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Skin infection bacteria

Keisuke Nakase, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Yuta Toda, Norihisa Noguchi
Determination of the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and the mutant selection window (MSW) of antimicrobial agents used to treat pathogenic bacteria is important in order to apply effective antimicrobial therapies. Here, we determined the MPCs of the major topical antimicrobial agents against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus which cause skin infections and compared their MSWs. Among the MPCs of nadifloxacin and clindamycin, the clindamycin MPC was determined to be the lowest against P...
October 21, 2016: Chemotherapy
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Dong-Lin Xia, Yan-Pei Chen, Yu-Fei Wang, Xiao-Dong Li, Ning Bao, Hong He, Hai-Ying Gu
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic patients are at increased risk of severe skin infections. Covering the wound as early as possible can prevent infection and shorten the course of treatment. In this study, the authors fabricated a waterproof and breathable composite liquid dressing (CLD) that formed a barrier to bacteria and shortened healing time of diabetic rat skin ulcers. METHODS: The CLD was prepared in a formulation that, on evaporation of the liquid carrier, acts as a waterproof, breathable coating on injured skin...
November 2016: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Kashif Rahim, Shamim Saleha, Xudong Zhu, Liang Huo, Abdul Basit, Octavio Luiz Franco
A wound is damage of a tissue usually caused by laceration of a membrane, generally the skin. Wound healing is accomplished in three stages in healthy individuals, including inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling stages. Healing of wounds normally starts from the inflammatory phase and ends up in the remodeling phase, but chronic wounds remain in an inflammatory stage and do not show progression due to some specific reasons. Chronic wounds are classified in different categories, such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), venous leg ulcers (VLU) and pressure ulcer (PU), surgical site infection (SSI), abscess, or trauma ulcers...
October 14, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Yeongu Chung, Sung Ho Lee, Seok Keun Choi
BACKGROUND: Superficial temporal artery (STA) to middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass is associated with several surgical problems. Despite the vascular patency and hemodynamic changes after the anastomosis, wound problems can be a major surgical complication. METHODS: In a review of 41 surgical cases of STA-MCA bypass for moyamoya disease or cerebral occlusive vascular diseases, we compared the conventional ("Out-to-In") dissection method for STA (n=23) with the "In-to-Out" (ITO) dissection method (n=18) and evaluated the surgical results with respect to wound problems...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Jia-Yun C Tsai, Jacelyn M S Loh, Fiona Clow, Natalie Lorenz, Thomas Proft
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), or Streptococcus pyogenes, is a human pathogen that causes diseases ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to severe invasive diseases, such as toxic shock syndrome. Each GAS strain carries a particular pilus type encoded in the variable fibronectin-binding, collagen-binding, T antigen (FCT) genomic region. Here we describe the functional analysis of the serotype M2 pilus encoded in the FCT-6 region. We found that, in contrast to other investigated GAS pili, the ancillary pilin 1 lacks adhesive properties...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
John Moat, Athanasios Rizoulis, Graeme Fox, Mathew Upton
The domestic environment can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. We show here that domestic shower hoses may harbour potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Well-developed biofilms were physically removed from the internal surface of shower hoses collected in four locations in England and Scotland. Amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA targets revealed the presence of common aquatic and environmental bacteria, including members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Haiying Sun, Lillian Ting, Surendra Machineni, Jens Praestgaard, Andreas Kuemmell, Daniel S Stein, Gangadhar Sunkara, Steven J Kovacs, Stephen Villano, S Ken Tanaka
Omadacycline is a first in class aminomethylcycline antibiotic with microbiological activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes, and atypical bacteria that is being developed for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). The bioavailability of a Phase 3 tablet formulation relative to intravenous (IV) administration (and of other oral formulations relative to the Phase 3 tablet) was investigated in an open-label, randomized, four-period, crossover study in healthy subjects age 18-50 years...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mark Rippon, Melanie Colegrave, Karen Ousey
Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common problem in patients with faecal and/or urinary incontinence. Urine alters the normal skin flora and increases permeability of the stratum corneum and faecal enzymes on the skin contribute to skin damage. Faecal bacteria can then penetrate the skin, increasing the risk of secondary infection. However, IAD can be prevented and healed with timely and appropriate skin cleansing and skin protection. This includes appropriate use of containment devices. This article also looks at HARTMANN incontinence pads that have been developed to absorb the fluids that cause IAD and maintain the skin's acidic pH...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Reinhild Feuerstein, Julia Kolter, Philipp Henneke
The dermis, a major reservoir of immune cells in immediate vicinity to the colonizing skin microflora, serves as an important site of host-pathogen interactions. Macrophages (Mϕ) are the most frequent resident immune cell type in the dermis. They protect the host from invasive infections by highly adapted bacteria, such as staphylococci via pattern recognition of bacterial effectors, phagocytosis, and recruitment of other myeloid cells from the blood. Already under homeostatic conditions, the dermal Mϕ population receives a dynamic input of monocytes invading from the bloodstream...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Sharafine Stephen, Beula Subashini, Regi Thomas, Ajay Philip, Rajan Sundaresan
Malignant otitIs externa (skull base osteomyelitis) is predominantly caused by bacteria while fungal etiology is rare. We report a middle aged diabetic gentleman who succumbed to invasive skull base infection due to Apophysomyces elegans a fungus belonging to Zygomycetes which causes only skin and soft tissue infections. Mortality and invasive infections due to this genus is rarely reported, especially in the ear.
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
P Muchesa, M Leifels, L Jurzik, K B Hoorzook, T G Barnard, C Bartie
Pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA), such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species isolated from aquatic environments have been implicated in central nervous system, eye and skin human infections. They also allow the survival, growth and transmission of bacteria such as Legionella, Mycobacteria and Vibrio species in water systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of potentially pathogenic FLA and their associated bacteria in hospital water networks in Johannesburg, South Africa...
October 12, 2016: Parasitology Research
Anne Spichler Moffarah, Mayar Al Mohajer, Bonnie L Hurwitz, David G Armstrong
The skin is colonized by a diverse collection of microorganisms which, for the most part, peacefully coexist with their hosts. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of conditions; in immunocompromised hosts, SSTIs can be caused by diverse microorganisms-most commonly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and protozoa. The diagnosis of SSTIs is difficult because they may commonly masquerade as other clinical syndromes or can be a manifestation of systemic disease. In immunocompromised hosts, SSTI poses a major diagnostic challenge, and clinical dermatological assessment should be initially performed; to better identify the pathogen and to lead to appropriate treatment, etiology should include cultures of lesions and blood, biopsy with histology, specific microbiological analysis with special stains, molecular techniques, and antigen-detection methodologies...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Deirdre L Church
Alteration in the host microbiome at skin and mucosal surfaces plays a role in the function of the immune system, and may predispose immunocompromised patients to infection. Because obligate anaerobes are the predominant type of bacteria present in humans at skin and mucosal surfaces, immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for serious invasive infection due to anaerobes. Laboratory approaches to the diagnosis of anaerobe infections that occur due to pyogenic, polymicrobial, or toxin-producing organisms are described...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Arif Emre, Mehmet Sertkaya, Sami Akbulut, Yakup Duman, Ilhami Taner Kale
Fournier's gangrene, rare but life threatening disease, is characterized by an acute necrotic infection of the scrotum, penis, or perineum. Fournier's gangrene is a mixed infection caused by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Fournier's gangrene caused by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported rarely. The mainstay of treatment is prompt recognition and a combination of antibiotics with radical debridement. We describe a case of a 56-year-old male patient presenting with neglected Fournier's gangrene caused by Acinetobacter baumannii...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
Fei Da, Lin Yao, Zhijie Su, Zhen Hou, Zhi Li, Xiaoyan Xue, Jingru Meng, Xiaoxing Luo
AIM: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is commonly associated with non-nosocomial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to its virulence, which is mainly controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system. In this study (KFF)3 K peptide-conjugated Locked Nucleic Acids (PLNAs) targeting agrA mRNA were developed to inhibit agr activity and arrest the pathogenicity of CA-MRSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two PLNAs were designed, and synthesized, after predicting the secondary structure of agrA mRNA...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Steven J A Kimble, Jeffrey T Briggler, Rod N Williams
Pathogens currently threaten the existence of many amphibian species. In efforts to combat global declines, researchers have characterized the amphibian cutaneous microbiome as a resource for disease management. Characterization of microbial communities has become useful in studying the links between organismal health and the host microbiome. Hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) provide an ideal system to explore the cutaneous microbiome as this species requires extensive conservation management across its range...
September 27, 2016: Microbial Ecology
C A Burnham, Patrick G Hogan, Meghan A Wallace, Elena Deych, William Shannon, David K Warren, Stephanie A Fritz
Topical antimicrobials are often employed for decolonization and infection prevention and may alter the endogenous microbiota of the skin. The objective of this study was to compare the microbial community, richness, and diversity in community-dwelling subjects and intensive care unit (ICU) patients before and after the use of topical decolonization protocols. We enrolled 15 adults at risk for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Community subjects (n=8) underwent a 5-day decolonization protocol (twice daily intranasal mupirocin and daily dilute bleach water baths) and ICU patients (n=7) received daily chlorhexidine baths...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Floriana Cappiello, Antonio Di Grazia, Segev-Zarko Li-Av, Silvia Scali, Loretta Ferrera, Luis Galietta, Alessandro Pini, Yechiel Shai, Y Peter Di, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major microorganism colonizing the respiratory epithelium in cystic fibrosis (CF) sufferers. The widespread usage of available antibiotics has drastically reduced their efficacy, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a promising alternative. Among them, the frog-skin derived AMPs i.e. Esc(1-21) and its diastereomer Esc(1-21)-1c have recently shown potent activity against free-living and sessile forms of P. aeruginosa. Importantly, this pathogen also escapes antibiotics treatment by invading airway epithelial cells...
September 26, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kenneth S Thomson, Gina K Thomson, John Biehle, Andrew Deeb, Jamaal Crawford, R Herrera
BACKGROUND: The use of topical antimicrobial agents for management of minor skin infections is a clinical strategy that is commonly practiced in the community. Coupled with the use of topical antimicrobial agents is the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens leading to the need for alternative treatments. OBJECTIVE: A novel topical combination ointment consisting of salicylic acid, oak bark extract, benzoic acid, and polyethylene glycol (Bensal HP, Sonar products Inc...
2016: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
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