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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879442/salmonella-enterica-serovar-pomona-infection-in-farmed-juvenile-american-alligators-alligator-mississippiensis
#1
K Sakaguchi, J G Nevarez, F Del Piero
A fatal epizootic of salmonellosis occurred in farmed juvenile American alligators in Louisiana. Six animals were examined. Gross lesions included severe fibrinonecrotizing enterocolitis, necrotizing splenitis, coelomic effusion, and perivisceral and pulmonary edema. Microscopic examination revealed severe necrotizing enterocolitis and splenitis with intralesional bacteria and pneumocyte necrosis with fibrin thrombi. Salmonella enterica serovar Pomona was isolated from intestine and lung. Clinical salmonellosis is a rare finding in reptiles and salmonellosis caused by S...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867752/comparing-the-effectiveness-of-polymer-debriding-devices-using-a-porcine-wound-biofilm-model
#2
Holly N Wilkinson, Andrew J McBain, Christian Stephenson, Matthew J Hardman
Objective: Debridement to remove necrotic and/or infected tissue and promote active healing remains a cornerstone of contemporary chronic wound management. While there has been a recent shift toward less invasive polymer-based debriding devices, their efficacy requires rigorous evaluation. Approach: This study was designed to directly compare monofilament debriding devices to traditional gauze using a wounded porcine skin biofilm model with standardized application parameters. Biofilm removal was determined using a surface viability assay, bacterial counts, histological assessment, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865269/the-immunopathogenesis-of-staphylococcal-skin-infections-a-review
#3
P B Hill, A Imai
Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius are the major causes of bacterial skin disease in humans and dogs. These organisms can exist as commensals on the skin, but they can also cause severe or even devastating infections. The immune system has evolved mechanisms to deal with pathogenic microorganisms and has strategies to combat bacteria of this type. What emerges is a delicate "peace" between the opposing sides, but this balance can be disrupted leading to a full blown "war". In the ferocious battle that ensues, both sides attempt to get the upper hand, using strategies that are comparable to those used by modern day armies...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857707/bacterial-human-virulence-genes-across-diverse-habitats-as-assessed-by-in-silico-analysis-of-environmental-metagenomes
#4
Ditte A Søborg, Niels B Hendriksen, Mogens Kilian, Jan H Christensen, Niels Kroer
The occurrence and distribution of clinically relevant bacterial virulence genes across natural (non-human) environments is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the occurrence of homologs to bacterial human virulence genes in a variety of ecological niches to better understand the role of natural environments in the evolution of bacterial virulence. Twenty four bacterial virulence genes were analyzed in 46 diverse environmental metagenomic datasets, representing various soils, seawater, freshwater, marine sediments, hot springs, the deep-sea, hypersaline mats, microbialites, gutless worms and glacial ice...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851746/livestock-associated-antibiotic-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-and-recent-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-among-industrial-hog-operation-workers
#5
Maya Nadimpalli, Jill R Stewart, Elizabeth Pierce, Nora Pisanic, David C Love, Devon Hall, Jesper Larsen, Karen C Carroll, Tsigereda Tekle, Trish M Perl, Christopher D Heaney
Swine production work is a risk factor for nasal carriage of livestock-associated (LA-) Staphylococcus aureus and also for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). However, whether LA-S. aureus nasal carriage is associated with increased risk of SSTI remains unclear. We aimed to examine S. aureus nasal carriage and recent (≤3 months prior to enrollment) SSTI symptoms among industrial hog operation (IHO) workers and their household contacts. IHO workers and their household contacts provided a nasal swab and responded to a questionnaire assessing self-reported personal and occupational exposures and recent SSTI symptoms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847969/-migration-speed-of-uropathogens-determination-in-the-ureteral-splint-in-a-practice-like-in-vitro-model
#6
H Braunwarth, F H H Brill, J Steinmann, D Hegeholz, W Droste
BACKGROUND: A urostomy with an ileum conduit or a skin fistula leads to a high infection risk for the kidneys and the ureter of the patient. Therefore, the prevention of retrograde colonization of the artificial drain (splint) with e. g. contaminated urine is the most important objective of infection prevention measurements. We performed an in vitro experiment to determine the migration speed of clinically relevant bacteria in a commercially available splint catheter system. METHODS: The migration speed of bacteria in commonly used splint catheters was determined in a practice-like in vitro model...
November 15, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836329/-pneumonia-caused-bycorynebacterium-pseudodiphtheriticum
#7
Daniela Furiasse, Ana M Gasparotto, Aída Monterisi, Gabriela Castellano, Marta Rocchi
Microorganisms of the genera Corynebacterium, specie pseudodiphtheriticum are a part of the indigenous microbiota of human skin and oropharinx. Nevertheless in recent decades these bacilli are emerging as opportunistic pathogens causing clinically significant infections in patients with previous compromise. We report the case of a 76 years old female patient, with a history of hypertension, hypothyroidism, type 2 diabetes and chronic renal failure, who presented pneumonia during their stay at the intensive care unit...
November 8, 2016: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821851/phenotypic-differentiation-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-populations-is-induced-by-recombination-driven-gene-specific-sweeps
#8
Yun-Juan Bao, B Jesse Shapiro, Shaun W Lee, Victoria A Ploplis, Francis J Castellino
Genomic recombination plays an important role in driving adaptive evolution and population differentiation in bacteria. However, controversy exists as to the effects of recombination on population diversity and differentiation, i.e., recombination is frequent enough to sweep through the population at selected gene loci (gene-specific sweeps), or the recombination rate is low without interfering genome-wide selective sweeps. Observations supporting either view are sparse. Pathogenic bacteria causing infectious diseases are promising candidates to provide observations of recombination...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820968/safety-and-efficacy-of-daptomycin-in-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-a-prospective-and-multicenter-cohort-study-daptodom-trial
#9
Carlos Cervera, Pedro Sanroma, Víctor González-Ramallo, Cristina García de la María, Gemma Sanclemente, Nieves Sopena, Marcos Pajarón, Antonio Segado, Manuel Mirón, Francisco Antón, Andima Basterretxea, Ana Cuende, José M Miró
BACKGROUND: Daptomycin is an optimal choice for outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) because of its safety, once-daily administration and its activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Although daptomycin is increasingly being used in OPAT, limited information about its safety in this scenario is available. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicentre pilot study to evaluate the safety of daptomycin in outpatients with proved or suspected Gram-positive infections (DAPTODOM)...
November 8, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814688/infected-cephalhaematoma-in-a-five-week-old-infant-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Petra Zimmermann, Andrea Duppenthaler
BACKGROUND: A cephalhaematoma is usually a benign condition which resolves spontaneously. Nevertheless, there is a small risk of primary or secondary infection and diagnosis of this condition is challenging. The purpose of this article is to summarise risk factors, clinical criteria, pathogenesis, appropriate investigations and treatment methods for infected cephalhaematomas in infants. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-week-old infant presented with fever and a non-tender cephalhaematoma without local signs of inflammation...
November 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813433/factors-affecting-the-rise-of-treatment-of-resistant-bacteria-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-united-states-1993-to-2012
#11
Margaret E Wetzel, Alan B Fleischer
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) prevalence has been steadily increasing for the past 40 years. The increase in such infections has contributed to a change in the treatment patterns of the patient. This study aimed to detail the factors determining prescription practices associated with MRSA-related skin and soft tissue infections. METHODS: The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) was searched for data from 1993 to 2012 regarding the factors associated with resistant vs...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811349/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-surgical-site-infections-caused-by-gram-negative-rod-shaped-bacteria-from-the-family-enterobacteriacae-and-gram-positive-cocci-from-the-genus-staphylococcus-in-patients-who-underwent-surgical-procedures-on-selected-surgical
#12
Małgorzata Tomaszewska-Kowalska, Krzysztof Kołomecki, Maria Wieloch-Torzecka
: Surgical site infections on surgical wards are the most common cause of postoperative complications. Prevalence of surgical site infections depends on the surgical specialization. Analysis of the causes of surgical site infections allows to conclude that microorganisms from the patient's own microbiota - Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriacae and from the patient's skin microbiota - Gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus are the most common agents inducing surgical site infections...
October 1, 2016: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811344/evaluating-the-effectivenes-of-antiseptic-solution-decasan-in-treatment-of-necrotic-soft-tisue-diseases
#13
Julia Fuss, Victor Palii, Anna Voloboyeva
: Sepsis is a severe generalised infection caused usually by pathogenic bacteria. It is often the cause of hospitalization and death in patients treated in intensive care and other hospital wards. Latest research brought to better understanding of patomechanisms, took place significant development of therapy heading to improvement of general patients condition treated as a basis and additionally supported by local therapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using the solution Decasan in the comprehensive treatment of patients necrosis of soft tissues...
October 1, 2016: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809281/ph-dependent-antimicrobial-peptides-and-proteins-their-mechanisms-of-action-and-potential-as-therapeutic-agents
#14
REVIEW
Erum Malik, Sarah R Dennison, Frederick Harris, David A Phoenix
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potent antibiotics of the innate immune system that have been extensively investigated as a potential solution to the global problem of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. A group of AMPs that are increasingly being reported are those that utilise pH dependent antimicrobial mechanisms, and here we review research into this area. This review shows that these antimicrobial molecules are produced by a diverse spectrum of creatures, including vertebrates and invertebrates, and are primarily cationic, although a number of anionic examples are known...
November 1, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804112/carriage-rate-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-coagulase-positive-staphylococci-isolated-from-healthy-dogs-in-victoria-australia
#15
D C Bean, S M Wigmore
BACKGROUND: Studies in Australia and elsewhere have shown high levels of antibiotic resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci in dogs visiting veterinary clinics with pyoderma and related conditions. Although important, such studies tend to overestimate the burden of resistance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci in healthy dogs in Central Victoria to assess the level of antibiotic resistance among these isolates. METHODS: We recruited 117 healthy dogs into the study...
November 1, 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796524/infections-in-the-tissue-material-and-their-impact-on-the-loss-of-transplants-in-the-laboratory-of-in-vitro-cell-and-tissue-culture-with-tissue-bank-in-the-years-2011-2015
#16
D Kitala, A Klama-Baryła, M Kawecki, M Kraut, W Łabuś, J Glik, M Ples, E Tomanek, M Nowak
Radiation sterilization eliminates microbiological infections but causes the degradation of the cell factor. The negative result of microbiological examination for tissue transplants is one of the conditions for approval for distribution in patients. The study attempts to verify impact of the presence of microbes onto material for transplant loss. In the 2011-2015 period, we analyzed 293 donors of skin and amnion. Microbiological sampling was performed. The total of 21 strains of bacteria, molds and fungi was identified in collected tissue...
October 31, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792773/rna-seq-transcriptomic-responses-of-full-thickness-dermal-excision-wounds-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-acute-and-biofilm-infection
#17
S L Rajasekhar Karna, Peter D'Arpa, Tsute Chen, Li-Wu Qian, Andrea B Fourcaudot, Kazuyoshi Yamane, Ping Chen, Johnathan J Abercrombie, Tao You, Kai P Leung
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of wounds in clinical settings are major complications whose outcomes are influenced by host responses that are not completely understood. Herein we evaluated transcriptomic changes of wounds as they counter P. aeruginosa infection-first active infection, and then chronic biofilm infection. We used the dermal full-thickness, rabbit ear excisional wound model. We studied the wound response: towards acute infection at 2, 6, and 24 hrs after inoculating 106 bacteria into day-3 wounds; and, towards more chronic biofilm infection of wounds similarly infected for 24 hrs but then treated with topical antibiotic to coerce biofilm growth and evaluated at day 5 and 9 post-infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790779/the-role-of-human-%C3%AE-defensins-in-allergic-diseases
#18
REVIEW
F Niyonsaba, C Kiatsurayanon, H Ogawa
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also referred to as host defence peptides (HDPs), comprise a large family of small molecules broadly distributed throughout the animal and plant kingdom, historically serving as natural antibiotics. In mammals, there are two major families of AMPs/HDPs, the defensins and the cathelicidins. These peptides have evolved to protect against a wide range of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and some parasites. However, in addition to their broad-spectrum killing activities, AMPs/HDPs also possess various biological functions...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788747/the-risk-of-bacterial-infection-after-tattooing
#19
Ralf Dieckmann, Ides Boone, Stefan O Brockmann, Jens A Hammerl, Annette Kolb-Mäurer, Matthias Goebeler, Andreas Luch, Sascha Al Dahouk
BACKGROUND: Tattooing is a globally growing trend. Overall prevalence among adults in industrialized countries is around 10-20%. Given the high and increasing numbers of tattooed people worldwide, medical and public health implications emerging from tattooing trends require greater attention not only by the public, but also by medical professionals and health policy makers. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature on tattooassociated bacterial infections and bacterial contamination of tattoo inks...
October 7, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780238/bacterial-etiology-and-risk-factors-associated-with-cellulitis-and-purulent-skin-abscesses-in-military-trainees
#20
Ryan C Johnson, Michael W Ellis, Carey D Schlett, Eugene V Millar, Patrick T LaBreck, Deepika Mor, Emad M Elassal, Jeffrey B Lanier, Cassie L Redden, Tianyuan Cui, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Danett K Bishop, Eric R Hall, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, D Scott Merrell
: Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). Although Staphylococcus aureus is associated with purulent SSTI, it is unclear to what degree this pathogen causes nonpurulent cellulitis. To inform effective prevention strategies and to provide novel insights into SSTI pathogenesis, we aimed to determine the etiology of SSTI in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study in US Army Infantry trainees with SSTI (cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis) from July 2012 through December 2014...
2016: PloS One
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