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C difficile colitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324599/risk-factors-incidence-and-morbidity-associated-with-obstetric-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Jacob Ruiter-Ligeti, Sophie Vincent, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Haim Arie Abenhaim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors, incidence, and morbidity associated with the diagnosis of obstetric Clostridium difficile infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study on women admitted for delivery using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the United States. The delivery admission records of pregnant women were reviewed between 1999 and 2013. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, we assessed risk factors for the diagnosis of C difficile infection using unconditional logistic regression...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309845/non-conventional-antimicrobial-and-alternative-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#2
REVIEW
Niloufar Roshan, Katherine A Hammer, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus that causes disease ranging from self-limiting diarrhoea to severe pseudomembranous colitis. C. difficile infection (CDI) commonly affects hospitalised patients and is increasingly identified in patients in the community with no hospital contact. For the last 15 years the incidence of CDI worldwide has been rising, especially in the northern hemisphere. The yearly average number of hospitalizations as a result of this disease is estimated to be over a quarter of a million per year in the United States alone...
January 5, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273290/risk-factors-and-costs-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-colitis-in-patients-with-prosthetic-joint-infection-undergoing-revision-total-hip-arthroplasty
#3
Ronald E Delanois, Nicole E George, Jennifer I Etcheson, Chukwuweike U Gwam, Jaydev B Mistry, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: With the increased demand for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and corresponding rise in revision procedures, it is imperative to understand the factors contributing to the development of Clostridium difficile colitis. We aimed to provide a detailed analysis of: (1) the incidence of; (2) the demographics, lengths of stay, and total costs for; and (3) the risk factors and mortality associated with the development of C. difficile colitis after revision THA. METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample database was queried for all individuals diagnosed with a periprosthetic joint infection and who underwent all-component revision THA between 2009 and 2013 (n = 40,876)...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225756/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-its-toxigenic-genotype-in-beef-samples-in-west-of-iran
#4
Malihe Kheradmand, Somayeh Jalilian, Amirhooshang Alvandi, Ramin Abiri
Background and Objectives: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The prevalence of C. difficile infection differs in various geographical areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile isolates and the prevalence of cdd3, tcdA and tcdB genes in beef samples in Kermanshah Province. Materials and Methods: One hundred ground beef samples were randomly collected from the butchers of Kermanshah province during March 2014 to March 2015...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206751/the-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-on-mortality-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Raseen Tariq, Cindy C Y Law, Sahil Khanna, Sanjay Murthy, Jeffrey D McCurdy
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with an increased mortality risk among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in multiple observational studies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to help clearly define the magnitude of risk in IBD patients with and without CDI, and to assess the risk in individual IBD subtypes. METHODS: A systematic search of multiple electronic databases was conducted for observational studies reporting the risk of mortality in IBD, stratified by the presence of CDI...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164044/characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-c-difficile-associated-disease-in-korea
#6
Seung-Hak Cho, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo, Young Kwon Kim, Jung-Beom Kim, Young-Seok Bak, Woon-Won Jung, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Jong Tae Choi
Objectives: Studies on Clostridium difficile are rare in Korea. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of C. difficile isolates from patients with C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in Korea. Methods: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of tcdA and tcdB toxin genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the disk-dilution method. C. difficile strains were subtyped by automated repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR)...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140433/il-27-il-27receptor-signaling-provides-protection-in-clostridium-difficile-induced-colitis
#7
Lifang Wang, Ju Cao, Congya Li, Zhang Liping
Background: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infection. The role of cytokine IL-27 in the immunopathology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains unknown. Methods: The production of IL-27 was determined in human and murine CDI. Furthermore, wild-type (WT) and IL-27 receptor-deficient (WSX-1 -/-) mice were treated with an antibiotic mixture and infected with C.difficile to investigate the effects of IL-27 on host response to CDI. Results: IL-27 production was elevated during CDI in humans and mice...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084081/lasting-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis
#8
Alyce Anderson, Benjamin Click, Claudia Ramos-Rivers, Debbie Cheng, Dmitriy Babichenko, Ioannis E Koutroubakis, Jana G Hashash, Marc Schwartz, Jason Swoger, Arthur M Barrie, Michael A Dunn, Miguel Regueiro, David G Binion
BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the impact of CDI on disease severity is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CDI on long-term disease outcome in a matched cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Patients who tested positive for infection formed the CDI-positive group. We generated a 1:2 propensity matched case to control cohort based on risk factors for CDI in the year before infection...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084080/metronidazole-or-rifaximin-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-in-pediatric-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Agnieszka Gawronska, Marcin Banasiuk, Dominika Lachowicz, Hanna Pituch, Piotr Albrecht, Aleksandra Banaszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: Interestingly, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) worsens the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment of CDI in this group of patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-blind trial. Children with flare of IBD and CDI were randomly assigned to receive metronidazole or rifaximin orally for 14 days. CDI was diagnosed based on a positive well-type enzyme immunoassay (EIA) toxins A/B stool test for C...
December 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076444/-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-indications-in-perspective
#10
Y H van Beurden, E M Terveer, J J Keller, E J Kuijper, C J J Mulder, C M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
- As yet, with cure rates around 85%, recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is the only definite indication for faecal microbiota transplantation.- Faecal microbiota transplantation induces clinical remission and endoscopic improvements in 24-30% of patients with ulcerative colitis, compared to 5% (water) to 20% (autologous faeces) in placebo-treated patients. Current research focuses on the identification of 'super donors', and subgroups of patients in which faecal microbiota transplantation is effective...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067987/toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-clinically-significant-diarrhoea-in-patients-from-a-tertiary-care-centre
#11
Meenakshi Singh, Chetana Vaishnavi, Rakesh Kochhar, Safrun Mahmood
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of hospital-acquired colitis in patients receiving antibiotics. The pathogenicity of the organism is mainly due to the production of toxins. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of toxigenic C. difficile in the faecal samples of hospitalized patients suspected to have C. difficile infection (CDI) and corroborating the findings with their clinical and demographic data. METHODS: Diarrhoeic samples obtained from 1110 hospitalized patients were cultured for C...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048477/the-role-of-toxins-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis worldwide. The incidence, severity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) are rising, making C. difficile a major threat to public health. Traditional treatments for CDI involve use of antibiotics such as metronidazole and vancomycin, but disease recurrence occurs in about 30% of patients, highlighting the need for new therapies...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038278/fidaxomicin-and-op-1118-inhibit-c-difficile-toxin-a-and-b-mediated-inflammatory-responses-via-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity
#13
Hon Wai Koon, Jiani Wang, Caroline C Mussatto, Christina Ortiz, Elaine C Lee, Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Xinhua Chen, Ciaran P Kelly, Charalabos Pothoulakis
Objective:Clostridium difficile causes diarrhea and colitis by releasing toxin A and toxin B. In the human colon, both toxins cause intestinal inflammation and stimulate TNFα expression via activation of NF-κB. It is well established that the macrolide antibiotic fidaxomicin is associated with reduced relapses of C. difficile infection. We showed that fidaxomicin and its primary metabolite, OP-1118, significantly inhibited toxin A-mediated intestinal inflammation in mice in vivo and toxin A-induced cell rounding in vitro We aim to determine whether fidaxomicin and OP-1118 possess anti-inflammatory effects against toxin A and toxin B in the human colon and examine the mechanism of this response...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037938/non-clostridium-difficile-bacterial-infections-are-rare-in-patients-with-flares-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Yuri Hanada, Sahil Khanna, Edward V Loftus, Laura E Raffals, Darrell S Pardi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes flares in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated the frequency and outcomes of non-CDI bacterial enteric infections in symptomatic patients with IBD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) from whom stool samples were collected and analyzed by PCR or culture for bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni or C coli, Salmonella species, Shigella species, entero-invasive Escherichia coli, shiga toxin-producing E coli, or Yersinia species) from November 19, 2011, through June 30, 2014...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032373/differentiating-clostridium-difficile-colitis-from-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-role-for-procalcitonin
#15
Andrew R Reinink, Julajak Limsrivilai, Bethany A Reutemann, Tristan Feierabend, Emily Briggs, Krishna Rao, Peter D R Higgins
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) frequently complicates ulcerative colitis (UC) and can mimic disease flare. Differentiating UC flare from CDI remains a clinical challenge, particularly due to C. difficile colonization. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a serum biomarker for bacterial infections. We hypothesized that PCT would differentiate acute CDI from UC flare and C. difficile colonization. METHODS: A single-center prospective cohort study was conducted from 2013 to 2016...
October 14, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031928/the-role-of-purified-clostridium-difficile-glucosylating-toxins-in-disease-pathogenesis-utilizing-a-murine-cecum-injection-model
#16
Yongrong Zhang, Zhiyong Yang, Si Gao, Therwa Hamza, Harris G Yfantis, Michael Lipsky, Hanping Feng
Most pathogenic Clostridium difficile produce two major exotoxins TcdA and TcdB, in the absence of which the bacterium is non-pathogenic. While it is important to investigate the role of each toxin in the pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) using isogenic strains, it is impossible to precisely control the expression levels of individual toxins and exclude bacterial factors that may contribute to the toxins' effects during infection. In this study, we utilized an acute intestinal disease model by injecting purified toxins directly into mouse cecum after a midline laparotomy...
October 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966486/use-of-culture-and-elisa-based-toxin-assay-for-detecting-clostridium-difficile-a-neglected-pathogen-a-single-center-study-from-a-tertiary-care-setting
#17
Sujata Lall, Gita Nataraj, Preeti Mehta
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-bearing anaerobic bacillus increasingly associated with both community- and hospital-acquired colitis and diarrhea. It is the most common identifiable bacterial cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea associated with antibiotic use and one of the most common anaerobic infections. The diagnosis of C. difficile infection includes detection of toxin A/B in stool specimens by direct enzyme immunoassay, culture of pathogen from the stool specimens using a selective agar Cycloserine-Cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA), tissue culture assay, and detection of glutamate dehydrogenase an enzyme produced by C...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953711/incidence-risk-factors-and-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-after-spine-surgery-an-analysis-of-a-national-database
#18
Patawut Bovonratwet, Daniel D Bohl, Glenn S Russo, Nathaniel T Ondeck, Kern Singh, Jonathan N Grauer
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE: To utilize a large national database with post-hospitalization follow-up data (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program [NSQIP]) to determine the incidence, risk factors, timing, and clinical impact of C. difficile colitis in spine surgery patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Recent literature has suggested an increased incidence of C. difficile infections...
September 26, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949065/the-american-cockroach-peptide-periplanetasin-4-inhibits-clostridium-difficile-toxin-a-induced-cell-toxicities-and-inflammatory-responses-in-the-mouse-gut
#19
I Na Yoon, Li Fang Lu, Ji Hong, Peng Zhang, Dae Hong Kim, Jin Ku Kang, Jae Sam Hwang, Ho Kim
Many reports have shown that crude extracts of the American cockroach have therapeutic effects on inflammation. In a previous study, our research group showed that an antimicrobial peptide (Periplanetasin-2) derived from the American cockroach via de novo transcriptome analysis inhibited apoptosis of human colonocytes and inflammatory responses of the mouse gut caused by Clostridium difficile toxin A. Here, we examined whether Periplanetasin-4 (Peri-4), another antimicrobial peptide identified via de novo transcriptome analysis of the American cockroach, could also inhibit the various toxicities induced by C...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870746/incidence-risk-factors-and-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-following-primary-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#20
Patawut Bovonratwet, Daniel D Bohl, Rohil Malpani, Denis Nam, Craig J Della Valle, Jonathan N Grauer
BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of Clostridium difficile is important as it is used as a measure of hospital quality and is associated with substantial morbidity. This study utilizes the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to determine the incidence, timing, risk factors, and clinical implications of C difficile colitis in patients undergoing primary total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA). METHODS: Patients who underwent primary THA or TKA as part of the 2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were identified...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
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