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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445380/a-formidable-foe-is-sabotaging-your-results-what-you-should-know-about-biofilms-and-wound-healing
#1
Jenny C Barker, Ibrahim Khansa, Gayle M Gordillo
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe biofilm pathogenesis as it relates to problem wounds. 2. Understand the preclinical and clinical evidence implicating biofilm in problem wounds. 3. Explain the diagnostic and treatment challenges that biofilms create for problem wounds. 4. Demonstrate a basic understanding of emerging strategies aimed at counteracting these processes. SUMMARY: Biofilm represents a protected mode of growth for bacteria, allowing them to evade standard diagnostic techniques and avoid eradication by standard therapies...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444231/whole-genome-sequencing-of-7-strains-of-staphylococcus-lugdunensis-allows-identification-of-mobile-genetic-elements
#2
Xavier Argemi, Véronique Martin, Valentin Loux, Sandrine Dahyot, Jérémie Lebeurre, Aurélien Guffroy, Mickael Martin, Aurélie Velay, Daniel Keller, Philippe Riegel, Yves Hansmann, Nicodème Paul, Gilles Prévost
Coagulase negative staphylococci are normal inhabitant of the human skin flora that account for an increasing number of infections, particularly hospital-acquired infections. Staphylococcus lugdunensis has emerged as a most virulent species causing various infections with clinical characteristics close to what clinicians usually observe with Staphylococcus aureus and both bacteria share more than 70% of their genome. Virulence of S. aureus relies on a large repertoire of virulence factors, many of which are encoded on mobile genetic elements...
April 21, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443279/analogs-of-the-frog-skin-antimicrobial-peptide-temporin-1tb-exhibit-a-wider-spectrum-of-activity-and-a-stronger-antibiofilm-potential-as-compared-to-the-parental-peptide
#3
Lucia Grassi, Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Giuseppe Maccari, Semih Esin, Giovanna Batoni
The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogs against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogs, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analog designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439299/substance-p-enhances-lactic-acid-and-tyramine-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-and-promotes-its-cytotoxic-effect-on-intestinal-caco-2-tc7-cells
#4
Kelly Biaggini, Valérie Borrel, Sabine Szunerits, Rabah Boukherroub, Awa N'Diaye, Arthur Zébré, Maryse Bonnin-Jusserand, Guillaume Duflos, Marc Feuilloley, Djamel Drider, Pierre Déchelotte, Nathalie Connil
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, generally considered as a saprophytic bowel commensal, has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, bacteremia, and bacterial endocarditis. This bacterium is capable of forming biofilms on various surfaces and its high level of antibiotic resistance contributes to its pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on E. faecalis, of Substance P (SP), an antimicrobial peptide that is produced in the gut and skin...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438975/galectin-3-is-a-target-for-proteases-involved-in-the-virulence-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Jonas Elmwall, Jakub Kwiecinski, Manli Na, Abukar Ahmed Ali, Veronica Osla, Lindsey Shaw, Wanzhong Wang, Karin Sävman, Elisabet Josefsson, Johan Bylund, Tao Jin, Amanda Welin, Anna Karlsson
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of skin and soft-tissue infection. The bacterium expresses four major proteases emerging as virulence factors; aureolysin (Aur), V8 protease (SspA), staphopain A (ScpA), and staphopain B (SspB). We hypothesized that human galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin involved in immune regulation and antimicrobial defense, is a target for these proteases, and that proteolysis of galectin-3 is a novel immune evasion mechanism. Indeed, supernatants from laboratory strains and clinical isolates of S...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438946/potassium-iodide-potentiates-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-mediated-by-rose-bengal-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#6
Xiang Wen, Xiaoshen Zhang, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Ahmed El-Hussein, Ying-Ying Huang, Tadeusz Sarna, Michael R Hamblin
Rose Bengal (RB) is a halogenated xanthene dye that has been used to mediate antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation for several years. While highly active against Gram-positive bacteria, RB is largely inactive in killing Gram-negative bacteria. We have discovered that addition of the non-toxic salt potassium iodide (100mM) potentiates green light (540nm)-mediated killing by up to six extra logs with Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gram-positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal yeast Candida albicans...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433718/three-new-piscidins-from-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-phylogeny-expression-and-functional-characterization
#7
Ze-Rui Zhuang, Xiao-Dong Yang, Xia-Zi Huang, Hui-Xian Gu, Han-Yin Wei, Yi-Jun He, Li Deng
The present study reports the identification, and characterization of three new putative piscidin paralogues, ecPis-2, ecPis-3 and ecPis-4, from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNA of the three piscidins with the 207, 216, and 231 nt open reading frame encoded respectively a 68-, 71-, and 76-amino acid preprotein consisting of the predicted signal peptide, and putative mature peptide and prodomain. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that multiple piscidin paralogues in one fish species are highly diversified, the analysis suggested that the piscidins should be a family belonging to the superfamily of ancient cationic, linear, and amphipathic host defence peptides widespread across invertebrate and vertebrate taxa comprising insect cecropins and ceratotoxins, and the amphibian dermaseptins...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427270/skin-irritation-testing-of-antimicrobial-conjugated-electrolytes
#8
Kristin N Wilde, Phuong A H Nguyen, David G Whitten, Heather E Canavan
Each year, the United States spends about $20 billion to treat people who have been infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Even so, the development of new antibiotics has slowed considerably since the mid-20th century. As a result, researchers are looking into developing synthetic compounds and materials with antimicrobial activities such as those made by the Schanze and Whitten groups [ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 2820 (2011)]. Previously, they have demonstrated that poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) based electrolytes and oligomeric end-only phenylene ethynylene (EO-OPE) based electrolytes possess strong biocidal activity...
April 20, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422484/direct-synthesis-of-dextran-based-antibacterial-hydrogels-for-extended-release-of-biocides-and-eradication-of-topical-biofilms
#9
Jiaul Hoque, Jayanta Haldar
Cationic small molecular biocides have been developed as promising antibiofilm agents because of their tunability in chemical structures and ability to disrupt established biofilms. However, the impact of biocides in antibiofilm treatment is largely limited due to lack of an effective delivery system that can ensure sustained release of biocide at the target site. Herein we report biocide-encapsulated antibacterial and antibiofilm hydrogel that acts as efficient delivery vehicle for the biocide and eradicates matured bacterial biofilm...
April 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410412/mycobacterium-ulcerans-low-infectious-dose-and-mechanical-transmission-support-insect-bites-and-puncturing-injuries-in-the-spread-of-buruli-ulcer
#10
John R Wallace, Kirstie M Mangas, Jessica L Porter, Renee Marcsisin, Sacha J Pidot, Brian Howden, Till F Omansen, Weiguang Zeng, Jason K Axford, Paul D R Johnson, Timothy P Stinear
Addressing the transmission enigma of the neglected disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is a World Health Organization priority. In Australia, we have observed an association between mosquitoes harboring the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and BU. Here we tested a contaminated skin model of BU transmission by dipping the tails from healthy mice in cultures of the causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans. Tails were exposed to mosquito (Aedes notoscriptus and Aedes aegypti) blood feeding or punctured with sterile needles...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403050/ceftaroline-activity-tested-against-bacterial-isolates-causing-community-acquired-respiratory-tract-infections-and-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-in-pediatric-patients-from-united-states-hospitals-2012-2014
#11
MULTICENTER STUDY
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones, Helio S Sader
Ceftaroline fosamil has recently received US Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of acute bacterial skin/skin structure infections (SSSIs), including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia for pediatric patients ≥2 months old. We evaluated the potency and spectrum of ceftaroline and comparators when tested against community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CARTI) and SSSI pathogens from pediatric patients. A total of 3141 consecutive, unique pediatric patient isolates of clinical significance (1460 CARTI and 1681 SSSI isolates) were collected from 29 US medical centers and tested for susceptibility to ceftaroline and comparators by broth microdilution methods...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401320/the-virulence-factors-of-group-a-streptococcus-strains-isolated-from-invasive-and-non-invasive-infections-in-polish-and-german-centres-2009-2011
#12
M Strus, P B Heczko, E Golińska, A Tomusiak, A Chmielarczyk, M Dorycka, M van der Linden, A Samet, A Piórkowska
Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is one of the major human pathogenic bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases. Currently, increased incidence of streptococcal invasive infections is observed worldwide. In this study, we focused on the prevalence of genes encoding superantigens and type M proteins in the population of GAS strains from invasive versus non-invasive infections. We tested 253 GAS strains: 48 strains from patients with invasive infections (18 from wound/deep skin localization, 30 from women in labour) and 205 strains from non-invasive forms (147 from common infections of the upper respiratory, 49 from the vagina of females with genital tract infections and 9 from non-invasive wound and superficial skin infections)...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384882/polymyxin-b-induced-diffuse-cutaneous-hyperpigmentation
#13
Sandeep Lahiry, Shouvik Choudhury, Ayan Mukherjee, Prajesh Kiran Bhunya, Moumita Bala
Polymyxin B is a polypeptide-antibiotic, primarily used for resistant Gram-negative infections, first obtained from bacterium Bacillus polymyxa in the late 1940s. Antibiotic spectrum are restricted to mainly gram negative bacterias like Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Pasteurella, Bordetella, Shigella; and particularly organisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, which are extremely potent to acquire antibiotic resistance. Side effects include neurotoxicity and acute renal tubular necrosis...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373353/clumping-factor-b-promotes-adherence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-corneocytes-in-atopic-dermatitis
#14
Orla M Fleury, Maeve A McAleer, Cécile Feuillie, Cécile Formosa-Dague, Emily Sansevere, Désirée E Bennett, Aisling M Towell, W H Irwin McLean, Sanja Kezic, D Ashley Robinson, Padraic G Fallon, Timothy J Foster, Yves F Dufrêne, Alan D Irvine, Joan A Geoghegan
Staphylococcus aureus skin infection is a frequent and recurrent problem in children with the common inflammatory skin disease atopic dermatitis (AD). S. aureus colonises the skin of the majority of children with AD and exacerbates the disease. The first step during colonisation and infection is bacterial adhesion to the cornified envelope of corneocytes in the outer layer stratum corneum. Corneocytes from AD skin are structurally different to corneocytes from normal healthy skin. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial proteins that promote the adherence of S...
April 3, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370366/new-insights-on-the-antibacterial-efficacy-of-miconazole-in-vitro
#15
P Nenoff, D Koch, C Krüger, C Drechsel, P Mayser
Miconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal used in topical preparations. In the present investigation the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of miconazole for eighty wild type strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from infected skin lesions was assessed using a modified agar dilution test (adapted to CLSI, Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute). 14 ATCC reference strains served as controls. Miconazole was found efficacious against gram-positive aerobic bacteria (n=62 species), the MICs against Staphylococcus (S...
March 30, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369247/the-implications-of-antibiotic-resistance-for-patients-recovery-from-common-infections-in-the-community-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Oliver Van Hecke, Kay Wang, Joseph J Lee, Nia W Roberts, Chris C Butler
Background: Antibiotic use is the main driver for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The perception exists that failure of antibiotic treatment due to antibiotic resistance has little clinical impact in the community. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science from inception to 15 April 2016 without language restriction. We included studies conducted in community settings which reported patient-level data on laboratory-confirmed infections (respiratory, urinary tract, skin or soft tissue), antibiotic resistance, and clinical outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369127/propionibacterium-acnes-biofilm-is-present-in-intervertebral-discs-of-patients-undergoing-microdiscectomy
#17
Manu N Capoor, Filip Ruzicka, Jonathan E Schmitz, Garth A James, Tana Machackova, Radim Jancalek, Martin Smrcka, Radim Lipina, Fahad S Ahmed, Todd F Alamin, Neel Anand, John C Baird, Nitin Bhatia, Sibel Demir-Deviren, Robert K Eastlack, Steve Fisher, Steven R Garfin, Jaspaul S Gogia, Ziya L Gokaslan, Calvin C Kuo, Yu-Po Lee, Konstantinos Mavrommatis, Elleni Michu, Hana Noskova, Assaf Raz, Jiri Sana, A Nick Shamie, Philip S Stewart, Jerry L Stonemetz, Jeffrey C Wang, Timothy F Witham, Michael F Coscia, Christof Birkenmaier, Vincent A Fischetti, Ondrej Slaby
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, Propionibacterium acnes was cultured from intervertebral disc tissue of ~25% of patients undergoing microdiscectomy, suggesting a possible link between chronic bacterial infection and disc degeneration. However, given the prominence of P. acnes as a skin commensal, such analyses often struggled to exclude the alternate possibility that these organisms represent perioperative microbiologic contamination. This investigation seeks to validate P. acnes prevalence in resected disc cultures, while providing microscopic evidence of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353621/the-effect-of-soft-tissue-infections-on-device-performance-in-adult-cochlear-implant-recipients
#18
Kerrie McAllister, Hannah Linkhorn, Mayaan Gruber, Ellen Giles, Michel Neeff
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cochlear implant (CI) site infection and its subsequent management on CI mapping and CI performance. Risk factors for CI infections and pathogens causing infections were reviewed. Treatment options for CI infections were examined. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Adult patients with a significant CI soft tissue infection from the Northern Cochlear Implant Programme, New Zealand over a 10-year period (August 2004 until August 2014)...
March 28, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353459/first-report-of-kocuria-marina-bloodstream-infection-unrelated-to-a-central-venous-catheter-a-mini-review-on-an-emerging-and-under-recognized-opportunistic-pathogen
#19
Giovanna Pulcrano, Michela Balzaretti, Alessia Grosini, Vincenzo Piacentini, Dimitri Poddighe
We report a case of sepsis by Kocuria marina in a 45-year-old woman carrying a midline venous catheter to provide total parenteral nutrition. Despite the finding of K. marina bacteraemia, no bacteria grew from the culture of the catheter tip. As the patient was affected with severe leg ulcers, K. marina bloodstream infection from a skin breakage other than CVC was supposed. K. marina is an emerging opportunistic agent deserving attention and probably under-recognized, as it can be misdiagnosed as Staphylococcus if only conventional microbiological analyses are performed for bacterial identification...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350942/prevention-of-surgical-site-infection-in-spine-surgery
#20
Paul A Anderson, Jason W Savage, Alexander R Vaccaro, Kristen Radcliff, Paul M Arnold, Brandon D Lawrence, Mohammed F Shamji
BACKGROUND: Spine surgery is complicated by an incidence of 1% to 9% of surgical site infection (SSI). The most common organisms are gram-positive bacteria and are endogenous, that is are brought to the hospital by the patient. Efforts to improve safety have been focused on reducing SSI using a bundle approach. The bundle approach applies many quality improvement efforts and has been shown to reduce SSI in other surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE: To provide a narrative review of practical solutions to reduce SSI in spine surgery...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
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