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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161456/integrated-care-with-indigenous-populations-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#1
Melissa E Lewis, Laurelle L Myhra
INTRODUCTION: The integration of behavioral health into medical care is related to positive results including improved patient health outcomes, provider satisfaction, and cost-offset. Indigenous people suffer from the highest health disparities in the nation and disproportionately experience barriers to health care; yet it is unknown if integrated care is effective for this population. METHODS: A systematic literature review was completed on the state of integrated care at Indigenous-serving health care sites in 2014 and was updated in 2016...
2017: American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: the Journal of the National Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161359/recurrent-processing-of-contour-integration-in-the-human-visual-cortex-as-revealed-by-fmri-guided-tms
#2
Ya Li, Yonghui Wang, Sheng Li
Contour integration is a critical step in visual perception because it groups discretely local elements into perceptually global contours. Previous investigations have suggested that striate and extrastriate visual areas are involved in this mid-level processing of visual perception. However, the temporal dynamics of these areas in the human brain during contour integration is less understood. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to briefly disrupt 1 of 2 visual areas (V1/V2 and V3B) and examined the causal contributions of these areas to contour detection...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161318/loss-of-mtorc2-signaling-in-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-delays-myelination
#3
Mark D Grier, Kathryn L West, Nathaniel D Kelm, Cary Fu, Mark D Does, Brittany Parker, Eleanor McBrier, Andre H Lagrange, Kevin C Ess, Robert P Carson
Myelin abnormalities are increasingly being recognized as an important component of a number of neurologic developmental disorders. The integration of many signaling pathways and cell types are critical for correct myelinogenesis. The PI3-K and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways have been found to play key roles. mTOR is found within two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 activity has been shown to play a major role during myelination, while the role of mTORC2 is not yet well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161020/deformation-drives-alignment-of-nanofibers-in-framework-for-inducing-anisotropic-cellulose-hydrogels-with-high-toughness
#4
Dongdong Ye, Qiaoyun Cheng, Qianlei Zhang, Yixiang Wang, Chunyu Chang, Liangbin Li, Haiyan Peng, Lina Zhang
Deformation driven alignment of molecules or nanofibers leading to anisotropy is a challenge in functional soft materials. Here, high toughness hydrogels with deformation-induced anisotropy are fabricated from cellulose solution in LiOH/urea, relying on successively designing a loose chemical crosslinking network and a dense physical network containing nanofibers and submicrobundles formed through parallel self-aggregation in dilute acid. The loose network acts as a large framework, whereas relatively dense physical networks are integrated inside, jointly constituting the hierarchical architecture...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160335/study-on-the-application-of-the-time-compressed-speech-in-children
#5
Fernanda Yasmin Odila Maestri Miguel Padilha, Maria Madalena Canina Pinheiro
PURPOSE: To analyze the performance of children without alteration of central auditory processing in the Time-compressed Speech Test. METHODS: This is a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. Study participants were 22 children aged 7-11 years without central auditory processing disorders. The following instruments were used to assess whether these children presented central auditory processing disorders: Scale of Auditory Behaviors, simplified evaluation of central auditory processing, and Dichotic Test of Digits (binaural integration stage)...
November 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159037/reorganization-of-the-somatosensory-cortex-in-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-associated-with-impaired-sensory-tracts
#6
Christos Papadelis, Erin E Butler, Madelyn Rubenstein, Limin Sun, Lilla Zollei, Donna Nimec, Brian Snyder, Patricia Ellen Grant
Functional neuroimaging studies argue that sensory deficits in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) are related to deviant somatosensory processing in the ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex (S1). A separate body of structural neuroimaging literature argues that these deficits are due to structural damage of the ascending sensory tracts (AST). The relationship between the functional and structural integrity of the somatosensory system and the sensory performance is largely unknown in HCP. To address this relationship, we combined findings from magnetoencephalography (MEG) and probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) in 10 children with HCP and 13 typically developing (TD) children...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158585/child-abuse-associates-with-an-imbalance-of-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cells-in-ventromedial-prefrontal-white-matter
#7
A Tanti, J J Kim, M Wakid, M-A Davoli, G Turecki, N Mechawar
Child abuse (CA) is a major risk factor for depression, and strongly associates with suicidal behavior during adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have reported widespread changes in white matter integrity and brain connectivity in subjects with a history of CA. Although such observations could reflect changes in myelin and oligodendrocyte function, their cellular underpinnings have never been addressed. Using postmortem brain samples from depressed suicides with or without history of CA and matched controls (18 per group), we aimed to characterize the effects of CA on oligodendrocyte-lineage (OL) cells in the ventromedial prefrontal white matter...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158415/long-term-dopamine-neurochemical-monitoring-in-primates
#8
Helen N Schwerdt, Hideki Shimazu, Ken-Ichi Amemori, Satoko Amemori, Patrick L Tierney, Daniel J Gibson, Simon Hong, Tomoko Yoshida, Robert Langer, Michael J Cima, Ann M Graybiel
Many debilitating neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by dopamine neurotransmitter dysregulation. Monitoring subsecond dopamine release accurately and for extended, clinically relevant timescales is a critical unmet need. Especially valuable has been the development of electrochemical fast-scan cyclic voltammetry implementing microsized carbon fiber probe implants to record fast millisecond changes in dopamine concentrations. Nevertheless, these well-established methods have only been applied in primates with acutely (few hours) implanted sensors...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158407/dynamics-of-a-rolling-robot
#9
K I Ilin, H K Moffatt, V A Vladimirov
Equations describing the rolling of a spherical ball on a horizontal surface are obtained, the motion being activated by an internal rotor driven by a battery mechanism. The rotor is modeled as a point mass mounted inside a spherical shell and caused to move in a prescribed circular orbit relative to the shell. The system is described in terms of four independent dimensionless parameters. The equations governing the angular momentum of the ball relative to the point of contact with the plane constitute a six-dimensional, nonholonomic, nonautonomous dynamical system with cubic nonlinearity...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158108/signaling-by-synaptic-zinc-is-required-for-whisker-mediated-fine-texture-discrimination
#10
Hsia-Pai Patrick Wu, Richard H Dyck
Zinc-containing terminals are found throughout the neocortex, concentrated predominantly in layers II/III, V, and VI. Synaptic zinc is a potent neurotransmitter/modulator and, therefore, may mediate inter- or intra-cortical integration of sensory information. We have previously shown that levels of synaptic zinc are rapidly modulated in somatosensory (barrel) cortex, in an experience- and activity-dependent manner. Zinc Transporter 3 (ZnT3) knockout (KO) mice lack synaptic zinc and provide us with a good model to examine the contribution of synaptic zinc to barrel cortex-dependent behavior...
November 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157937/pure-word-deafness-following-left-temporal-damage-behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-evidence-from-a-new-case
#11
Chiara Maffei, Rita Capasso, Giulia Cazzolli, Cesare Colosimo, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Francesca Piludu, Marco Catani, Gabriele Miceli
Pure Word Deafness (PWD) is a rare disorder, characterized by selective loss of speech input processing. Its most common cause is temporal damage to the primary auditory cortex of both hemispheres, but it has been reported also following unilateral lesions. In unilateral cases, PWD has been attributed to the disconnection of Wernicke's area from both right and left primary auditory cortex. Here we report behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a new case of left unilateral PWD with both cortical and white matter damage due to a relatively small stroke lesion in the left temporal gyrus...
October 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157503/a-review-of-the-prevention-and-medical-management-of-childhood-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Kristin L Anderson
Prevention and management of childhood obesity remains a public health priority and necessitates an integrated chronic care approach. Obesity prevention efforts should focus on healthy family-based lifestyle modifications. The United States Prevention Services Task Force recommends children older than age 6 of years be screened for obesity and, if clinically indicated, be referred for moderate to high intensity comprehensive behavioral interventions. Childhood obesity and its comorbidities affect most medical specialties...
January 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157410/the-maintenance-and-updating-of-representations-of-no-longer-visible-objects-and-their-parts
#13
J Daniel McCarthy, Gennady Erlikhman, Gideon Paul Caplovitz
When an object partially or completely disappears behind an occluding surface, a representation of that object persists. For example, fragments of no longer visible objects can serve as an input into mid-level constructive visual processes, interacting and integrating with currently visible portions to form perceptual units and global motion signals. Remarkably, these persistent representations need not be static and can have their positions and orientations updated postdictively as new information becomes visible...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157230/barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementing-an-evidence-based-woman-focused-intervention-in-south-african-health-services
#14
Brittni N Howard, Richard Van Dorn, Bronwyn J Myers, William A Zule, Felicia A Browne, Tara Carney, Wendee M Wechsberg
BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, numerous behavior change, risk-reduction, and biomedical interventions have been developed and tested. While some of these interventions have shown to be efficacious in randomized trials, it often takes almost two decades for an intervention to be translated into practice. Meanwhile, South Africa continues to have among the highest prevalence of HIV globally, with women of childbearing age bearing the burden of the epidemic. Given the urgency of the HIV epidemic among vulnerable women in South Africa, it is imperative that evidence-based interventions be implemented rapidly into practice...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156560/system-modeling-of-a-mems-vibratory-gyroscope-and-integration-to-circuit-simulation
#15
Hyukjin J Kwon, Seyeong Seok, Geunbae Lim
Recently, consumer applications have dramatically created the demand for low-cost and compact gyroscopes. Therefore, on the basis of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, many gyroscopes have been developed and successfully commercialized. A MEMS gyroscope consists of a MEMS device and an electrical circuit for self-oscillation and angular-rate detection. Since the MEMS device and circuit are interactively related, the entire system should be analyzed together to design or test the gyroscope. In this study, a MEMS vibratory gyroscope is analyzed based on the system dynamic modeling; thus, it can be mathematically expressed and integrated into a circuit simulator...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156403/the-role-of-trauma-in-the-hormonal-interplay-of-cortisol-testosterone-and-oxytocin-in-adolescent-aggression
#16
REVIEW
Iro Fragkaki, Maaike Cima, Isabela Granic
Although numerous studies have examined the neuroendocrinology of aggression, the findings are mixed and focused on cortisol and testosterone. We argue that past findings remain inconclusive partly because the key roles of oxytocin and trauma have not been systematically integrated yet. Oxytocin is associated with social behavior and interacts with cortisol and testosterone, whereas trauma is a crucial risk factor of aggression that strongly affects hormonal activity. In this review, we investigate the role of trauma in the hormonal interplay of cortisol, testosterone, and oxytocin in aggression during adolescence...
November 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156354/anisotropic-and-nonlinear-biaxial-mechanical-response-of-porcine-small-bowel-mesentery
#17
Keyvan Amini Khoiy, Sophia Abdulhai, Ian C Glenn, Todd A Ponsky, Rouzbeh Amini
Intestinal malrotation places pediatric patients at the risk of midgut volvulus, a complication that can lead to ischemic bowel, short gut syndrome, and even death. Even though the treatments for symptomatic patients of this complication are clear, it is still a challenge to identify asymptomatic patients who are at a higher risk of midgut volvulus and decide on a suitable course of treatment. Development of an accurate computerized model of this intestinal abnormality could help in gaining a better understanding of its integral behavior...
November 11, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156092/gingival-cyst-of-the-adult-lateral-periodontal-cyst-and-botryoid-odontogenic-cyst-an-updated-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Bruno Ramos Chrcanovic, Ricardo Santiago Gomez
OBJECTIVE: To integrate the available data published on gingival cyst of the adult (GCA), lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) and botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC) into a comprehensive analysis of their clinical/radiologic features. METHODS: An electronic search was undertaken in July/2017. Eligibility criteria included publications having enough clinical/radiological/histological information to confirm the diagnosis. RESULTS: 146 publications (157 GCAs, 213 LPCs, 96 BOCs) were included...
November 20, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155565/an-integrated-hot-stage-microscope-direct-analysis-in-real-time-mass-spectrometry-system-for-studying-the-thermal-behavior-of-materials
#19
Gage P Ashton, Lindsay P Harding, Gareth M B Parkes
This paper describes a new analytical instrument that combines a precisely temperature-controlled hot-stage with digital microscopy and Direct Analysis in Real-Time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) detection. The novelty of the instrument lies in its ability to monitor processes as a function of temperature through the simultaneous recording of images, quantitative color changes and mass spectra. The capability of the instrument was demonstrated through successful application to four very varied systems including profiling an organic reaction, decomposition of silicone polymers and the desorption of rhodamine B from an alumina surface...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154907/an-integrated-mathematical-epithelial-cell-model-for-airway-surface-liquid-regulation-by-mechanical-forces
#20
Dan Wu, Richard C Boucher, Brian Button, Timothy Elston, Ching-Long Lin
A robust method based on reverse engineering was utilized to construct the ion-channel conductance functions for airway epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The ion-channel conductance models for both normal (NL) and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia were developed and then coupled to an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism model and a fluid transport model (collectively called the integrated cell model) to investigate airway surface liquid (ASL) volume regulation and hence mucus concentration, by mechanical forces in NL and CF human airways...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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