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Yohannes Haile-Selassie, Stephanie M Melillo, Timothy M Ryan, Naomi E Levin, Beverly Z Saylor, Alan Deino, Ronald Mundil, Gary Scott, Mulugeta Alene, Luis Gibert
Australopithecus afarensis is the best-known and most dimorphic species in the early hominin fossil record. Here, we present a comparative description of new fossil specimens of Au. afarensis from Nefuraytu, a 3.330-3.207 million-years-old fossil collection area in the Woranso-Mille study area, central Afar, Ethiopia. These specimens include NFR-VP-1/29, one of the most complete mandibles assigned to the species thus far and among the largest mandibles attributed to Au. afarensis, likely representing a male individual...
November 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
L L Neves, L H A Monteiro
Let a neuronal population be composed of an excitatory group interconnected to an inhibitory group. In the Wilson-Cowan model, the activity of each group of neurons is described by a first-order nonlinear differential equation. The source of the nonlinearity is the interaction between these two groups, which is represented by a sigmoidal function. Such a nonlinearity makes difficult theoretical works. Here, we analytically investigate the dynamics of a pair of coupled populations described by the Wilson-Cowan model by using a linear approximation...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Morteza Khodaee, Blake Volkmer, Aaron Provance
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Chen-Rong Liu, Yao-Wu Guo, Zhuo-Jun Li, Wei Li, Yan Chen
The quest for exotic quantum states of matter has become one of the most challenging tasks in modern condensed matter communications. Interplay between topology and strong electron-electron interactions leads to lots of fascinating effects since the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Here, we theoretically study the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling effect on a fractional quantum spin Hall system by means of finite size exact diagonalization. Numerical evidences from the ground degeneracies, states evolutions, entanglement spectra, and static structure factor calculations demonstrate that non-trivial fractional topological Tao-Thouless-like quantum state can be realized in the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in a thin torus geometric structure by tuning the strength of spin-orbit coupling...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gaurav Luther, Patricia E Miller, Susan T Mahan, Peter M Waters, Donald S Bae
BACKGROUND: Standardized clinical assessment and management plans (SCAMPs) are a novel quality improvement initiative shown to improve patient care, diminish practice variation, and reduce resource utilization. Unlike clinical practice guidelines, a SCAMP is a flexible algorithm that undergoes iterative updates based on periodic data collection and review. We recently implemented a SCAMP for the closed treatment of pediatric torus fractures. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of SCAMP implementation on resource utilization, practice variability, cost of care, and outcomes...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
W Zhu, Shou-Shu Gong, Tian-Sheng Zeng, Liang Fu, D N Sheng
Topological states of matter have been widely studied as being driven by an external magnetic field, intrinsic spin-orbital coupling, or magnetic doping. Here, we unveil an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum Hall effect (a Chern insulator) emerging in an extended fermion-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice, based on a state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group on cylinder geometry and an exact diagonalization in torus geometry. We first demonstrate that the proposed model exhibits an incompressible liquid phase with doublet degenerate ground states as time-reversal partners...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Lorenza Capantini, Arndt von Twickel, Brita Robertson, Sten Grillner
In vertebrates, the pretectum and optic tectum (superior colliculus in mammals) are visuomotor areas that process sensory information and shape motor responses. Whereas the tectum has been investigated in great detail, the pretectum has received far less attention. The present study provides a detailed analysis of the connectivity and neuronal properties of lamprey pretectal cells. The pretectum can be subdivided roughly into three areas based on cellular location and projection pattern: superficial, central, and periventricular...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Kwabena Doku-Amponsah
We prove joint large deviation principle for the empirical pair measure and empirical locality measure of the near intermediate coloured random geometric graph models on n points picked uniformly in a d-dimensional torus of a unit circumference. From this result we obtain large deviation principles for the number of edges per vertex, the degree distribution and the proportion of isolated vertices for the near intermediate random geometric graph models.
2016: SpringerPlus
Houjuan Song, Yudan Xu, Jing Hao, Bingqing Zhao, Donggang Guo, Hongbo Shao
The maintaining mechanisms and potential ecological processes of species diversity in warm temperate- conifer-broadleaved-mixed forest are far from clear understanding. In this paper, the relative neighborhood density Ω was used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of 34 species with ≥11 individuals in a warm- temperate-conifer-broadleaved-mixed forest, northern China. Then we used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and Torus-translation test (TTT) to explain the distribution of observed species...
August 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
O Delépine, S Curinier, N Agar, G Piquier-Perret, D Gallot, C Houlle, M Canis, J-L Pouly
Endometriosis is a common condition in women, whose main repercussions are painful symptoms. In addition, it was shown that endometriosis was a major cause of infertility and various obstetric complications could be related to this pathology. Uterine rupture is a rare but serious complication whose incidence tends to decrease with the screening of women at risk, however, its fetal, maternal morbidity and mortality causes remains important. We were confronted with a case of posterior uterine rupture in a patient of 36 years, primipare term exceeded in immediate postpartum period...
August 2, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Takashi Sakajo, Yuuki Shimizu
Owing to non-constant curvature and a handle structure, it is not easy to imagine intuitively how flows with vortex structures evolve on a toroidal surface compared with those in a plane, on a sphere and a flat torus. In order to cultivate an insight into vortex interactions on this manifold, we derive the evolution equation for N-point vortices from Green's function associated with the Laplace-Beltrami operator there, and we then formulate it as a Hamiltonian dynamical system with the help of the symplectic geometry and the uniformization theorem...
July 2016: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Duo An, Alex Warning, Kenneth G Yancey, Chun-Ti Chang, Vanessa R Kern, Ashim K Datta, Paul H Steen, Dan Luo, Minglin Ma
A vortex ring is a torus-shaped fluidic vortex. During its formation, the fluid experiences a rich variety of intriguing geometrical intermediates from spherical to toroidal. Here we show that these constantly changing intermediates can be 'frozen' at controlled time points into particles with various unusual and unprecedented shapes. These novel vortex ring-derived particles, are mass-produced by employing a simple and inexpensive electrospraying technique, with their sizes well controlled from hundreds of microns to millimetres...
2016: Nature Communications
David M Rogers
Finding the set of nearest images of a point in a simulation cell with periodic (torus) boundary conditions is of central importance for molecular dynamics algorithms. To compute all pairwise distances closer than a given cutoff in linear time requires region-based neighbor-listing algorithms. Available algorithms encounter increasing difficulties when the cutoff distance exceeds half the shortest cell length. This work provides details on two ways to directly and efficiently generate region-region interaction lists in n-dimensional space, free from the minimum image restriction...
July 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Supanigar Ruangsri, Teekayu Plangkoon Jorns, Subin Puasiri, Thitisan Luecha, Chariya Chaithap, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder. Untreated OSA may lead to a number of cardiovascular complications. Dentists may play an important role in OSA detection by conducting careful oral examinations. This study focused on the correlation of oral anatomical features in Thai patients who presented with OSA. METHODS: We conducted a prospective comparative study at a sleep/hypertension clinic and a dental clinic at Khon Kaen University in Thailand...
2016: Nature and Science of Sleep
Dimitrios Paraskevopoulos
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to develop a prototype for an innovative, burr-hole mounted device, for stabilizing endoscopes during intracranial surgery. The objective was an easily maneuverable device, freeing one hand without compromising flexibility and safety. This could avoid the need for a second surgeon or a bulky holder, thus improving coordination. METHODS: The initial concept arose from the observation that intraventricular endoscopy is often performed by 2 surgeons, 1 navigating the endoscope and 1 inserting/handling instruments through the working channel...
July 22, 2016: Surgical Innovation
G Richard Scott, Roman Schomberg, Victoria Swenson, Donovan Adams, Marin A Pilloud
OBJECTIVES: In the first issue of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, E.A. Hooton noted the expression of Eskimoid characteristics in the Icelandic skull, one of which was mandibular torus. Our goal is to evaluate this trait in another North Atlantic population, the Greenlandic Norse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An investigation of mandibular torus was carried out on all Greenlandic Norse skeletons disinterred up to 1986 (n = 109), along with comparative samples from Iceland (n = 82), Norway (n = 98), and Denmark (n = 64)...
July 22, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Michiko Shimokawa, Ryosei Mayumi, Taiki Nakamura, Toshiya Takami, Hidetsugu Sakaguchi
When a droplet with a higher density falls in a miscible solution, the droplet deforms and breaks up. The instability of a vortex ring, formed by droplet deformation during the falling process, causes the breakup. To determine the origin of the instability, the wavelengths and thicknesses of the vortex rings are investigated at the time when the instability occurs. The experimental results are almost in agreement with the calculated results for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using the thickness of a higher-density solution...
June 2016: Physical Review. E
Matthew J W Cock, T Colin E Congdon, Steve C Collins
The Afrotropical genera that have been recorded to feed on Zingiberales are documented. Partial life histories are presented for Erionota torus Evans (a South-East Asian species established in Mauritius), Semalea arela (Mabille), S. pulvina (Plötz), Xanthodisca vibius (Hewitson), X. rega (Mabille), Hypoleucis ophiusa (Hewitson), Caenides dacena (Hewitson), Osmodes adon (Mabille), Gretna cylinda (Hewitson) and Moltena fiara (Butler). Additional notes from the literature are provided on the genera Leona and Rhabdomantis...
2016: Zootaxa
I C Fulga, D I Pikulin, T A Loring
Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge...
June 24, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Pietro Rotondo, Luca Guido Molinari, Piergiorgio Ratti, Marco Gherardi
After more than three decades, the fractional quantum Hall effect still poses challenges to contemporary physics. Recent experiments point toward a fractal scenario for the Hall resistivity as a function of the magnetic field. Here, we consider the so-called thin-torus limit of the Hamiltonian describing interacting electrons in a strong magnetic field, restricted to the lowest Landau level, and we show that it can be mapped onto a one-dimensional lattice gas with repulsive interactions, with the magnetic field playing the role of the chemical potential...
June 24, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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