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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212416/the-variability-of-multisensory-processes-of-natural-stimuli-in-human-and-non-human-primates-in-a-detection-task
#1
Cécile Juan, Céline Cappe, Baptiste Alric, Benoit Roby, Sophie Gilardeau, Pascal Barone, Pascal Girard
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies in both human and animals generally converge to the dogma that multisensory integration improves reaction times (RTs) in comparison to unimodal stimulation. These multisensory effects depend on diverse conditions among which the most studied were the spatial and temporal congruences. Further, most of the studies are using relatively simple stimuli while in everyday life, we are confronted to a large variety of complex stimulations constantly changing our attentional focus over time, a modality switch that can impact on stimuli detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212099/high-density-high-radiance-%C3%AE-led-matrix-for-optogenetic-retinal-prostheses-and-planar-neural-stimulation
#2
Ahmed Soltan, Brian McGovern, Emmanuel Drakakis, Mark Neil, Pleun Maaskant, Mahbub Akhter, Jun Su Lee, Patrick Degenaar
Optical neuron stimulation arrays are important for both in-vitro biology and retinal prosthetic biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, we present an 8100 pixel high radiance photonic stimulator. The chip module vertically combines custom made gallium nitride μLEDs with a CMOS application specific integrated circuit. This is designed with active pixels to ensure random access and to allow continuous illumination of all required pixels. The μLEDs have been assembled on the chip using a solder ball flip-chip bonding technique which has allowed for reliable and repeatable manufacture...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211999/platform-to-enable-combined-measurement-of-dopamine-and-neural-activity
#3
Kate L Parent, Daniel F Hill, Lindsey M Crown, Jean-Paul Wiegand, Kathleen F Gies, Michael A Miller, Christopher W Atcherley, Michael L Heien, Stephen L Cowen
Complex behaviors depend on the coordination of the activities of ensembles of neurons and the release of neuromodulators such as dopamine. The mechanisms underlying such coordination are not well-understood due to a lack of instrumentation for combined and real-time monitoring of neuromodulator release and the activities of large ensembles of neurons. Here we describe a measurement platform that allows for the combined monitoring of electrophysiology from a high-density electrode array and dopamine dynamics from a carbon-fiber microelectrode...
February 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211981/first-report-of-factors-associated-with-satisfaction-in-patients-with-neurofibromatosis
#4
Eric Riklin, Mojtaba Talaei-Kheoi, Vanessa L Merker, Monica R Sheridan, Justin T Jordan, Scott R Plotkin, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
Patient satisfaction is an integral part of quality health care. We assessed whether health literacy and psychosocial factors are associated with patient satisfaction among adults with neurofibromatosis. Eighty adults (mean age = 44 years; 55% female, 87% white) with NF (50% NF1, 41% NF2, and 9% schwannomatosis) completed an adapted Functional, Communicative, and Critical Health Literacy Questionnaire (FCCHL), the Health Literacy Assessment, a series of Patient Reported Outcome Measures Information System (PROMIS) psychosocial tests, and demographics before the medical visit...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211682/exploring-the-influence-of-diamagnetic-ions-on-the-mechanism-of-magnetization-relaxation-in-co-iii-2ln-iii-2-ln-dy-tb-ho-butterfly-complexes
#5
Kuduva R Vignesh, Stuart K Langley, Keith S Murray, Gopalan Rajaraman
The synthesis and magnetic and theoretical studies of three isostructural heterometallic [Co(III)2Ln(III)2(μ3-OH)2(o-tol)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (2), Ho (3)) "butterfly" complexes are reported (o-tol = o-toluate, (mdea)(2-) = doubly deprotonated N-methyldiethanolamine). The Co(III) ions are diamagnetic in these complexes. Analysis of the dc magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the two Ln(III) ions for all three complexes. ac magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for complex 1, in the absence of an external magnetic field, with an anisotropy barrier Ueff of 81...
February 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211102/effectiveness-of-vaginal-breech-birth-training-strategies-an-integrative-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Shawn Walker, Eamonn Breslin, Mandie Scamell, Pam Parker
BACKGROUND: The safety of vaginal breech birth depends on the skill of the attendant. The objective of this review was to identify, synthesize, and report the findings of evaluated breech birth training strategies. METHODS: A systematic search of the following on-line databases: Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsychINFO, EBM Reviews/Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Maternity and Infant Care, and Pubmed, using a structured search strategy. Studies were included in the review if they evaluated the efficacy of a breech birth training program or particular strategies, including obstetric emergency training evaluations that reported differentiated outcomes for breech...
February 17, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210336/effect-of-changing-table-tennis-ball-material-from-celluloid-to-plastic-on-the-post-collision-ball-trajectory
#7
Yuki Inaba, Sho Tamaki, Haruhiko Ikebukuro, Koshi Yamada, Hiroki Ozaki, Kazuto Yoshida
The official material used in table tennis balls was changed from celluloid to plastic, a material free of celluloid, in 2014. The purpose of this study was to understand the differences and similarities in the two types of ball materials by comparing their behavior upon collision with a table. The behavior of the balls before and after collision with a table, at various initial speeds ranging from 15 to 115 km/h, was captured using high-speed cameras. Velocities and spin rates before collision and velocities after collision were computed to calculate the coefficients of restitution and friction...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210287/the-neural-language-systems-that-support-healthy-aging-integrating-function-structure-and-behavior
#8
Michele T Diaz, Avery A Rizio, Jie Zhuang
Although healthy aging is generally characterized by declines in both brain structure and function, there is variability in the extent to which these changes result in observable cognitive decline. Specific to language, age-related differences in language production are observed more frequently than in language comprehension, although both are associated with increased right prefrontal cortex activation in older adults. The current paper explores these differences in the language system, integrating them with theories of behavioral and neural cognitive aging...
July 2016: Language and Linguistics Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209520/deconstructing-empathy-neuroanatomical-dissociations-between-affect-sharing-and-prosocial-motivation-using-a-patient-lesion-model
#9
Suzanne M Shdo, Kamalini G Ranasinghe, Kelly A Gola, Clinton J Mielke, Paul V Sukhanov, Bruce L Miller, Katherine P Rankin
Affect sharing and prosocial motivation are integral parts of empathy that are conceptually and mechanistically distinct. We used a neurodegenerative disease (NDG) lesion model to more directly examine the neural correlates of these two aspects of real-world empathic responding. The study enrolled 275 participants, including 44 healthy older controls and 231 patients diagnosed with one of five neurodegenerative diseases (75 Alzheimer's disease, 58 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 42 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 28 progressive supranuclear palsy, and 28 non-fluent variant (nfvPPA)...
February 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209158/gene-regulatory-network-underlying-the-immortalization-of-epithelial-cells
#10
Luis Fernando Méndez-López, Jose Davila-Velderrain, Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger, Christian Enríquez-Olguín, Juan Carlos Martínez-García, Elena R Alvarez-Buylla
BACKGROUND: Tumorigenic transformation of human epithelial cells in vitro has been described experimentally as the potential result of spontaneous immortalization. This process is characterized by a series of cell-state transitions, in which normal epithelial cells acquire first a senescent state which is later surpassed to attain a mesenchymal stem-like phenotype with a potentially tumorigenic behavior. In this paper we aim to provide a system-level mechanistic explanation to the emergence of these cell types, and to the time-ordered transition patterns that are common to neoplasias of epithelial origin...
February 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208839/interventions-for-preventing-childhood-obesity-with-smartphones-and-wearable-device-a-protocol-for-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Hye Jung Yang, Jae-Heon Kang, Ok Hyun Kim, Mona Choi, Myungju Oh, Jihyun Nam, Eunju Sung
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named "HAPPY ME," which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10-12 years of age using HAPPY ME...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207844/population-attributable-fraction-of-incident-hiv-infections-associated-with-alcohol-consumption-in-fishing-communities-around-lake-victoria-uganda
#12
Noah Kiwanuka, Ali Ssetaala, Ismail Ssekandi, Annet Nalutaaya, Paul Kato Kitandwe, Julius Ssempiira, Bernard Ssentalo Bagaya, Apolo Balyegisawa, Pontiano Kaleebu, Judith Hahn, Christina Lindan, Nelson Kaulukusi Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Although the association between alcohol consumption and HIV risk is well documented, few studies have examined the magnitude of new HIV infections that could be prevented by controlling alcohol use. We report the population attributable fraction (PAF) of incident HIV infections due to alcohol consumption among the HIV high-risk population of fishing communities along Lake Victoria, Uganda. METHODS: In a community-based cohort study, 1607 HIV sero-negative participants aged 18-49 years were enrolled from eight fishing communities along Lake Victoria, Uganda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207734/a-causal-inference-model-explains-perception-of-the-mcgurk-effect-and-other-incongruent-audiovisual-speech
#13
John F Magnotti, Michael S Beauchamp
Audiovisual speech integration combines information from auditory speech (talker's voice) and visual speech (talker's mouth movements) to improve perceptual accuracy. However, if the auditory and visual speech emanate from different talkers, integration decreases accuracy. Therefore, a key step in audiovisual speech perception is deciding whether auditory and visual speech have the same source, a process known as causal inference. A well-known illusion, the McGurk Effect, consists of incongruent audiovisual syllables, such as auditory "ba" + visual "ga" (AbaVga), that are integrated to produce a fused percept ("da")...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207733/beyond-negative-valence-2-week-administration-of-a-serotonergic-antidepressant-enhances-both-reward-and-effort-learning-signals
#14
Jacqueline Scholl, Nils Kolling, Natalie Nelissen, Michael Browning, Matthew F S Rushworth, Catherine J Harmer
To make good decisions, humans need to learn about and integrate different sources of appetitive and aversive information. While serotonin has been linked to value-based decision-making, its role in learning is less clear, with acute manipulations often producing inconsistent results. Here, we show that when the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) are studied over longer timescales, learning is robustly improved. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in volunteers as they performed a concurrent appetitive (money) and aversive (effort) learning task...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207240/interfaces-in-heterogeneous-catalysts-advancing-mechanistic-understanding-through-atomic-scale-measurements
#15
Wenpei Gao, Zachary D Hood, Miaofang Chi
Developing novel catalysts with high efficiency and selectivity is critical for enabling future clean energy conversion technologies. Interfaces in catalyst systems have long been considered the most critical factor in controlling catalytic reaction mechanisms. Interfaces include not only the catalyst surface but also interfaces within catalyst particles and those formed by constructing heterogeneous catalysts. The atomic and electronic structures of catalytic surfaces govern the kinetics of binding and release of reactant molecules from surface atoms...
February 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206723/clinical-study-on-amplitude-integrated-electroencephalogram-in-cerebral-injury-caused-by-severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#16
Hongwei Wu, Zhenguang Li, Jinfeng Liu, Gang Liu, Xia Yang
BACKGROUND: This study was designed in order to assess the validity of the use of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) in cerebral injury caused by severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. METHODS: A total of 56 full-term neonates diagnosed with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and admitted to the NICU of our hospital from July 2013 to December 2014 were continuously selected for the study. The total serum bilirubin (TSB) was higher than 342 μmo/l, and was dominated by a higher amount of unconjugated bilirubin...
February 15, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205533/a-data-driven-approach-for-evaluating-multi-modal-therapy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Jenny Haefeli, Adam R Ferguson, Deborah Bingham, Adrienne Orr, Seok Joon Won, Tina I Lam, Jian Shi, Sarah Hawley, Jialing Liu, Raymond A Swanson, Stephen M Massa
Combination therapies targeting multiple recovery mechanisms have the potential for additive or synergistic effects, but experimental design and analyses of multimodal therapeutic trials are challenging. To address this problem, we developed a data-driven approach to integrate and analyze raw source data from separate pre-clinical studies and evaluated interactions between four treatments following traumatic brain injury. Histologic and behavioral outcomes were measured in 202 rats treated with combinations of an anti-inflammatory agent (minocycline), a neurotrophic agent (LM11A-31), and physical therapy consisting of assisted exercise with or without botulinum toxin-induced limb constraint...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205512/superplastic-behavior-of-silica-nanowires-obtained-by-direct-patterning-of-silsesquioxane-based-precursors
#18
Mustafa Yılmaz, Nicole Wollschläger, Mohammad Nasr Esfahani, Werner Österle, Yusuf Leblebici, B Erdem Alaca
Silica nanowires spanning 10 μm-deep trenches are fabricated from different types of silsesquioxane-based precursors by direct e-beam patterning on silicon followed by release through deep reactive ion etching. Nanowire aspect ratios as large as 150 are achieved with a critical dimension of about 50 nm and nearly rectangular cross-sections. In situ bending tests are carried out inside a scanning electron microscope, where the etch depth of 10 [Formula: see text] provides sufficient space for deformation. Silica NWs are indeed observed to exhibit superplastic behavior without fracture with deflections reaching the full etch depth, about two orders of magnitude larger than the nanowire thickness...
February 16, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205364/altered-neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-control-in-patients-with-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-an-effective-connectivity-study
#19
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Maria Assunta Rocca, Paola Valsasina, John DeLuca, Massimo Filippi
Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) leads to physical and cognitive disability. Specifically, cognitive deficits in PPMS have been explained by both grey matter atrophy and white matter lesions. However, existing research still lacks in the understanding of how the brain of a patient with PPMS functions under cognitive control demands. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine information integration in patients with PPMS using a search-based effective connectivity method. Fourteen patients with PPMS and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) performed the Stroop task, a cognitively demanding interference task that taxes neural resources required for cognitive control and response inhibition...
February 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205157/a-conceptual-neurocognitive-affect-related-model-for-the-promotion-of-exercise-among-obese-adults
#20
REVIEW
Meghan K Edwards, Ovuokerie Addoh, Skyla M Herod, Ryan E Rhodes, Paul D Loprinzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity remains a prominent societal threat and burden despite well-promoted prevention and treatment strategies, such as regular engagement in physical activity. Obese individuals, in particular, may be prone to inactivity as a result of a variety of displeasure-related parameters resulting from exercise, such as dyspnea, for instance. RECENT FINDINGS: This brief conceptual review discusses the integral roles of exercise-induced affective responses within a novel conceptual-based neurocognitive affect-related model...
February 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
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