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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430041/integrative-modeling-of-pfc
#1
William H Alexander, Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, Zachary D Langford
pFC is generally regarded as a region critical for abstract reasoning and high-level cognitive behaviors. As such, it has become the focus of intense research involving a wide variety of subdisciplines of neuroscience and employing a diverse range of methods. However, even as the amount of data on pFC has increased exponentially, it appears that progress toward understanding the general function of the region across a broad array of contexts has not kept pace. Effects observed in pFC are legion, and their interpretations are generally informed by a particular perspective or methodology with little regard with how those effects may apply more broadly...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429567/the-tsimane-health-and-life-history-project-integrating-anthropology-and-biomedicine
#2
Michael Gurven, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin Trumble, Aaron D Blackwell, Bret Beheim, Helen Davis, Paul Hooper, Hillard Kaplan
The Tsimane Health and Life History Project, an integrated bio-behavioral study of the human life course, is designed to test competing hypotheses of human life-history evolution. One aim is to understand the bidirectional connections between life history and social behavior in a high-fertility, kin-based context lacking amenities of modern urban life (e.g. sanitation, banks, electricity). Another aim is to understand how a high pathogen burden influences health and well-being during development and adulthood...
April 2017: Evolutionary Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429158/food-insecurity-substance-use-and-sexual-transmission-risk-behavior-among-people-living-with-hiv-a-daily-level-analysis
#3
Jennifer A Pellowski, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Seth C Kalichman
People living with HIV in poverty have limited tangible and mental resources coupled with competing demands for these resources. Competing demands require individuals to make choices that may be beneficial to them in the short term but not in the long term. Past research has shown that food insecurity is related to sexual risk behaviors among people living with HIV. Individuals who are food insecure may sell sex in order to obtain food or lack of food may lead to a depletion of mental resources to negotiate safe sex...
April 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428935/genetic-analysis-of-mosquito-detection-of-humans
#4
Joshua I Raji, Matthew DeGennaro
Mosquitoes detect the presence of humans by integrating chemosensory, thermal, and visual cues. Among these, odors are crucial for mosquito host detection. Insects have evolved a diverse repertoire of receptors to detect their plant and animal hosts. Genetic analysis of these receptors in Drosophila has set the stage for similar studies in mosquitoes. The diversity of the cues involved in mosquito host-seeking has made designing behavioral control strategies a challenge. The sensory receptors that are most important for mosquito detection of humans can now be determined using genome editing...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428158/mobile-application-to-promote-adherence-to-oral-chemotherapy-and-symptom-management-a-protocol-for-design-and-development
#5
Joel Nathan Fishbein, Lauren Ellen Nisotel, James John MacDonald, Nicole Amoyal Pensak, Jamie Michele Jacobs, Clare Flanagan, Kamal Jethwani, Joseph Andrew Greer
BACKGROUND: Oral chemotherapy is increasingly used in place of traditional intravenous chemotherapy to treat patients with cancer. While oral chemotherapy includes benefits such as ease of administration, convenience, and minimization of invasive infusions, patients receive less oversight, support, and symptom monitoring from clinicians. Additionally, adherence is a well-documented challenge for patients with cancer prescribed oral chemotherapy regimens. With the ever-growing presence of smartphones and potential for efficacious behavioral intervention technology, we created a mobile health intervention for medication and symptom management...
April 20, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427115/personality-assessment-and-model-comparison-with-behavioral-data-a-statistical-framework-and-empirical-demonstration-with-bonobos-pan-paniscus
#6
Jordan S Martin, Scott A Suarez
Interest in quantifying consistent among-individual variation in primate behavior, also known as personality, has grown rapidly in recent decades. Although behavioral coding is the most frequently utilized method for assessing primate personality, limitations in current statistical practice prevent researchers' from utilizing the full potential of their coding datasets. These limitations include the use of extensive data aggregation, not modeling biologically relevant sources of individual variance during repeatability estimation, not partitioning between-individual (co)variance prior to modeling personality structure, the misuse of principal component analysis, and an over-reliance upon exploratory statistical techniques to compare personality models across populations, species, and data collection methods...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427059/the-burden-of-diabetes-emerging-data
#7
Paola Maffi, Antonio Secchi
In recent times, the global prevalence of diabetes has increased substantially, reaching 8.3% in 2014, which corresponds to 387 million patients. Studies in Europe and USA have shown increased incidence of type 1 Diabetes (T1D) over time at a rate of 3-5% per year. Another most worrying feature of the rapid increase of diabetes is the emergence of type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in children, adolescents, and young adults. The well-known behavioral risks factors and epigenetic mechanisms recently observed require an integrated approach to prevent T2D...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426971/metaplasticity-as-a-neural-substrate-for-adaptive-learning-and-choice-under-uncertainty
#8
Shiva Farashahi, Christopher H Donahue, Peyman Khorsand, Hyojung Seo, Daeyeol Lee, Alireza Soltani
Value-based decision making often involves integration of reward outcomes over time, but this becomes considerably more challenging if reward assignments on alternative options are probabilistic and non-stationary. Despite the existence of various models for optimally integrating reward under uncertainty, the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here we propose that reward-dependent metaplasticity (RDMP) can provide a plausible mechanism for both integration of reward under uncertainty and estimation of uncertainty itself...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426755/correction-limbic-thalamo-cortical-projections-and-reward-related-circuitry-integrity-affects-eating-behavior-a-longitudinal-dti-study-in-adolescents-with-restrictive-eating-disorders
#9
Gaia Olivo, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Christina Zhukovsky, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Santino Gaudio, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172129.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426669/a-dynamic-genetic-hormonal-regulatory-network-model-explains-multiple-cellular-behaviors-of-the-root-apical-meristem-of-arabidopsis-thalian
#10
Mónica L García-Gómez, Eugenio Azpeitia, Elena R Álvarez-Buylla
The study of the concerted action of hormones and transcription factors is fundamental to understand cell differentiation and pattern formation during organ development. The root apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana is a useful model to address this. It has a stem cell niche near its tip conformed of a quiescent organizer and stem or initial cells around it, then a proliferation domain followed by a transition domain, where cells diminish division rate before transiting to the elongation zone; here, cells grow anisotropically prior to their final differentiation towards the plant base...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426620/committee-opinion-no-699-adolescent-pregnancy-contraception-and-sexual-activity
#11
(no author information available yet)
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426615/committee-opinion-no-699-adolescent-pregnancy-contraception-and-sexual-activity
#12
(no author information available yet)
In 2015, the birth rate among U.S. adolescents and young adults (aged 15-19 years) reached a historic low at 22.3 per 1,000 women. Despite positive trends, the United States continues to have the highest adolescent pregnancy rate among industrialized countries with data. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent pregnancy rates continue to exist, as do state-based differences in pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports access for adolescents to all contraceptive methods approved by the U...
May 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426520/nursing-practice-research-and-education-in-the-west-the-best-is-yet-to-come
#13
Heather M Young, Susan Bakewell-Sachs, Linda Sarna
PURPOSE: This paper celebrates the 60th anniversary of the Western Institute of Nursing, the nursing organization representing 13 states in the Western United States, and envisions a preferred future for nursing practice, research, and education. BACKGROUND: Three landmark calls to action contribute to transforming nursing and healthcare: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010; the Institute of Medicine report Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health; and the report Advancing Healthcare Transformation: A New Era for Academic Nursing...
April 20, 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426155/insect-transmission-of-plant-viruses-multilayered-interactions-optimize-viral-propagation
#14
Beatriz Dáder, Christiane Then, Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, James C K Ng, Martin Drucker
By serving as vectors of transmission, insects play a key role in the infection cycle of many plant viruses. Viruses use sophisticated transmission strategies to overcome the spatial barrier separating plants and the impediment imposed by the plant cell wall. Interactions among insect vectors, viruses and host plants mediate transmission by integrating all organizational levels, from molecules to populations. Best-examined on the molecular scale are two basic transmission modes wherein virus-vector interactions have been well characterized...
April 20, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425890/biomedical-simulation-evolution-concepts-challenges-and-future-trends
#15
Carla Sá-Couto, Luís Patrão, Francisco Maio-Matos, José Miguel Pêgo
Biomedical simulation is an effective educational complement for healthcare training, both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. It enables knowledge, skills and attitudes to be acquired in a safe, educationally orientated and efficient manner. In this context, simulation provides skills and experience that facilitate the transfer of cognitive, psychomotor and proper communication competences, thus changing behavior and attitudes, and ultimately improving patient safety. Beyond the impact on individual and team performance, simulation provides an opportunity to study organizational failures and improve system performance...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425696/granadilla-inspired-structure-design-for-conversion-alloy-reaction-electrode-with-integrated-lithium-storage-behaviors
#16
Chaoji Chen, Linfeng Peng, Yiju Li, Lei Zhang, Jingwei Xiang, Pei Hu, Shijie Cheng, Yunhui Huang, Jia Xie
Conversion/alloy-reaction electrode materials promise much higher energy density than the commonly used ones based on intercalation chemistries. However, the low electronic conductivity, and specially the large volume expansion upon lithiation hinder their practical applications. Here for the first time, a unique granadilla-inspired structure was designed to prepare the conversion/alloy-reaction anode of carbon coated tin/calcium tin oxide (C@void@Sn/CaSnO3) ternary composite. The granadilla-inspired structure ensures the intimate contact between the Sn/CaSnO3 nanoparticles and the carbon matrix, providing not only conductive networks for electron transport and short distance for Li+ diffusion but also effective space for the electrode volume-expansion towards conversion/alloy reaction...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425691/health-implications-of-new-age-technologies
#17
Zaid Bilgrami, Laura McLaughlin, Ruth Milanaik, Andrew Adesman
New age technologies are ubiquitous in the lives of adolescents. Recent trends in media use suggest that adolescents are spending more time than ever engaging with technologies, and are able to do so in virtually all settings at any time. Given that new age technologies are so heavily integrated within the daily life of adolescents, the health risks and benefits they offer must be closely examined. In this systematic review, we present recent literature related to the implications of new age technologies on adolescent health...
April 20, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424946/preparation-and-corrosion-resistance-of-magnesium-phytic-acid-hydroxyapatite-composite-coatings-on-biodegradable-az31-magnesium-alloy
#18
Min Zhang, Shu Cai, Feiyang Zhang, Guohua Xu, Fengwu Wang, Nian Yu, Xiaodong Wu
In this work, a magnesium phytic acid/hydroxyapatite composite coating was successfully prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy substrate by chemical conversion deposition technology with the aim of improving its corrosion resistance and bioactivity. The influence of hydroxyapatite (HA) content on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of the coatings was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of HA content in phytic acid solution, the cracks on the surface of the coatings gradually reduced, which subsequently improved the corrosion resistance of these coated magnesium alloy...
June 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424894/the-integrity-of-the-nucleus-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract-is-essential-for-the-normal-functioning-of-the-olfactory-system
#19
Ricardo P Vaz, Armando Cardoso, Susana I Sá, Pedro A Pereira, M Dulce Madeira
The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is a relatively small component of the cortical pallial amygdala, with peculiar neurogenic, neurochemical and connectivity patterns. Although it has been suggested that it might be involved in non-pheromonal olfactory-guided behaviors, particularly feeding, the functional implications of the nLOT have never been investigated. In view of this fact, we have tackled this subject by performing a series of behavioral tests and by quantifying biological and biochemical parameters in sexually naïve adult male rats that were submitted to bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the nLOT...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424582/hypothalamic-neurogenesis-as-an-adaptive-metabolic-mechanism
#20
REVIEW
Antonia Recabal, Teresa Caprile, María de Los Angeles García-Robles
In the adult brain, well-characterized neurogenic niches are located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. In both regions, neural precursor cells (NPCs) share markers of embryonic radial glia and astroglial cells, and in vitro clonal expansion of these cells leads to neurosphere formation. It has also been more recently demonstrated that neurogenesis occurs in the adult hypothalamus, a brain structure that integrates peripheral signals to control energy balance and dietary intake...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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