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C difficile colitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043925/fatal-community-acquired-ribotype-002-clostridium-difficile-bacteremia
#1
Nicolas Dauby, Agnès Libois, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Olivier Vandenberg, Delphine Martiny
Extra-colonic infections, and especially bacteremia, are infrequent manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection. C. difficile bacteremia is generally health-care associated and polymicrobial. We report the case of a patient on hunger strike that presented a C. difficile colitis and mono-microbial bacteremia on its admission to the hospital. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of stool and blood isolates indicated clonality. The strain was characterized as a ribotype 002, an emerging ribotype previously associated with high fatality rate...
December 30, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997854/the-emerging-metabolic-view-of-clostridium-difficile-pathogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Andrew J Hryckowian, Kali M Pruss, Justin L Sonnenburg
It is widely accepted that Clostridium difficile exploits dysbiosis and leverages inflammation to thrive in the gut environment, where it can asymptomatically colonize humans or cause a toxin-mediated disease ranging in severity from frequent watery diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Here, we synthesize recent findings from the gut microbiota and enteric pathogenesis fields to inform the next steps toward a better understanding of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this review, we present a model in which the lifestyle of C...
December 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995603/role-of-gamma-interferon-and-inflammatory-monocytes-in-driving-colonic-inflammation-during-acute-c-difficile-infection-in-mice
#3
Andrew J McDermott, Nicole R Falkowski, Roderick A McDonald, Charles R Frank, Chinmay R Pandit, Vincent B Young, Gary B Huffnagle
The inflammatory response to the colonic pathogen Clostridium difficile is characterized by the induction of inflammatory cytokines including Interleukin-23 (IL-23) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) and the recruitment of myeloid cells including Ly6C(H)(igh) monocytes. IL-23KO mice showed reduced expression of the monocyte chemokines Ccl4 and Ccl7, but not Ccl2, as well as reduced Ly6C(H)(igh) Ly6G(M)(id) monocyte recruitment to the colon in response to C. difficile colitis. C. difficile-infected CCR2(-/-) (CCR2KO) mice showed a significant defect in Ly6C(H)(igh) Ly6G(M)(id) monocyte recruitment to the colon in response to C...
December 20, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922269/genomic-study-of-the-type-ivc-secretion-system-in-clostridium-difficile-understanding-c-difficile-evolution-via-horizontal-gene-transfer
#4
Wen Zhang, Ying Cheng, Pengcheng Du, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongbing Jia, Xianping Li, Jing Wang, Na Han, Yujun Qiang, Chen Chen, Jinxing Lu
Clostridium difficile, the etiological agent of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for ∼20% of antibiotic-related cases of diarrhea and nearly all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Previous data have shown that a substantial proportion (11%) of the C. difficile genome consists of mobile genetic elements, including seven conjugative transposons. However, the mechanism underlying the formation of a mosaic genome in C. difficile is unknown. The type-IV secretion system (T4SS) is the only secretion system known to transfer DNA segments among bacteria...
January 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891552/enteric-glial-cells-are-susceptible-to-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#5
Katia Fettucciari, Pamela Ponsini, Davide Gioè, Lara Macchioni, Camilla Palumbo, Elisabetta Antonelli, Stefano Coaccioli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Lanfranco Corazzi, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti
Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The major virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B (TcdB), which inactivate GTPases by monoglucosylation, leading to cytopathic (cytoskeleton alteration, cell rounding) and cytotoxic effects (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis). C. difficile toxins breaching the intestinal epithelial barrier can act on underlying cells, enterocytes, colonocytes, and enteric neurons, as described in vitro and in vivo, but until now no data have been available on enteric glial cell (EGC) susceptibility...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876339/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-c-diff-colitis-review-of-the-literature-and-a-perspective-in-gynecologic-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Kristin N Taylor, Michael T McHale, Cheryl C Saenz, Steven C Plaxe
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Colonization in a susceptible individual, with risk factors such as prior antibiotic use, advanced age, or medical comorbidities, may result in symptomatic infection. Although patients with a gynecologic malignancy may be at a higher risk of developing CDI due to an increased likelihood of having one or more risk factors, data do not consistently support the idea that chemotherapy or cancer itself are independently associated with CDI...
November 19, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856521/gleaning-insights-from-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-probiotic-studies-for-the-rational-design-of-combination-microbial-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Lauren E Hudson, Sarah E Anderson, Anita H Corbett, Tracey J Lamb
Beneficial microorganisms hold promise for the treatment of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. The transfer of whole microbiota via fecal transplantation has already been shown to ameliorate the severity of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and others. However, the exact mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplant efficacy and the particular strains conferring this benefit are still unclear. Rationally designed combinations of microbial preparations may enable more efficient and effective treatment approaches tailored to particular diseases...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833595/chemical-and-stress-resistances-of-clostridium-difficile-spores-and-vegetative-cells
#8
Adrianne N Edwards, Samiha T Karim, Ricardo A Pascual, Lina M Jowhar, Sarah E Anderson, Shonna M McBride
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, sporogenic and anaerobic bacterium that causes a potentially fatal colitis. C. difficile enters the body as dormant spores that germinate in the colon to form vegetative cells that secrete toxins and cause the symptoms of infection. During transit through the intestine, some vegetative cells transform into spores, which are more resistant to killing by environmental insults than the vegetative cells. Understanding the inherent resistance properties of the vegetative and spore forms of C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829823/a-new-lab-developed-real-time-pcr-assay-for-direct-detection-of-c-difficle-from-stool-sample-without-dna-extraction
#9
Brandon Li
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Detection of C. difficile by anaerobic bacterial culture and/or cytotoxicity assays has been largely replaced by rapid enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, due to the lack of sensitivity of stool EIA, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the C. difficile toxin genes tcdB. stool samples from hospitalized pediatric patients suspected of having C. difficile-associated disease were prospectively collected...
September 2016: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804875/clostridium-difficile-infection-associations-with-chemotherapy-radiation-therapy-and-targeting-therapy-treatments
#10
Avi Peretz, Izhar Ben Shlomo, Orna Nitzan, Luigi Bonavina, Pmela M Schaffer, Moshe Schaffer
BACKGROUND: Although mucositis, diarrhea, and constipation as well as immunosuppression are well recognized side-effects of cancer treatment, the underlying mechanisms including changes in the composition of gut microbiota and Clostridium difficile infection have not yet been thoroughly reviewed. OBJECTIVE: We herein set out to review the literature regarding the relations between cancer chemotherapy, radiation treatment, and Clostridium difficile-associated colitis...
October 28, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801920/hydralazine-induced-anca-vasculitis-in-the-setting-of-acute-clostridium-difficile-infection
#11
Somwail Rasla, Amr El Meligy, Dragos F Cucu
We report a rare case of Hydralazine-induced ANCA associated glomerulonephritis with alveolar hemorrhage in the setting of acute Clostridium Difficile Infection. A 71-year-old Caucasian woman with hypertension, who was being treated with hydralazine 25 mg twice a day for six years, presented to the hospital with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and anemia. She had acute kidney injury and urinalysis showed proteinuria, dysmorphic RBCs, and rare RBC cast. She was found to have Clostridium difficile colitis which was successfully treated...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717398/rapid-change-of-fecal-microbiome-and-disappearance-of-clostridium-difficile-in-a-colonized-infant-after-transition-from-breast-milk-to-cow-milk
#12
Manli Y Davis, Husen Zhang, Lera E Brannan, Robert J Carman, James H Boone
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the most common known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Upon the disturbance of gut microbiota by antibiotics, C. difficile establishes growth and releases toxins A and B, which cause tissue damage in the host. The symptoms of C. difficile infection disease range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Interestingly, 10-50 % of infants are asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. This longitudinal study of the C. difficile colonization in an infant revealed the dynamics of C...
October 7, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693863/host-response-to-clostridium-difficile-infection-diagnostics-and-detection
#13
REVIEW
Elena A Usacheva, Jian-P Jin, Lance R Peterson
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a significant healthcare concern worldwide, and C. difficile is recognised as the most frequent aetiological agent of infectious healthcare-associated diarrhoea in hospitalised adult patients. The clinical manifestation of CDI varies from self-limited diarrhoea to life-threatening colitis. Such a broad disease spectrum can be explained by the impact of host factors. Currently, a complex CDI aetiology is widely accepted, acknowledging the interaction between bacteria and the host...
December 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668102/a-unique-case-of-mycophenolate-induced-colitis-after-10-years-of-use
#14
Abhinav Goyal, Moiz Salahuddin, Yogesh Govil
A 31-year-old female with a history of lupus nephritis on Hydroxychloroquine, Prednisone, and Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) for 10 years presented to the hospital for ankle swelling. On day four, she started to have severe, nonbloody, watery diarrhea with abdominal distension and tenderness. Stool PCR was negative for C. difficile. CT abdomen/pelvis showed gaseous distension of the colon without any obstruction. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed a normal looking mucosa. Histopathology showed crypt atrophy and increased crypt apoptosis, consistent with MMF colitis...
2016: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623089/crystal-structures-of-two-nitroreductases-from-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-and-functionally-related-interactions-with-the-antibiotic-metronidazole
#15
Bing Wang, Samantha M Powell, Neda Hessami, Fares Z Najar, Leonard M Thomas, Elizabeth A Karr, Ann H West, George B Richter-Addo
Nitroreductases (NRs) are flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the biotransformation of organic nitro compounds (RNO2; R = alkyl, aryl) to the nitroso RN=O, hydroxylamino RNHOH, or amine RNH2 derivatives. Metronidazole (Mtz) is a nitro-containing antibiotic that is commonly prescribed for lower-gut infections caused by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile. C. difficile infections rank number one among hospital acquired infections, and can result in diarrhea, severe colitis, or even death...
November 30, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619393/impact-of-low-immunoglobulin-g-levels-on-disease-outcomes-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#16
Nicholas Horton, Xianrui Wu, Jessica Philpott, Ari Garber, Jean-Paul Achkar, Aaron Brzezinski, Bret A Lashner, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are considered immune-mediated disorders with dysregulated innate and adaptive immunities. Secondary immunogloblin deficiency can occur in IBD and its impact on the disease course of IBD is not clear. AIMS: We sought to determine associations between low IgG/G1 levels and poor clinical outcomes in IBD patients. METHODS: This historic cohort study was performed on IBD patients with obtained IgG/IgG1 levels...
November 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614757/thrombocytopenia-in-hospitalized-patients-with-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection
#17
Eric M Fountain, Maggie C Moses, Lawrence P Park, Christopher W Woods, Gowthami M Arepally
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common cause of nosocomial diarrhea and colitis. The incidence and prognostic significance of thrombocytopenia as related to mode of acquisition (hospital vs. community), NAP1/027 strain, and disease severity has not been examined. We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of all adult inpatients from 2013 to 2014 diagnosed with CDI during their hospitalization to document the incidence/prevalence of thrombocytopenia and associated outcomes. Severe disease was defined by a composite endpoint of inpatient death, death within 30 days of discharge, presence of septic shock, or need for colectomy during hospitalization...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602596/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-production-animals-and-avian-species-a-review
#18
Peter Moono, Niki F Foster, David J Hampson, Daniel R Knight, Lauren E Bloomfield, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized humans. Recently, C. difficile infection (CDI) has been increasingly recognized as a cause of neonatal enteritis in food animals such as pigs, resulting in stunted growth, delays in weaning, and mortality, as well as colitis in large birds such as ostriches. C. difficile is a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, which produces two toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) as its main virulence factors. The majority of strains isolated from animals produce an additional binary toxin (C...
December 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602425/clostridium-difficile-ribotype-033-colitis-in-a-patient-following-broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treatment-for-kpcproducing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-italy
#19
Stefano Grandesso, Fabio Arena, Franklin Esoka Eseme, Sandro Panese, Lucia Henrici De Angelis, Patrizia Spigaglia, Fabrizio Barbanti, Gian Maria Rossolini
This report describes a case of Clostridium difficile ribotype 033 colitis in a patient treated with multiple antibiotics for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae pancreatitis. Diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic features are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of C. difficile ribotype 033 clinical infection reported from Italy.
September 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575658/endoscopic-peroral-jejunal-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#20
Alexander Link, Tim Lachmund, Christian Schulz, Jochen Weigt, Peter Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a valuable treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) colitis. Multiple questions including the best delivery route and volume remain unanswered. Here, we report a case series of high-volume FMT using endoscopic jejunal application route. METHODS: In prospective observational study, FMT was performed using fresh specimen from healthy unrelated donors to the patients with recurrent or refractory C...
November 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
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