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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320091/animal-models-for-assessing-the-impact-of-natural-products-on-the-aetiology-and-metabolic-pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Md Asrafuzzaman, Yingnan Cao, Rizwana Afroz, Danielle Kamato, Susan Gray, Peter J Little
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex and heterogeneous disorder which in its most common manifestation arises from insulin resistance and later insulin insufficiency. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by impaired insulin sensitivity and diagnosed as hyperglycaemia. Because of its cardiovascular consequences, Type 2 diabetes represents one of the world's leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Drug discovery and development are required to produce better ways to prevent, treat and manage diabetes and its complications...
March 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316240/heme-gazing-illuminating-eukaryotic-heme-trafficking-dynamics-and-signaling-with-fluorescent-heme-sensors
#2
David A Hanna, Osiris Martinez-Guzman, Amit Ram Reddi
Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) is an essential protein prosthetic group and signaling molecule required for most life on Earth. All heme dependent processes require the dynamic and rapid mobilization of heme from sites of synthesis or uptake to hemoproteins present in virtually every subcellular compartment. The cytotoxicity and hydrophobicity of heme necessitates that heme mobilization is carefully controlled to mitigate the deleterious effects of this essential toxin. Indeed, a number of disorders, including certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, are tied to defects in heme homeostasis...
March 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315297/paxillin-genes-and-actomyosin-contractility-regulate-myotome-morphogenesis-in-zebrafish
#3
Andrew E Jacob, Jeffrey D Amack, Christopher E Turner
Paxillin (Pxn) is a key adapter protein and signaling regulator at sites of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion. Here, we investigated the role of Pxn during vertebrate development using the zebrafish embryo as a model system. We have characterized two Pxn genes, pxna and pxnb, in zebrafish that are maternally supplied and expressed in multiple tissues. Gene editing and antisense gene knockdown approaches were used to uncover Pxn functions during zebrafish development. While mutation of either pxna or pxnb alone did not cause gross embryonic phenotypes, double mutants lacking maternally supplied pxna or pxnb displayed defects in cardiovascular, axial, and skeletal muscle development...
March 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314735/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-its-relationship-with-cardiovascular-disease-and-other-extrahepatic-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Leon A Adams, Quentin M Anstee, Herbert Tilg, Giovanni Targher
Key physiological functions of the liver, including glucose and lipid metabolism, become disturbed in the setting of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and may be associated with a systemic inflammatory 'milieu' initiated in part by liver-secreted cytokines and molecules. Consequently, the pathophysiological effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver with a large body of clinical evidence demonstrating NAFLD to be independently associated with both prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
March 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302752/lower-circulating-folate-induced-by-a-fidgetin-intronic-variant-is-associated-with-reduced-congenital-heart-disease-susceptibility
#5
Dan Wang, Feng Wang, Kai-Hu Shi, Hui Tao, Yang Li, Rui Zhao, Han Lu, Wenyuan Duan, Bin Qiao, Shi-Min Zhao, Hongyan Wang, Jian-Yuan Zhao
Background -Folate deficiency is an independent risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD); however, the maternal plasma folate level is paradoxically not a good diagnostic marker. Genome-wide surveys have identified variants of non-folate metabolic genes associated with the plasma folate level, suggesting that these genetic polymorphisms are potential risk factors for CHD. Methods -To examine the effects of folate concentration-related variations on CHD risk in the Han Chinese population, we performed three independent case-control studies including a total of 1,489 CHD patients and 1,745 controls...
March 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302552/exploring-overlaps-between-the-genomic-and-environmental-determinants-of-lvh-and-stroke-a-multicenter-study-in-west-africa
#6
Abiodun M Adeoye, Bruce Ovbiagele, Philip Kolo, Lambert Appiah, Akinyemi Aje, Oladimeji Adebayo, Fred Sarfo, Joshua Akinyemi, Gregory Adekunle, Francis Agyekum, Vincent Shidali, Okechukwu Ogah, Dan Lackland, Mulugeta Gebregziabher, Donna Arnett, Hemant K Tiwari, Rufus Akinyemi, Ojo Olakanmi Olagoke, Ayodipupo Sikiru Oguntade, Taiwo Olunuga, Kelechi Uwanruochi, Carolyn Jenkins, Patrick Adadey, Henry Iheonye, Lukman Owolabi, Reginald Obiako, Samuel Akinjopo, Kevin Armstrong, Albert Akpalu, Adekunle Fakunle, Raelle Saulson, Mayowa Aridegbe, Paul Olowoyo, Godwin Osaigbovo, Josephine Akpalu, Bimbo Fawale, Philip Adebayo, Oyedunni Arulogun, Philip Ibinaiye, Atinuke Agunloye, Naser Ishaq, Kolawole Wahab, Onoja Akpa, Omisore Adeleye, Andrew Bock-Oruma, Godwin Ogbole, Sylvia Melikam, Joseph Yaria, Luqman Ogunjimi, Abdul Salaam, Taofiki Sunmonu, Akintomiwa Makanjuola, Temitope Farombi, Ruth Laryea, Ezinne Uvere, Salaam Kehinde, Innocent Chukwuonye, Paschal Azuh, Morenikeji Komolafe, Adeseye Akintunde, Olugbo Obiabo, Olusegun Areo, Issa Kehinde, Adeniyi G Amusa, Mayowa Owolabi
BACKGROUND: Whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is determined by similar genomic and environmental risk factors with stroke, or is simply an intermediate stroke marker, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We present a research plan and preliminary findings to explore the overlap in the genomic and environmental determinants of LVH and stroke among Africans participating in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study. METHODS: SIREN is a transnational, multicenter study involving acute stroke patients and age-, ethnicity-, and sex-matched control subjects recruited from 9 sites in Ghana and Nigeria...
March 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302272/relation-of-fasting-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-cholesterol-to-coronary-artery-calcium-score-from-the-elsa-brasil-study
#7
Marcio S Bittencourt, Raul D Santos, Henrique Staniak, Rodolfo Sharovsky, Rao Kondapally, Antonio J Vallejo-Vaz, Kausik K Ray, Isabela Bensenor, Paulo Lotufo
Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is widely accepted as the principal lipid fraction associated with atherosclerosis, emerging evidence suggests a causal relation between lifelong elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in genetic studies. To provide further evidence for the potential relevance of TRL-C and atherosclerosis, we have evaluated the relation between TRL-C and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We included 3,845 subjects (49...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302025/the-use-of-plant-sterols-and-stanols-as-lipid-lowering-agents-in-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Jacek Rysz, Beata Franczyk, Robert Olszewski, Maciej Banach, Anna Gluba-Brzózka
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is constantly increasing worldwide. It has been proved that LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) plays causal role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. The fact that atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive disease which onsets during the first three decades of life bores questions what to do to maintain LDL-C at low levels throughout life and thus to delay and/or prevent the progress this disease...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300864/whole-exome-sequencing-in-the-framingham-heart-study-identifies-rare-variation-in-hyal2-that-influences-platelet-aggregation
#9
John D Eicher, Ming-Huei Chen, Achilleas N Pitsillides, Honghuang Lin, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, Jennifer A Brody, Ginger A Metcalf, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Nauder Faraday, Rasika A Mathias, Lisa R Yanek, Eric Boerwinkle, L Adrienne Cupples, Andrew D Johnson
Inhibition of platelet reactivity is a common therapeutic strategy in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Genetic and environmental factors influence inter-individual variation in platelet reactivity. Identifying genes that contribute to platelet reactivity can reveal new biological mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets. Here, we examined rare coding variation to identify genes associated with platelet reactivity in a population-based cohort. To do so, we performed whole exome sequencing in the Framingham Heart Study and conducted single variant and gene-based association tests against platelet reactivity to collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and epinephrine agonists in up to 1,211 individuals...
March 16, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300617/sex-and-gender-related-prevalence-cardiovascular-risk-and-therapeutic-approach-in-metabolic-syndrome-a-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Giacomo Pucci, Riccardo Alcidi, Lisanne Tap, Francesca Battista, Francesco Mattace-Raso, Giuseppe Schillaci
Metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of metabolic abnormalities linked to insulin-resistance and abdominal obesity, is associated with an increased risk of Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular (CV) disease. Its prevalence is high, affecting 20% to 30% of the general population, and increases with age in a sex-specific manner: in fact, while below 50 years it is slightly higher in men, it reverses after 50 years. The pronounced age-related increase in the prevalence of MS in women occurs as the result of several factors, which may be classified into sex- and gender-related factors...
March 11, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299725/defining-the-relationship-between-hypertension-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Keenan A Walker, Melinda C Power, Rebecca F Gottesman
Hypertension is a highly prevalent condition which has been established as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although the understanding of the relationship between cardiocirculatory dysfunction and brain health has improved significantly over the last several decades, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a potentially treatable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. While it is clear that hypertension can affect brain structure and function, recent findings suggest that the associations between blood pressure and brain health are complex and, in many cases, dependent on factors such as age, hypertension chronicity, and antihypertensive medication use...
March 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299500/mthfr-and-mthfd1-gene-polymorphisms-are-not-associated-with-pseudoexfoliation-syndrome-in-south-indian-population
#12
Prakadeeswari Gopalakrishnan, Aravind Haripriya, Periasamy Sundaresan
PURPOSE: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is a late onset disorder of extracellular matrix turnover, associated systemically with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. To evaluate the suggested association of polymorphisms of homocysteine metabolism genes MTHFR (rs1801131, rs1801133) and MTHFD1 (rs8006686) with PEX. METHODS: A case-control association study was undertaken, comprising a total of 1472 individuals including 860 unrelated PEX cases and 612 ethnic-matched cataract controls (CC)...
March 15, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298568/comparison-of-disease-characteristics-organ-damage-and-survival-in-patients-with-juvenile-onset-and-adult-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-in-a-combined-cohort-from-2-tertiary-centers-in-turkey
#13
Bahar Artim-Esen, Sezgin Şahin, Erhan Çene, Yasemin Şahinkaya, Kenan Barut, Amra Adrovic, Yasemin Özlük, Işın Kılıçaslan, Ahmet Omma, Ahmet Gül, Lale Öcal, Özgür Kasapçopur, Murat İnanç
OBJECTIVE: Age at onset has been shown to affect the clinical course and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we aimed to define the differences in clinical characteristics, organ damage, and survival between patients with juvenile-onset (jSLE) and adult-onset SLE (aSLE). METHODS: For the study, 719 patients (76.9%) with aSLE and 216 (23.1%) with jSLE were examined. Comparisons between the groups were made for demographic characteristics, clinical features, autoantibody profiles, damage, and survival rates...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298470/genetically-driven-hyperglycemia-increases-risk-of-coronary-artery-disease-separately-from-type-2-diabetes
#14
Jordi Merino, Aaron Leong, Daniel C Posner, Bianca Porneala, Lluís Masana, Josée Dupuis, Jose C Florez
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that genetically raised hyperglycemia increases coronary artery disease (CAD) risk separately from the risk conferred by type 2 diabetes as a whole. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using summary-level statistics from the largest published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) (n = 133,010 participants free of diabetes) and CAD (n = 63,746 case subjects and 130,681 control subjects) of predominantly European ancestry...
March 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298293/discovery-and-fine-mapping-of-loci-associated-with-monounsaturated-fatty-acids-through-trans-ethnic-meta-analysis-in-chinese-and-european-populations
#15
Yao Hu, Toshiko Tanaka, Jingwen Zhu, Weihua Guan, Jason H Y Wu, Bruce M Psaty, Barbara McKnight, Irena B King, Qi Sun, Melissa Richard, Ani Manichaikul, Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Edmond K Kabagambe, Paul N Hopkins, Jose M Ordovas, Luigi Ferrucci, Stefania Bandinelli, Donna K Arnett, Yii-Der I Chen, Shuang Liang, David S Siscovick, Michael Y Tsai, Stephen S Rich, Myriam Fornage, Frank B Hu, Eric B Rimm, Majken K Jensen, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Dariush Mozaffarian, Lyn M Steffen, Andrew P Morris, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin
Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are unsaturated fatty acids with one double bond and are derived from endogenous synthesis and dietary intake. Accumulating evidence has suggested that plasma and erythrocyte MUFA levels were associated with cardiometabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven loci for plasma and erythrocyte palmitoleic acid and oleic acid levels in populations of European origin...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295777/can-ldl-cholesterol-be-too-low-possible-risks-of-extremely-low-levels
#16
Anders G Olsson, Bo Angelin, Gerd Assmann, Christoph J Binder, Ingemar Björkhem, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Jonathan Cohen, Arnold von Eckardstein, Eduardo Farinaro, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Klaus G Parhofer, Paolo Parini, Robert S Rosenson, Jakob Starup-Linde, Matti J Tikkanen, Laurent Yvan-Charvet
Following the continuous accumulation of evidence supporting the beneficial role of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its complications, therapeutic possibilities now exist to lower LDL-C to very low levels, similar to or even lower than those seen in newborns and nonhuman species. In addition to the important task of evaluating potential side-effects of such treatments, the question arises whether extremely low LDL-C levels per se may provoke adverse effects in humans...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295448/drug-rechallenge-following-drug-induced-liver-injury
#17
REVIEW
Christine M Hunt, Julie I Papay, Vid Stanulovic, Arie Regev
Drug induced hepatocellular injury is identified internationally by ALT 5x upper limits normal (ULN) appearing within 3 months of drug initiation, after alternative causes are excluded. Upon withdrawing the suspect drug, ALT generally decreases by 50% or more. With drug readministration, a positive rechallenge has recently been defined by an ALT 3-5xULN or greater. Nearly 50 drugs are associated with positive rechallenge after drug-induced liver injury (DILI): antimicrobials, central nervous system, cardiovascular and oncology therapeutics...
March 13, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295377/time-restricted-feeding-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiometabolic-disorders
#18
Girish C Melkani, Satchidananda Panda
The soaring prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with an increase in comorbidities, including elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVDs continue to be among the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. While increased nutrition intake from an energy dense diet is known to disrupt metabolic homeostasis and contributes to the disease risk, circadian rhythm disruption is emerging as a new risk factor for CVD. Circadian rhythms coordinate cardiovascular health via temporal control of organismal metabolism and physiology...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294512/hfe-mutations-and-iron-in-hemodialysis-patients
#19
Luca Valenti, Serena Pelusi
INTRODUCTION: in chronic hemodialysis patients, a disruption in iron metabolism ranging from absolute to functional deficiency, with compartmentalization of this metal into macrophages, is often observed. Chronic inflammation indeed often causes an upregulation of the iron hormone hepcidin, thereby reducing iron absorption and availability to the erythron. METHODS: we systematically reviewed the literature on the role of genetic risk factors on iron metabolism in hemodialysis...
March 15, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292782/exploring-the-fitness-hypothesis-in-als-a-population-based-case-control-study-of-parental-cause-of-death-and-lifespan
#20
Anne E Visser, Meinie Seelen, Alexander Hulsbergen, Joris de Graaf, Anneke J van der Kooi, Joost Raaphorst, Jan H Veldink, Leonard H van den Berg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the theory of premorbid fitness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we studied whether a common genetic profile for physical or cardiovascular fitness was manifest in progenitors leading to less cardiovascular death and a longer lifespan in parents of patients with ALS compared with parents of controls. METHODS: Patient and disease characteristics, levels of physical activity, parental cause and age of death were obtained using a structured questionnaire from a population-based, case-control study of ALS in the Netherlands...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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