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Skin infection bacteria

Burkhard Lehner, Michael Akbar, Nicholas A Beckmann
BASICS: Postoperative surgical site infections of the spine have been described in up to 20% of patients and can result in serious consequences for the patient and substantial treatment costs. Typical bacteria often arise from skin or fecal flora. Various risk factors for infection have been described, including obesity, diabetes, high ASA scores, as well as intraoperative factors such as heavy blood loss, dural tears, or several revision procedures. Consequently, the prophylaxis with pre- and postoperative risk minimization is of particular importance...
March 20, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Anas H Abu-Humaidan, Malin Elvén, Andreas Sonesson, Peter Garred, Ole E Sørensen
The complement system is an ancient part of the innate immune system important for both tissue homeostasis and host defense. However, bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (SA) possess elaborative mechanisms for evading both the complement system and other parts of the immune system. One of these evasive mechanisms-important in causing chronic and therapy resistant infections-is the intracellular persistence in non-immune cells. The objective of our study was to investigate whether persistent intracellular SA infection of epidermal keratinocytes resulted in complement activation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Luís Belo, Isa Serrano, Eva Cunha, Carla Carneiro, Luis Tavares, L Miguel Carreira, Manuela Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Most of surgical site infections (SSI) are caused by commensal and pathogenic agents from the patient's microbiota, which may include antibiotic resistant strains. Pre-surgical asepsis of the skin is one of the preventive measures performed to reduce SSI incidence and also antibiotic resistance dissemination. However, in veterinary medicine there is no agreement on which biocide is the most effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two pre-surgical skin asepsis protocols in dogs...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Silvano Esposito, Silvana Noviello, Francesco De Caro, Giovanni Boccia
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) involve a heterogeneous group of entities with different clinical presentations classified according to several specific criteria. Because of their great variability, their incidence and prevalence is difficult to accurately determine. Yet it is generally thought that the rate of SSTIs is globally increasing due to an aging population, strictly associated with the increase in the number of critical and immunocompromised patients. The aetiology of SSTIs is also extremely variable, reflecting the noteworthy heterogeneity of their clinical presentations and their epidemiology...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Maryam Rezapoor, Timothy L Tan, Mitchell G Maltenfort, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Iodophor-impregnated adhesive incise drapes are widely used during surgeries for reducing surgical site contamination. There is little evidence to support the latter belief. This study evaluated the efficacy of iodophor-impregnated adhesive drapes for reducing bacterial contamination and counts at the incision site during hip surgery. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 101 patients undergoing open joint preservation procedure of the hip...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Asher M Siddiqui, Jitendra A Sattigeri, Kalim Javed, Syed Shafi, M Shamim, Smita Singhal, Zubbair M Malik
Gram-positive bacteria are among the most common human pathogens associated with clinical infections which range from mild skin infections to sepsis. Resistance towards existing class of drugs by Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) is a growing concern. There is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics which are active against resistant strains of Gram positive bacteria. We report herein a novel class of spiropyrimidinetrione oxazolidinone derivatives as novel antibacterial agents...
March 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Avinash Y Gahane, Pritish Ranjan, Virender Singh, Raj K Sharma, Neeraj Sinha, Mandeep Sharma, Rama Chaudhry, Ashwani K Thakur
In the quest for new antimicrobial materials, hydrogels of Fmoc-protected peptides and amino acids have gained momentum due to their ease of synthesis and cost effectiveness; however, their repertoire is currently limited, and the mechanistic details of their function are not well understood. Herein, we report the antibacterial activity of the hydrogel and solution phases of Fmoc-phenylalanine (Fmoc-F) against a variety of Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Fmoc-F, a small molecule hydrogelator, reduces the bacterial load both in vitro and in the skin wound infections of mice...
March 8, 2018: Soft Matter
Kelly E Helmick, Michael M Garner, Jack Rhyan, Daniel Bradway
Two novel and distinct Brucella strains were recovered from 5 of 10 adult, sex undetermined, captive waxy tree frogs ( Phyllomedusa sauvagii) and two of five adult, sex undetermined, captive Colorado river toads ( Incilius alvarius) held in a zoologic collection with clinical and pathologic findings of bacterial disease. These amphibians originated from three separate private breeding facilities over several years and exhibited disease 9-49 mo following release from quarantine. Common presenting signs were vague but included focal abscessation, weight loss, change in coloration, anorexia, and decreased perching...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Sinuo Chen, Renren Li, Chun Cheng, Jing-Ying Xu, Caixia Jin, Furong Gao, Juan Wang, Jieping Zhang, Jingfa Zhang, Hong Wang, Lixia Lu, Guo-Tong Xu, Haibin Tian
Macrophages play critical roles in wound healing process. They switch from "classically activated" (M1) phenotype in the early inflammatory phase to "alternatively activated" (M2) phenotype in the later healing phase. However, the dynamic process of macrophage phenotype switching in diabetic wounds burdened with bacteria is unclear. In this report, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, frequently detected in diabetic foot ulcers, was inoculated into cutaneous wounds of db/db diabetic mice to mimic bacterium-infected diabetic wound healing...
March 7, 2018: Cell Biology International
Aurélie Morand, Emmanouil Angelakis, Mehdi Ben Chaabane, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Skin infections are among the leading causes of diseases in travelers. Diagnosing pathogens could be difficult. METHOD: We applied molecular assays for the diagnostic of a large collection of skin biopsies and swabs from travelers with suspected skin infections. All samples were tested by qPCR for Coxiella burnetti, Bartonella sp., Rickettsia sp., Borrelia sp., Ehrlichia sp., Tropheryma whipplei, Francisella tularensis, Mycobacteria sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Leishmania spp...
March 2, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Ana Alejandra García Robles, Eduardo López Briz, María Dolores Fraga Fuentes, Rocío Asensi Diez, Jesús Francisco Sierra Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To assess critically oritavancin, a second-generation  lipoglycopeptide, for the treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. METHOD: An evaluation report of oritavancin in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin  Structure Infections was carried out according to the methodology of the Group  for drug evaluation, standardization and research in drug selection of the  Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH)1, with the MADRE 4...
March 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
Dalila Y Martínez, Kristien Verdonck, Paul M Kaye, Vanessa Adaui, Katja Polman, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Marleen Boelaert
BACKGROUND: Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) is a disease of skin and/or mucosal tissues caused by Leishmania parasites. TL patients may concurrently carry other pathogens, which may influence the clinical outcome of TL. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This review focuses on the frequency of TL coinfections in human populations, interactions between Leishmania and other pathogens in animal models and human subjects, and implications of TL coinfections for clinical practice...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Irina Netsvyetayeva, Wojciech Marusza, Romuald Olszanski, Kamila Szyller, Aneta Krolak-Ulinska, Ewa Swoboda-Kopec, Janusz Sierdzinski, Zachary Szymonski, Grazyna Mlynarczyk
Introduction: Cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) gel is widely used in esthetic medicine. Late bacterial infection (LBI) is a rare, but severe complication after HA augmentation. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients who underwent the HA injection procedure and developed LBI had qualitatively different bacterial flora on the skin compared to patients who underwent the procedure without any complications. Methods: The study group comprised 10 previously healthy women with recently diagnosed, untreated LBI after HA augmentation...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Michael T Sweeney, Brian V Lubbers, Stefan Schwarz, Jeffrey L Watts
Standardized definitions for MDR are currently not available in veterinary medicine despite numerous reports indicating that antimicrobial resistance may be increasing among clinically significant bacteria in livestock and companion animals. As such, assessments of MDR presented in veterinary scientific reports are inconsistent. Herein, we apply previously standardized definitions for MDR, XDR and pandrug resistance (PDR) used in human medicine to animal pathogens and veterinary antimicrobial agents in which MDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to at least one agent in at least three antimicrobial classes, XDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to at least one agent in all but one or two available classes and PDR is defined as an isolate that is not susceptible to all agents in all available classes...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kei Ando, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
PURPOSE: MRSA is an organism that is a possible risk factor for postoperative SSI. The purpose of the study was to examine relationships among surgical site infection (SSI) after spinal surgery, nasal methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, and wound drain culture results. METHODS: The subjects were 132 patients who underwent spinal instrumentation surgery. A preoperative nasal swab was used to check for the presence of MRSA colonization, and a wound drain tip culture was performed for detection of SSI...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Nicola Di Meo, Sara Trevisini, Cecilia Noal, Katiuscia Nan, Giusto Trevisan
We report the occurrence of Staphylococcus lugdunensis cutaneous infection with sporotrichoid distribution of the left lower limb of a 60-year-old man. Recent studies have confirmed that Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a significant pathogen in causing skin and soft tissue infections that usually manifest in abscesses, surgical wound infections, and cellulitis. It used to be considered a skin commensal bacteria, but if unrecognized it can lead to  fulminant endocarditis, meningitis, skin abscesses, peritonitis, and spondylodiscitis...
August 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Brian Ponnaiya, Manuela Buonanno, David Welch, Igor Shuryak, Gerhard Randers-Pehrson, David J Brenner
BACKGROUND: Prevention of superficial surgical wound infections from drug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) currently present major health care challenges. The majority of surgical site infections (SSI) are believed to be caused by airborne transmission of bacteria alighting onto the wound during surgical procedures. We have previously shown that far-ultraviolet C light in the wavelength range of 207-222 nm is significantly harmful to bacteria, but without damaging mammalian cells and tissues...
2018: PloS One
Francesca Damiani Victorelli, Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos Ramos, Taís Maria Bauab, Marlus Chorilli
Staphylococcus aureus is a common gram-positive bacterium of the human skin microbiota. It is also a dangerous pathogen that can cause serious and even lethal skin infections. The topical administration of metronidazole via nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, such as liquid crystalline systems, can modulate both the drug permeation and activity, decreasing its side effects and increasing the drug potent activity against the gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed at: (1) structurally developing and characterizing a liquid crystalline systems composed of chitosan and polyethyleneimine dispersion as the aqueous phase, oleic acid as the oily phase, and ethoxylated and propoxylated cetyl alcohol as the surfactant (FPC) for metronidazole incorporation (0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
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