neurocognitive impairment in survivors of pediatric acute liver failure (PALF). STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective study was conducted. At 6 and 12 months after PALF presentation, surveys of HRQoL were completed for 2- to 19-year-olds and executive functioning for ages 2-16 years. At 12 months, patients 3-16 years of age completed neurocognitive testing. HRQoL scores were compared with a healthy, matched sample...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Mehran Mazandarani, Naser Pariz
This paper deals with sub-optimal control of a fuzzy linear dynamical system. The aim is to keep the state variables of the fuzzy linear dynamical system close to zero in an optimal manner. In the fuzzy dynamical system, the fuzzy derivative is considered as the granular derivative; and all the coefficients and initial conditions can be uncertain. The criterion for assessing the optimality is regarded as a granular integral whose integrand is a quadratic function of the state variables and control inputs. Using the relative-distance-measure (RDM) fuzzy interval arithmetic and calculus of variations, the optimal control law is presented as the fuzzy state variables feedback...
March 16, 2018: ISA Transactions
Anna Rita Giovagnoli, Valentina Manfredi, Letizia Schifano, Chiara Paterlini, Annalisa Parente, Fabrizio Tagliavini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can impair language, but active music therapy (AMT) and memantine (M) can improve communication. This study aimed to clarify whether adding AMT to M may improve language in comparison with drugs alone in patients with moderate AD on stable therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEI). Forty-five AD patients treated with stable dose of AchEI were randomized to receive AMT plus M 20 mg/day or M 20 mg/day for 24 weeks. The Severe Impairment Battery-Language (SIB-l), SIB, Mini Mental State Examination, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Lubben Social Network Scale, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scores at baseline and 12 and 24 weeks assessed language (primary variable) and overall cognitive, psycho-behavior, social, and functional aspects (secondary variables)...
March 17, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Bailey R House, Michael Tomasello
Prosocial and normative behavior emerges in early childhood, but substantial changes in prosocial behavior in middle childhood may be due to it becoming integrated with children's understanding of what is normative. Here we show that information about what is normative begins influencing children's costly sharing in middle childhood in a sample of 6- to 11-year-old German children. Information about what is normative was most influential when indicating what was "right" (i.e., "The right thing is to choose this")...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Pia Bornefeld-Ettmann, Regina Steil, Klara A Lieberz, Martin Bohus, Sophie Rausch, Julia Herzog, Kathlen Priebe, Thomas Fydrich, Meike Müller-Engelmann
BACKGROUND: Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Joyce J Endendijk, Marleen G Groeneveld, Judi Mesman
This article reviews and integrates research on gender-related biological, cognitive, and social processes that take place in or between family members, resulting in a newly developed gendered family process (GFP) model. The GFP model serves as a guiding framework for research on gender in the family context, calling for the integration of biological, social, and cognitive factors. Biological factors in the model are prenatal, postnatal, and pubertal androgen levels of children and parents, and genetic effects on parent and child gendered behavior...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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