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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424606/bifurcation-analysis-on-phase-amplitude-cross-frequency-coupling-in-neural-networks-with-dynamic-synapses
#1
Takumi Sase, Yuichi Katori, Motomasa Komuro, Kazuyuki Aihara
We investigate a discrete-time network model composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons and dynamic synapses with the aim at revealing dynamical properties behind oscillatory phenomena possibly related to brain functions. We use a stochastic neural network model to derive the corresponding macroscopic mean field dynamics, and subsequently analyze the dynamical properties of the network. In addition to slow and fast oscillations arising from excitatory and inhibitory networks, respectively, we show that the interaction between these two networks generates phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC), in which multiple different frequency components coexist and the amplitude of the fast oscillation is modulated by the phase of the slow oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415297/toroidal-droplet-instabilities-in-the-presence-of-charge
#2
Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Alberto Fernández-Nieves
Neutral toroidal droplets can break via the surface-tension-driven Rayleigh-Plateau instability. They can additionally exhibit a shrinking instability, which is also driven by surface tension, whereby the handle progressively disappears. We find that charging a toroidal droplet can qualitatively change the behavior and cause the droplet to expand. We successfully model the transition from shrinking to expanding, considering the pressure balance across the interface of the torus. However, despite the change in behavior, charged toroidal droplets end up breaking into spherical droplets...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397968/trajectory-optimization-in-radiotherapy-using-sectioning-torus
#3
Christopher Barry Locke, Karl Kenneth Bush
PURPOSE: A challenging problem in trajectory optimization for radiotherapy is properly handling the synchronization of the medical accelerators dynamic delivery. The initial coarse sampling of control points implemented in a Progressive Resolution Optimization type approach (VMAT) routinely results in MLC aperture forming contention issues as the sampling resolution increases. This work presents an approach to optimize continuous, beam-on radiation trajectories through exploration of the anatomical topology present in the patient and formation of a novel dual-metric graph optimization problem...
April 11, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394037/-cu6-nguas-6-2-and-its-oxidized-and-reduced-derivatives-confining-electrons-on-a-torus
#4
Matthias Witte, Martin Rohrmüller, Uwe Gerstmann, Gerald Henkel, Wolf Gero Schmidt, Sonja Herres-Pawlis
The hexanuclear thioguanidine mixed-valent copper complex cation [Cu6 (NGuaS)6 ](+2) (NGuaS = o-SC6 H4 NC(NMe2 )2 ) and its oxidized/reduced states are theoretically analyzed by means of density functional theory (DFT) (TPSSh + D3BJ/def2-TZV (p)). A detailed bonding analysis using overlap populations is performed. We find that a delocalized Cu-based ring orbital serves as an acceptor for donated S p electrons. The formed fully delocalized orbitals give rise to a confined electron cloud within the Cu6 S6 cage which becomes larger on reduction...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367117/representation-of-glossy-material-surface-in-ventral-superior-temporal-sulcal-area-of-common-marmosets
#5
Naohisa Miyakawa, Taku Banno, Hiroshi Abe, Toshiki Tani, Wataru Suzuki, Noritaka Ichinohe
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361174/eustachian-tuboplasty-and%C3%A2-shrinkage-of-ostial-mucosa-with-new-devices-including-a-proposal-of-a-classification%C3%A2-system
#6
L Di Rienzo Businco, A Di Mario, M Tombolini, A Mattei, M Lauriello
OBJECTIVE: A new combined approach to Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) employing new minimally invasive devices is described. STUDY DESIGN: An anatomoclinical classification of ETD was conceived to allow correct categorization of patients and enable comparative studies to be performed. Herein, the authors report on their experience with a consecutive series of obstructive ETD patients treated by balloon dilation of the Eustachian tube using AERA (Acclarent, Menlo Park, CA, USA), combined with a quantic molecular resonance (QMR)-mediated rhinopharyngeal tubal ostial mucosa shrinkage technique with a dedicated "Mitto" hand piece (Telea, Sandrigo-Vicenza, Italy)...
March 30, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324056/gabaergic-neurons-and-their-modulatory-effects-on-gnrh3-in-zebrafish
#7
Yanlong Song, Binbin Tao, Ji Chen, Shaoting Jia, Zuoyan Zhu, Vance L Trudeau, Wei Hu
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major amino acid neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. To provide detailed information on the distribution of the GABA in zebrafish (Danio rerio), neurons were labeled with mCherry driven by the glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (gad67) promoter. In the transgenic line Tg(gad67:mCherry), mCherry-positive gad67 cell bodies were predominantly localized to the olfactory bulb, pallial zones, subpallium zones, parvocellular preoptic nucleus, periventricular gray zone of optic tectum, torus semicircularis, posterior tuberculum, medial longitudinal fascicle, caudal zone of periventricular hypothalamus, and oculomotor nucleus...
April 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319032/binary-neutron-star-mergers-a-review-of-einstein-s-richest-laboratory
#8
Luca Baiotti, Luciano Rezzolla
The merger of binary neutron-stars systems combines in a single process: extreme gravity, copious emission of gravitational waves, complex microphysics, and electromagnetic processes that can lead to astrophysical signatures observable at the largest redshifts. We review here the recent progress in understanding what could be considered Einstein's richest laboratory, highlighting in particular the numerous significant advances of the last decade. Although special attention is paid to the status of models, techniques, and results for fully general-relativistic dynamical simulations, a review is also offered on initial data and advanced simulations with approximate treatments of gravity...
March 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317556/skull-5-from-dmanisi-descriptive-anatomy-comparative-studies-and-evolutionary-significance
#9
G Philip Rightmire, Marcia S Ponce de León, David Lordkipanidze, Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer
A fifth hominin skull (cranium D4500 and mandible D2600) from Dmanisi is massively constructed, with a large face and a very small brain. Traits documented for the first time in a basal member of the Homo clade include the uniquely low ratio of endocranial volume to basicranial width, reduced vertex height, angular vault profile, smooth nasal sill coupled with a long and sloping maxillary clivus, elongated palate, and tall mandibular corpus. The convex clivus and receding symphysis of skull 5 produce a muzzle-like form similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306202/ultra-performance-convergence-chromatography-for-the-quantitative-determination-of-bioactive-compounds-in-aralia-continentalis-kitagawa-as-quality-control-markers
#10
Hyo Seon Kim, Byeong Cheol Moon, Goya Choi, Wook Jin Kim, A Yeong Lee
A rapid ultra-performance convergence chromatography method was developed for the quantitative determination of bioactive compounds in Aralia continentalis as quality control markers. Quantitative analysis indicated the presence of two major bioactive compounds: diterpenoid acids continentalic acid and kaurenoic acid. Using a Torus 1-aminoanthracene column, continentalic acid and kaurenoic acid were separated in less than 8 min. The method was validated with respect to precision, accuracy, and linearity according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275284/imaging-aspects-of-palatal-torus-in-cone-beam-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-case-report
#11
Vivian Narana Ribeiro El Achkar, Sérgio Lucio Pereira de Castro Lopes, Antonione Santos Bezerra Pinto, Renata Falchete do Prado, Estela Kaminagakura
The torus palatinus is a unilocular or multilocular exostosis that occurs in the midline of the hard palate. It is considered a common clinical finding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not commonly used in dentistry and descriptions of the torus by this imaging method are therefore rare in the literature. This case study reports on a female patient referred to the dentist to elucidate a bone enlargement detected by MRI, which was requested by the physician who accompanied the patient for migraine treatment...
December 2016: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268225/pattern-of-nitrergic-neuronal-system-organization-in-the-brain-of-two-holostean-fishes-actinopterygii-ginglymodi
#12
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The study of the nitrergic system, formed by the networks of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been extremely useful in unraveling neuroanatomical features of the organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Thus, data are available for representatives of most vertebrate classes and, in particular, several studies have detailed the organization of this system in teleosts. In contrast, no information is available regarding this neurotransmission system in the brains of holosteans, an early diverged and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes, currently considered a sister group of teleosts that contains only 8 species...
March 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264903/longitudinal-quasi-static-stability-predicts-changes-in-dog-gait-on-rough-terrain
#13
Simon Wilshin, Michelle A Reeve, G Clark Haynes, Shai Revzen, Daniel E Koditschek, Andrew J Spence
Legged animals utilize gait selection to move effectively and must re-cover from environmental perturbations. We show that on rough terrain domestic dogs, Canis lupus familiaris, spend more time in longitudinal quasi-statically stable patterns of movement. Here longitudinal refers to the rostro-caudal, axis. We used an existing model in the literature to quantify the longitudinal quasi-static stability of gaits neighbouring the walk, and found that trot-like gaits are more stable. We thus hypothesized that when perturbed, the rate of return to a stable gait would depend on the direction of perturbation, such that perturbations towards less quasi-statically stable patterns of movement would be more rapid than those towards more stable patterns of movement...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256866/cornering-gapless-quantum-states-via-their-torus-entanglement
#14
William Witczak-Krempa, Lauren E Hayward Sierens, Roger G Melko
The entanglement entropy (EE) has emerged as an important window into the structure of complex quantum states of matter. We analyze the universal part of the EE for gapless systems on tori in 2D and 3D, denoted by χ. Focusing on scale-invariant systems, we derive general nonperturbative properties for the shape dependence of χ and reveal surprising relations to the EE associated with corners in the entangling surface. We obtain closed-form expressions for χ in 2D and 3D within a model that arises in the study of conformal field theories (CFTs), and we use them to obtain Ansätze without fitting parameters for the 2D and 3D free boson CFTs...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256846/anisotropic-electron-tail-generation-during-tearing-mode-magnetic-reconnection
#15
Ami M DuBois, Abdulgader F Almagri, Jay K Anderson, Daniel J Den Hartog, John David Lee, John S Sarff
The first experimental evidence of anisotropic electron energization during magnetic reconnection that favors a direction perpendicular to the guide magnetic field in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma is reported in this Letter. Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in particle heating, energization, and transport in space and laboratory plasmas. In toroidal devices like the Madison Symmetric Torus, discrete magnetic reconnection events release large amounts of energy from the equilibrium magnetic field...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254945/late-pleistocene-archaic-human-crania-from-xuchang-china
#16
Zhan-Yang Li, Xiu-Jie Wu, Li-Ping Zhou, Wu Liu, Xing Gao, Xiao-Mei Nian, Erik Trinkaus
Two early Late Pleistocene (~105,000- to 125,000-year-old) crania from Lingjing, Xuchang, China, exhibit a morphological mosaic with differences from and similarities to their western contemporaries. They share pan-Old World trends in encephalization and in supraorbital, neurocranial vault, and nuchal gracilization. They reflect eastern Eurasian ancestry in having low, sagittally flat, and inferiorly broad neurocrania. They share occipital (suprainiac and nuchal torus) and temporal labyrinthine (semicircular canal) morphology with the Neandertals...
March 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251927/shrinking-instability-of-toroidal-droplets
#17
Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Ekapop Pairam, Eric Berger, Phil N Segre, Alberto Fernández-Nieves
Toroidal droplets are inherently unstable due to surface tension. They can break up, similar to cylindrical jets, but also exhibit a shrinking instability, which is inherent to the toroidal shape. We investigate the evolution of shrinking toroidal droplets using particle image velocimetry. We obtain the flow field inside the droplets and show that as the torus evolves, its cross-section significantly deviates from circular. We then use the experimentally obtained velocities at the torus interface to theoretically reconstruct the internal flow field...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249474/a-multi-channel-capacitive-probe-for-electrostatic-fluctuation-measurement-in-the-madison-symmetric-torus-reversed-field-pinch
#18
Mingsheng Tan, Douglas R Stone, Joseph C Triana, Abdulgader F Almagri, Gennady Fiksel, Weixing Ding, John S Sarff, Karsten J McCollam, Hong Li, Wandong Liu
A 40-channel capacitive probe has been developed to measure the electrostatic fluctuations associated with the tearing modes deep into Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch plasma. The capacitive probe measures the ac component of the plasma potential via the voltage induced on stainless steel electrodes capacitively coupled with the plasma through a thin annular layer of boron nitride (BN) dielectric (also serves as the particle shield). When bombarded by the plasma electrons, BN provides a sufficiently large secondary electron emission for the induced voltage to be very close to the plasma potential...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244925/variation-among-pediatric-orthopaedic-surgeons-when-diagnosing-and-treating-pediatric-and-adolescent-distal-radius-fractures
#19
Karan Dua, Matthew K Stein, Nathan N O'Hara, Brian K Brighton, William L Hennrikus, Martin J Herman, J Todd Lawrence, Charles T Mehlman, Norman Y Otsuka, M Wade Shrader, Brian G Smith, Paul D Sponseller, Joshua M Abzug
BACKGROUND: Distal radius fractures are the most common injury in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to determine the variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when diagnosing and treating distal radius fractures. METHODS: Nine pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 100 sets of wrist radiographs and were asked to describe the fracture, prescribe the type of treatment and length of immobilization, and determine the next follow-up visit...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238392/quantitative-representation-of-eustachian-tube-component-movements-during-swallowing
#20
Selma Cetin, Miriam S Teixeira, Cuneyt M Alper
OBJECTIVE: Describes a method of dynamic video-endoscopy of the Eustachian tube (ET) orifice at the nasopharynx to quantitatively represent ET component movements during swallowing using a graphic function and analyze their importance to its opening mechanics. METHODS: This was a pilot study of relational event capture using a polar coordinate system applied to trans-nasal video-endoscopic recordings of the ET during 3 swallows in 5 adults. After topical anesthesia of the nose, a 45° telescope was introduced unilaterally and focused on the ipsilateral ET orifice...
February 18, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
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