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Hidetsugu Sakaguchi, Hiroomi Chono
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is a gravitational instability in two fluids where the heavier fluid is set over the lighter fluid. The instability occurs both in classical fluids and quantum fluids. We numerically study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We carry out numerical simulations that the heavier component is set in a torus initially which is surrounded by the lighter component. When the torus falls, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability develops and a sagging pattern appears...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Armen Poghosyan, Nickolay Izmailian, Ralph Kenna
The Ising model in two dimensions with special toroidal boundary conditions is analyzed. These boundary conditions, which we call duality-twisted boundary conditions, may be interpreted as inserting a specific defect line ("seam") in the system, along noncontractible circles of the cylinder, before closing it into a torus. We derive exact expressions for the eigenvalues of a transfer matrix for the critical ferromagnetic Ising model on the M×N square lattice wrapped on the torus with a specific defect line...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Fabian Maucher, Paul Sutcliffe
In this paper, we present extensive numerical simulations of an excitable medium to study the long-term dynamics of knotted vortex strings for all torus knots up to crossing number 11. We demonstrate that FitzHugh-Nagumo evolution preserves the knot topology for all the examples presented, thereby providing a field theory approach to the study of knots. Furthermore, the evolution yields a well-defined minimal length for each knot that is comparable to the ropelength of ideal knots. We highlight the role of the medium boundary in stabilizing the length of the knot and discuss the implications beyond torus knots...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Peter Grassberger
We present high statistics simulation data for the average time 〈T_{cover}(L)〉 that a random walk needs to cover completely a two-dimensional torus of size L×L. They confirm the mathematical prediction that 〈T_{cover}(L)〉∼(LlnL)^{2} for large L, but the prefactor seems to deviate significantly from the supposedly exact result 4/π derived by Dembo et al. [Ann. Math. 160, 433 (2004)ANMAAH0003-486X10.4007/annals.2004.160.433], if the most straightforward extrapolation is used. On the other hand, we find that this scaling does hold for the time T_{N(t)=1}(L) at which the average number of yet unvisited sites is 1, as also predicted previously...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
Lev Ryashko, Evdokia Slepukhina
We study the phenomenon of noise-induced torus bursting on the base of the three-dimensional Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model forced by additive noise. We show that in the parametric zone close to the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, where the deterministic system exhibits rapid tonic spiking oscillations, random disturbances can turn tonic spiking into bursting, which is characterized by the formation of a peculiar dynamical structure resembling that of a torus. This phenomenon is confirmed by the changes in dispersion of random trajectories as well as the power spectral density and interspike intervals statistics...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Hong-Hao Tu
We show that rational conformal field theories in 1+1 dimensions on a Klein bottle, with a length L and width β, satisfying L≫β, have a universal entropy. This universal entropy depends on the quantum dimensions of the primary fields and can be accurately extracted by taking a proper ratio between the Klein bottle and torus partition functions, enabling the characterization of conformal critical theories. The result is checked against exact calculations in quantum spin-1/2 XY and Ising chains.
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Chan-Woo Jeong, Kyung-Ho Kim, Hyo-Won Jang, Hye-Sun Kim, Jong-Ki Huh
Objective The relationship between bite force and torus palatinus or mandibularis remains to be explained. The major aim of this study was to determine the correlation between bite force and oral tori. Methods The bite force of 345 patients was measured with a bite force recorder; impressions of the shape and size of the oral tori were taken on plaster models prior to orthodontic treatments. Subsequently, the relationship between oral tori and bite force was analyzed. Results The size, shape, and incidence of torus palatinus was not significantly correlated with bite force...
January 12, 2018: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
Dainis Krievins, Janis Savlovskis, Natalija Ezite, Andrew Hill, Kaspars Kisis, Marcis Gedins, Edgars Zellans, Andrew Holden
BACKGROUND: Long segment occlusive disease in the superficial femoral artery remains a treatment challenge despite advances in open surgical and endovascular approaches. We report initial clinical results of an entirely new procedure to perform femoropopliteal bypass using the DETOUR System to create a stentgraft bypass which originates in the SFA, travels through the femoral vein, and ends in the popliteal artery, bypassing the diseased segment. METHODS: Review the initial results of the first five patients at a single site enrolled in IRB-approved, prospective clinical study using the DETOUR System...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
M N Baig, C Egan
Introduction Paediatric patient bone fractures are the source of a large number of orthopaedic outpatient visits, especially for fracture clinics. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline NG38 provides guidance on assessing and managing non-complex fractures, such as buckle (i.e., torus) fractures in paediatric patients. Objective We retrospectively audited outpatient records of children younger than 12 years presenting with distal radius buckle fractures for May and June 2017...
November 8, 2017: Curēus
Oleksandr Burylko, Yakov Kazanovich, Roman Borisyuk
We consider a system of generalized phase oscillators with a central element and radial connections. In contrast to conventional phase oscillators of the Kuramoto type, the dynamic variables in our system include not only the phase of each oscillator but also the natural frequency of the central oscillator, and the connection strengths from the peripheral oscillators to the central oscillator. With appropriate parameter values the system demonstrates winner-take-all behavior in terms of the competition between peripheral oscillators for the synchronization with the central oscillator...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Koji Morita, Takahiro Mori, Mariko Maruyama, Aya Hiraoka, Chiaki Higa, Azusa Kuroki, Mitsuyoshi Yoshida, Kazuhiro Tsuga
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between buccal mucosa ridging and oral or occlusal statuses among older people. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined 262 independent older people (mean age, 74.2 ± 5.9 years) who participated in the Kyoto Elderly Physical Fitness Measurement Research Project. The predictor variables were oral statuses (number of present teeth and torus palatinus, torus mandibularis, temporomandibular joint noise, clenching, or grinding) and oral functions (occlusal pressure, cheek pressure, oral diadochokinesis, and tongue pressure)...
January 9, 2018: Oral Diseases
Adriano Losso, Tommaso Anfodillo, Andrea Ganthaler, Werner Kofler, Yvonne Markl, Andrea Nardini, Walter Oberhuber, Gerhard Purin, Stefan Mayr
In alpine regions, tree hydraulics are limited by low temperatures that restrict xylem growth and induce winter frost drought and freezing stress. While several studies have dealt with functional limitations, data on elevational changes in functionally relevant xylem anatomical parameters are still scarce. In wood cores of Pinus cembra L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. trunks, harvested along five elevational transects, xylem anatomical parameters (tracheid hydraulic diameter dh, wall reinforcement (t/b)2), pit dimensions (pit aperture Da, pit membrane Dm and torus Dt diameters) and respective functional indices (torus overlap O, margo flexibility) were measured...
January 4, 2018: Tree Physiology
Florian Sittel, Thomas Filk, Gerhard Stock
A dimensionality reduction method for high-dimensional circular data is developed, which is based on a principal component analysis (PCA) of data points on a torus. Adopting a geometrical view of PCA, various distance measures on a torus are introduced and the associated problem of projecting data onto the principal subspaces is discussed. The main idea is that the (periodicity-induced) projection error can be minimized by transforming the data such that the maximal gap of the sampling is shifted to the periodic boundary...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Christiane Lechner, Max Koch, Werner Lauterborn, Robert Mettin
The acoustic waves being generated during the motion of a bubble in water near a solid boundary are calculated numerically. The open source package OpenFOAM is used for solving the Navier-Stokes equation and extended to include nonlinear acoustic wave effects via the Tait equation for water. A bubble model with a small amount of gas is chosen, the gas obeying an adiabatic law. A bubble starting from a small size with high internal pressure near a flat, solid boundary is studied. The sequence of events from bubble growth via axial microjet formation, jet impact, annular nanojet formation, torus-bubble collapse, and bubble rebound to second collapse is described...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Daniel M Siegel, Brian D Metzger
The merger of binary neutron stars, or of a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole, can result in the formation of a massive rotating torus around a spinning black hole. In addition to providing collimating media for γ-ray burst jets, unbound outflows from these disks are an important source of mass ejection and rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. We present the first three-dimensional general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of neutrino-cooled accretion disks in neutron star mergers, including a realistic equation of state valid at low densities and temperatures, self-consistent evolution of the electron fraction, and neutrino cooling through an approximate leakage scheme...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Glaucia Del-Rio, Marco Antonio Rêgo, Luís Fábio Silveira, Akira Itoh
During the past 100 years in densely populated south-eastern Brazil, wetlands have been severely transformed due to urbanization, agriculture and mining. The recently discovered São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) is endemic to these wetlands, and is listed as "Critically Endangered" by the IUCN. The species is only found in an area of 1.42 km2, it has a sparse and fragmented distribution, low dispersal capacity, and has probably lost around 300 km2 of habitat in the past 100 years. Furthermore, very little is known about F...
2017: PloS One
Marina Brimioulle, Philippe Frederick Bowles, Andrew Pelser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
A H Seltzman, J K Anderson, S J Diem, J A Goetz, C B Forest
The first observation of rf heating in a reversed field pinch (RFP) using the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is demonstrated on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Propagation across and heating in a stochastic magnetic field is observed. Novel techniques are required to measure the suprathermal electron tail generated by EBW heating in the presence of intense Ohmic heating. rf-heated electrons directly probe the edge transport properties in the RFP; measured loss rates imply a large noncollisional radial diffusivity...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Alison Heffer, Gregory D Marquart, Allisan Aquilina-Beck, Nabil Saleem, Harold A Burgess, Igor B Dawid
Potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15 (Kctd15) was previously found to have a role in early neural crest (NC) patterning, specifically delimiting the region where NC markers are expressed via repression of transcription factor AP-2a and inhibition of Wnt signaling. We used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to generate null mutations in zebrafish kctd15a and kctd15b paralogs to study the in vivo role of Kctd15. We found that while deletions producing frame-shift mutations in each paralog showed no apparent phenotype, kctd15a/b double mutant zebrafish are smaller in size and show several phenotypes including some affecting the NC, such as expansion of the early NC domain, increased pigmentation, and craniofacial defects...
2017: PloS One
Manoj Gupta, Yogesh Kumar Srivastava, Ranjan Singh
Toroidal dipole is a localized electromagnetic excitation that plays an important role in determining the fundamental properties of matter due to its unique potential to excite nearly nonradiating charge-current configuration. Toroidal dipoles are recently discovered in metamaterial systems where it is shown that these dipoles manifest as poloidal currents on the surface of a torus and are distinctly different from the traditional electric and magnetic dipoles. Here, an active toroidal metamaterial switch is demonstrated in which the toroidal dipole can be dynamically switched to the fundamental electric dipole or magnetic dipole, through selective inclusion of active elements in a hybrid metamolecule design...
December 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
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