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Hu Du, Fang Hu, Fuping Zeng, Kelin Wang, Wanxia Peng, Hao Zhang, Zhaoxia Zeng, Fang Zhang, Tongqing Song
Understanding the spatial distribution of tree species in subtropical evergreen-deciduous broadleaf karst forest is fundamental to studying species coexistence and karst species diversity. Here, complete spatial randomness and heterogeneous Poisson process models were used to analyze the spatial distribution patterns of 146 species with at least one individual per ha in a 25-ha plot in southwest China. We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and the torus-translation test (TTT) to explain the distributions of observed species...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ying Wang, Xuguang Shi
In general, the geometric structure of DNA is characterized using an elastic rod model. The Landau model provides us a new theory to study the geometric structure of DNA. By using the decomposition of the arc unit in the helical axis of DNA, we find that the free-energy density of DNA is similar to the free-energy density of a two-condensate superconductor. By using the φ-mapping topological current theory, the torus knot soliton hidden in DNA is demonstrated. We show the relation between the geometric structure and free-energy density of DNA and the Frenet equations in differential geometry theory are considered...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
Jonathan Cohen, Emmanuelle Mathieu d'Argent, Lise Selleret, Jean-Marie Antoine, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet, Sofiane Bendifallah, Marcos Ballester, Emile Darai
Deep infiltrating endometriosis is the most severe form of the disease, defined by infiltration beneath the peritoneum greater than 5mm. It affects several anatomical locations including the bladder, the vesico-uterine cul-de-sac, the torus uterinum, the uterosacral ligament, rectovaginal septum and the colon-rectum. Deep infiltrating endometriosis is associated with infertility. Surgery performed for deep infiltrating endometriosis in the context of pain offers good pregnancy rates either spontaneously or after assisted reproductive technologies...
November 9, 2017: La Presse Médicale
Ashish Kumar Singh, Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra, Shelly Arora, Daniel Devaprakash Dicksit, C G Kalyan, Priyanshi Singh
Introduction: Oral tori and exostosis are non-pathological bony protuberances seen on the alveolar surfaces of the jaw bones. These are commonly seen on the palatal surfaces of the maxilla [torus palatinus (TP)] and around the premolars in the lingual surface of the mandible [torus mandibularis (TM)]. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of tori/exostosis in the Malaysian population. Methodology: A total of 2666 patients were examined for the presence of tori and exostosis in the maxilla and mandible and were categorized into TP, TM, and exostosis (facial/labial)...
September 2017: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
T Kobayashi, K Itoh, T Ido, K Kamiya, S-I Itoh, Y Miura, Y Nagashima, A Fujisawa, S Inagaki, K Ida
Spatiotemporal evolutions of radial electric field and turbulence are measured simultaneously in the H-mode transition, which is a prototypical example of turbulence structure formation in high-temperature plasmas. In the dynamical phase where transport barrier is established abruptly, the time-space-frequency-resolved turbulent particle flux is obtained. Here we report the validation of the mechanism of transport barrier formation quantitatively. It is found that the particle flux is suppressed predominantly by reducing density fluctuation amplitude and cross phase between density fluctuation and potential fluctuation...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Paola Batistoni, S Popovichev, S Conroy, I Lengar, A Čufar, M Abhangi, L Snoj, L Horton
The present paper describes the findings of the calibration of the neutron yield monitors on the Joint European Torus (JET) performed in 2013 using a (252)Cf source deployed inside the torus by the remote handling system, with particular regard to the calibration of fission chambers which provide the time resolved neutron yield from JET plasmas. The experimental data obtained in toroidal, radial, and vertical scans are presented. These data are first analysed following an analytical approach adopted in the previous neutron calibrations at JET...
October 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Fabio Di Vincenzo, Antonio Profico, Federico Bernardini, Vittorio Cerroni, Diego Dreossi, Stefan Schlager, Paola Zaio, Stefano Benazzi, Italo Biddittu, Mauro Rubini, Claudio Tuniz, Giorgio Manzi
The Ceprano calvarium was discovered in fragments on March 1994 near the town of Ceprano in southern Latium (Italy), embedded in Middle Pleistocene layers. After reconstruction, its morphological features suggests that the specimen belongs to an archaic variant of H. heidelbergensis, representing a proxy for the last common ancestor of the diverging clades that respectively led to H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. Unfortunately, the calvarium was taphonomically damaged. The postero-lateral vault, in particular, appears deformed and this postmortem damage may have influenced previous interpretations...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Qi Sun, Biao Lian, Shou-Cheng Zhang
Time-reversal invariant superconductors in three dimensions may contain nodal lines in the Brillouin zone, which behave as Wilson loops of 3D momentum-space Chern-Simons theory of the Berry connection. Here we study the conditions of realizing linked nodal lines (Wilson loops), which yield a topological contribution to the thermal magnetoelectric coefficient that is given by the Chern-Simons action. We find the essential conditions are the existence of torus or higher genus Fermi surfaces and spiral spin textures...
October 6, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Alexandros A Fragkopoulos, Ekapop Pairam, Eric Berger, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves
Toroidal droplets in a viscous liquid are unstable and transform into single or multiple spherical droplets. For thin tori, this can happen via the Rayleigh-Plateau instability causing the breakup of cylindrical jets. In contrast, for thick tori, this can happpen via the shrinking of the "hole". In this work, we use the thin-torus limit to directly measure the growth rate associated with capillary disturbances. In the case of toroidal droplets inside a much more viscous liquid, we even obtain the full dispersion relation, which is in agreement with theoretical results for cylindrical jets...
October 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mhamad Aly Moussawi, Mohamed Haouas, Sébastien Floquet, William E Shepard, Pavel A Abramov, Maxim N Sokolov, Vladimir P Fedin, Stéphane Cordier, Anne Ponchel, Eric Monflier, Jérôme Marrot, Emmanuel Cadot
In this communication, we report on a noteworthy hybrid supramolecular assembly built from three functional components hierarchically organized through noncovalent interactions. The one-pot synthesis procedure leads to the formation of large Mo-blue ring-shaped anion {Mo154}, which contains the supramolecular adduct based on the symmetric encapsulation of the Dawson-type [P2W18O62](6-) anion by two γ-cyclodextrin units. Such a nanoscopic onion-like structure, noted [P2W18O62]@2γ-CD@{Mo154} has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thus demonstrating the capability of the giant inorganic torus to develop relevant supramolecular chemistry, probing the strong affinity of the inner and outer faces of the γ-CD for the polyoxometalate surfaces...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Cui Tu, Adi Liu, Zichao Li, Mingsheng Tan, Bing Luo, Wei You, Chenguang Li, Wei Bai, Chenshuo Fu, Fangcheng Huang, Bingjia Xiao, Biao Shen, Tonghui Shi, Dalong Chen, Wenzhe Mao, Hong Li, Jinglin Xie, Tao Lan, Weixing Ding, Chijin Xiao, Wandong Liu
A system for electromagnetic measurements was designed and installed on the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) reversed field pinch device last year. Although the unique double-C structure of the KTX, which allows the machine to be opened easily without disassembling the poloidal field windings, makes the convenient replacement and modification of the internal inductive coils possible, it can present difficulties in the design of flux coils and magnetic probes at the two vertical gaps. Moreover, the KTX has a composite shell consisting of a 6 mm stainless steel vacuum chamber and a 1...
September 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Andreas Vm Herz, Alexander Mathis, Martin Stemmler
Across the nervous system, neurons often encode circular stimuli using tuning curves that are not sine or cosine functions, but that belong to the richer class of von Mises functions, which are periodic variants of Gaussians. For a population of neurons encoding a single circular variable with such canonical tuning curves, computing a simple population vector is the optimal read-out of the most likely stimulus. We argue that the advantages of population vector read-outs are so compelling that even the neural representation of the outside world's flat Euclidean geometry is curled up into a torus (a circle times a circle), creating the hexagonal activity patterns of mammalian grid cells...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Valentina Olivera-Pasilio, Moira Lasserre, María E Castelló
Adult neurogenesis, an essential mechanism of brain plasticity, enables brain development along postnatal life, constant addition of new neurons, neuronal turnover, and/or regeneration. It is amply distributed but negatively modulated during development and along evolution. Widespread cell proliferation, high neurogenic, and regenerative capacities are considered characteristics of teleost brains during adulthood. These anamniotes are promising models to depict factors that modulate cell proliferation, migration, and neurogenesis, and might be intervened to promote brain plasticity in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
M Chauvin, H-G Florén, M Friis, M Jackson, T Kamae, J Kataoka, T Kawano, M Kiss, V Mikhalev, T Mizuno, N Ohashi, T Stana, H Tajima, H Takahashi, N Uchida, M Pearce
Strong magnetic fields, synchrotron emission, and Compton scattering are omnipresent in compact celestial X-ray sources. Emissions in the X-ray energy band are consequently expected to be linearly polarized. X-ray polarimetry provides a unique diagnostic to study the location and fundamental mechanisms behind emission processes. The polarization of emissions from a bright celestial X-ray source, the Crab, is reported here for the first time in the hard X-ray band (~20-160 keV). The Crab is a complex system consisting of a central pulsar, a diffuse pulsar wind nebula, as well as structures in the inner nebula including a jet and torus...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Arash Ahmadivand, Burak Gerislioglu, Pandiaraj Manickam, Ajeet Kaushik, Shekhar Bhansali, Madhavan Nair, Nezih Pala
Unconventional characteristics of magnetic toroidal multipoles have triggered researchers to study these unique resonant phenomena by using both 3D and planar resonators under intense radiation. Here, going beyond conventional planar unit cells, we report on the observation of magnetic toroidal modes using artificially engineered multimetallic planar plasmonic resonators. The proposed microstructures consist of iron (Fe) and titanium (Ti) components acting as magnetic resonators and torus, respectively. Our numerical studies and following experimental verifications show that the proposed structures allow for excitation of toroidal dipoles in the terahertz (THz) domain with the experimental Q-factor of ∼18...
September 22, 2017: ACS Sensors
Alvaro Goyanes, Mariagiovanna Scarpa, Michael Kamlow, Simon Gaisford, Abdul W Basit, Mine Orlu
Patient-centric medicine is a derivative term for personalised medicine, whereby the pharmaceutical product provides the best overall benefit by meeting the comprehensive needs of the individual; considering the end-user from the beginning of the formulation design process right through development to an end product is a must. One way in which to obtain personalised medicines, on-site and on-demand is by three-dimensional printing (3DP). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the shape, size and colour of different placebo 3D printed tablets (Printlets™) manufactured by fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3DP on end-user acceptability regarding picking and swallowing...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Megan L Miller, Daniel M Johnson
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Conifers have the highest rates of mortality during their first year, often attributed to water stress; yet, this tree life stage is the least studied in terms of hydraulic properties. Previous work has revealed correlations between xylem anatomy to both hydraulic transport capacity and resistance to hydraulic dysfunction. In this study, we compared xylem anatomical and plant functional traits of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Larix occidentalis, and Pinus ponderosa seedlings over the first 10 wk of growth to evaluate potential maximum hydraulic capabilities and resistance to drought-induced embolism...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
P A Belov, A A Nazarov, A O Sorokin
We present a simple method to estimate the central charge of the conformal field theory corresponding to a critical point of a two-dimensional lattice model from Monte Carlo simulations. The main idea is to use the Wang-Landau flat-histogram algorithm, which allows us to obtain the free energy of a lattice model on a torus as a function of torus radii. The central charge is calculated with good precision from a free-energy scaling at the critical point. We apply the method to the Ising, tricritical Ising (Blume-Capel), Potts, and site-diluted Ising models, and we also discuss an estimation of the conformal weights...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
A A Fragkopoulos, A Aizenman, A Fernández-Nieves
We show that charged toroidal droplets can develop fingerlike structures as they expand due to Saffman-Taylor instabilities. While these are commonly observed in quasi-two-dimensional geometries when a fluid displaces another fluid of higher viscosity, we show that the toroidal confinement breaks the symmetry of the problem, effectively making it quasi-two-dimensional and enabling the instability to develop in this three-dimensional situation. We control the expansion speed of the torus with the imposed electric stress and show that fingers are observed provided the characteristic time scale associated with this instability is smaller than the characteristic time scale associated with Rayleigh-Plateau break-up...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
E D Fredrickson, E V Belova, D J Battaglia, R E Bell, N A Crocker, D S Darrow, A Diallo, S P Gerhardt, N N Gorelenkov, B P LeBlanc, M Podestà, Nstx-U Team
In this Letter we present data from experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, where it is shown for the first time that small amounts of high pitch-angle beam ions can strongly suppress the counterpropagating global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAE). GAE have been implicated in the redistribution of fast ions and modification of the electron power balance in previous experiments on NSTX. The ability to predict the stability of Alfvén modes, and developing methods to control them, is important for fusion reactors like the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, which are heated by a large population of nonthermal, super-Alfvénic ions consisting of fusion generated α's and beam ions injected for current profile control...
June 30, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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