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Global climate change

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944518/scenarios-reveal-pathways-to-sustain-future-ecosystem-services-in-an-agricultural-landscape
#1
Jiangxiao Qiu, Stephen R Carpenter, Eric G Booth, Melissa Motew, Samuel C Zipper, Christopher J Kucharik, Xi Chen, Steven P Loheide, Jenny Seifert, Monica G Turner
Sustaining food production, water quality, soil retention, flood and climate regulation in agricultural landscapes is a pressing global challenge given accelerating environmental changes. Scenarios are stories about plausible futures, and scenarios can be integrated with biophysical simulation models to explore quantitatively how the future might unfold. However, few studies have incorporated a wide range of drivers (e.g., climate, land-use, management, population, human diet) in spatially explicit, process-based models to investigate spatial-temporal dynamics and relationships of a portfolio of ecosystem services...
September 25, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944038/stress-from-cold-and-drought-as-drivers-of-functional-trait-spectra-in-north-american-angiosperm-tree-assemblages
#2
Irena Šímová, Marta Rueda, Bradford A Hawkins
Understanding how environmental change alters the composition of plant assemblages, and how this in turn affects ecosystem functioning is a major challenge in the face of global climate change. Assuming that values of plant traits express species adaptations to the environment, the trait-based approach is a promising way to achieve this goal. Nevertheless, how functional traits are related to species' environmental tolerances and how trait spectra respond to broad-scale environmental gradients remains largely unexplored...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944028/the-underestimated-role-of-temperature-oxygen-relationship-in-large-scale-studies-on-size-to-temperature-response
#3
Aleksandra Walczyńska, Łukasz Sobczyk
The observation that ectotherm size decreases with increasing temperature (temperature-size rule; TSR) has been widely supported. This phenomenon intrigues researchers because neither its adaptive role nor the conditions under which it is realized are well defined. In light of recent theoretical and empirical studies, oxygen availability is an important candidate for understanding the adaptive role behind TSR. However, this hypothesis is still undervalued in TSR studies at the geographical level. We reanalyzed previously published data about the TSR pattern in diatoms sampled from Icelandic geothermal streams, which concluded that diatoms were an exception to the TSR...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943996/changes-in-the-structure-and-propagation-of-the-mjo-with-increasing-co2
#4
Ángel F Adames, Daehyun Kim, Adam H Sobel, Anthony Del Genio, Jingbo Wu
Changes in the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) with increasing CO2 concentrations are examined using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies Global Climate Model (GCM). Four simulations performed with fixed CO2 concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 times preindustrial levels using the GCM coupled with a mixed layer ocean model are analyzed in terms of the basic state, rainfall, moisture and zonal wind variability, and the structure and propagation of the MJO. The GCM simulates basic state changes associated with increasing CO2 that are consistent with results from earlier studies: column water vapor increases at ∼7...
June 2017: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940907/complex-effect-of-projected-sea-temperature-and-wind-change-on-flatfish-dispersal
#5
Geneviève Lacroix, Léo Barbut, Filip A M Volckaert
Climate change not only alters ocean physics and chemistry but also affects the biota. Larval dispersal patterns from spawning to nursery grounds and larval survival are driven by hydrodynamic processes and shaped by (a)biotic environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to understand the impacts of increased temperature rise and changes in wind speed and direction on larval drift and survival. We apply a particle-tracking model coupled to a 3D-hydrodynamic model of the English Channel and the North Sea to study the dispersal dynamics of the exploited flatfish (common) sole (Solea solea)...
September 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940533/integrated-drought-responses-of-black-poplar-how-important-is-phenotypic-plasticity
#6
Marie Garavillon-Tournayre, Aurélie Gousset-Dupont, Florian Gautier, Pierrick Benoit, Pierre Conchon, Romain Souchal, David Lopez, Gilles Petel, Jean-Stéphane Venisse, Catherine Bastien, Philippe Label, Boris Fumanal
Climate change is expected to increase drought frequency and intensity what will threaten plant growth and survival. In such fluctuating environments, perennial plants respond with hydraulic and biomass adjustments, resulting in either tolerant or avoidant strategies. Plant's response to stress relies on their phenotypic plasticity. Our goal was to explore physiology of young Populus nigra in the context of a time-limited and progressive water deficit in regard with their growth and stress response strategies...
September 20, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940511/climate-mitigation-by-dairy-intensification-depends-on-intensive-use-of-spared-grassland
#7
David Styles, Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia, Jon Moorby, Andreas Foskolos, James Gibbons
Milk and beef production cause 9% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown that dairy intensification reduces the carbon footprint of milk by increasing animal productivity and feed conversion efficiency. None of these studies simultaneously evaluated indirect GHG effects incurred via teleconnections with expansion of feed crop production and replacement suckler-beef production. We applied consequential LCA to incorporate these effects into GHG mitigation calculations for intensification scenarios among grazing-based dairy farms in an industrialized country (UK), in which milk production shifts from average to intensive farm typologies, involving higher milk yields per cow and more maize and concentrate feed in cattle diets...
September 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938079/comparing-climate-sensitivity-past-and-present
#8
Eelco J Rohling, Gianluca Marino, Gavin L Foster, Philip A Goodwin, Anna S von der Heydt, Peter Köhler
Climate sensitivity represents the global mean temperature change caused by changes in the radiative balance of climate; it is studied for both present/future (actuo) and past (paleo) climate variations, with the former based on instrumental records and/or various types of model simulations. Paleo-estimates are often considered informative for assessments of actuo-climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse forcing, but this utility remains debated because of concerns about the impacts of uncertainties, assumptions, and incomplete knowledge about controlling mechanisms in the dynamic climate system, with its multiple interacting feedbacks and their potential dependence on the climate background state...
September 22, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936643/climate-variability-affects-the-germination-strategies-exhibited-by-arid-land-plants
#9
Sarah Barga, Thomas E Dilts, Elizabeth A Leger
Spatial and temporal environmental variability can lead to variation in selection pressures across a landscape. Strategies for coping with environmental heterogeneity range from specialized phenotypic responses to a narrow range of conditions to generalist strategies that function under a range of conditions. Here, we ask how mean climate and climate variation at individual sites and across a species' range affect the specialist-generalist spectrum of germination strategies exhibited by 10 arid land forbs. We investigated these relationships using climate data for the western United States, occurrence records from herbaria, and germination trials with field-collected seeds, and predicted that generalist strategies would be most common in species that experience a high degree of climate variation or occur over a wide range of conditions...
September 21, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936474/assessing-narccap-climate-model-effects-using-spatial-confidence-regions
#10
Joshua P French, Seth McGinnis, Armin Schwartzman
We assess similarities and differences between model effects for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) climate models using varying classes of linear regression models. Specifically, we consider how the average temperature effect differs for the various global and regional climate model combinations, including assessment of possible interaction between the effects of global and regional climate models. We use both pointwise and simultaneous inference procedures to identify regions where global and regional climate model effects differ...
2017: Adv Stat Climatol Meteorol Oceanogr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935556/altitudinal-variation-and-bio-climatic-variables-influencing-the-potential-distribution-of-culicoides-orientalis-macfie-1932-suspected-vector-of-bluetongue-virus-across-the-north-eastern-himalayan-belt-of-sikkim
#11
Emon Mukhopadhyay, Surajit Hazra, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
Culicoides orientalis was first recorded from Sikkim, in the year 1963, but no evidence based disease outbreak were available. In the last 50 years, 260 Bluetongue disease outbreaks caused by Culicoides species have been evidenced from India. Moreover, in recent years with increase of average temperature worldwide and increase in longevity of arthropod vectors like Culicoides along with a geographical range shift to new suitable warmer regions has increased the potentiality of vector borne disease outbreak throughout the world...
September 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934299/a-novel-copro-diagnostic-molecular-method-for-qualitative-detection-and-identification-of-parasitic-nematodes-in-amphibians-and-reptiles
#12
Lucas G Huggins, Christopher J Michaels, Sheena M Cruickshank, Richard F Preziosi, Kathryn J Else
Anthropogenic disturbance via resource acquisition, habitat fragmentation and climate change, amongst other factors, has led to catastrophic global biodiversity losses and species extinctions at an accelerating rate. Amphibians are currently one of the worst affected classes with at least a third of species categorised as being threatened with extinction. At the same time, they are also critically important for many habitats and provide man with a powerful proxy for ecosystem health by acting as a bioindicator group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931842/restoring-tides-to-reduce-methane-emissions-in-impounded-wetlands-a-new-and-potent-blue-carbon-climate-change-intervention
#13
Kevin D Kroeger, Stephen Crooks, Serena Moseman-Valtierra, Jianwu Tang
Coastal wetlands are sites of rapid carbon (C) sequestration and contain large soil C stocks. Thus, there is increasing interest in those ecosystems as sites for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission offset projects (sometimes referred to as "Blue Carbon"), through preservation of existing C stocks or creation of new wetlands to increase future sequestration. Here we show that in the globally-widespread occurrence of diked, impounded, drained and tidally-restricted salt marshes, substantial methane (CH4) and CO2 emission reductions can be achieved through restoration of disconnected saline tidal flows...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929574/metabolite-and-transcript-markers-for-the-prediction-of-potato-drought-tolerance
#14
Heike Sprenger, Alexander Erban, Sylvia Seddig, Katharina Rudack, Anja Thalhammer, Mai Q Le, Dirk Walther, Ellen Zuther, Karin I Köhl, Joachim Kopka, Dirk K Hincha
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Current potato varieties are highly susceptible to drought stress. In view of global climate change, selection of cultivars with improved drought tolerance and high yield potential is of paramount importance. Drought tolerance breeding of potato is currently based on direct selection according to yield and phenotypic traits and requires multiple trials under drought conditions. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is cheaper, faster and reduces classification errors caused by non-controlled environmental effects...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928720/potential-risk-areas-of-aedes-albopictus-in-south-eastern-iran-a-vector-of-dengue-fever-zika-and-chikungunya
#15
Jalil Nejati, Rubén Bueno-Marí, Francisco Collantes, Ahmad A Hanafi-Bojd, Hassan Vatandoost, Zabihollah Charrahy, Seyed M Tabatabaei, Mohammad R Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Abdolghafar Hasanzehi, Mohammad R Shirzadi, Seyed H Moosa-Kazemi, Mohammad M Sedaghat
The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927433/modelling-the-current-distribution-and-predicted-spread-of-the-flea-species-ctenocephalides-felis-infesting-outdoor-dogs-in-spain
#16
Rosa Gálvez, Vicenzo Musella, Miguel A Descalzo, Ana Montoya, Rocío Checa, Valentina Marino, Oihane Martín, Giuseppe Cringoli, Laura Rinaldi, Guadalupe Miró
BACKGROUND: The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is the most prevalent flea species detected on dogs and cats in Europe and other world regions. The status of flea infestation today is an evident public health concern because of their cosmopolitan distribution and the flea-borne diseases transmission. This study determines the spatial distribution of the cat flea C. felis infesting dogs in Spain. Using geospatial tools, models were constructed based on entomological data collected from dogs during the period 2013-2015...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926642/a-late-holocene-pollen-record-from-proglacial-oblong-tarn-mount-kenya
#17
Colin J Courtney Mustaphi, Konrad Gajewski, Rob Marchant, Gunhild Rosqvist
High-elevation ecosystems, such as those on Mount Kenya are undergoing significant changes, with accelerated glacial ice losses over the twentieth century creating new space for alpine plants to establish. These ecosystems respond rapidly to climatic variability and within decades of glacial retreat, Afroalpine pioneering taxa stabilize barren land and facilitate soil development, promoting complex patches of alpine vegetation. Periglacial lake sediment records can be used to examine centennial and millennial scale variations in alpine and montane vegetation compositions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925970/current-status-of-rift-valley-fever-vaccine-development
#18
REVIEW
Bonto Faburay, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, D Scott McVey, William C Wilson, Juergen A Richt
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that presents a substantial threat to human and public health. It is caused by Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus and the family Phenuiviridae within the order Bunyavirales. The wide distribution of competent vectors in non-endemic areas coupled with global climate change poses a significant threat of the transboundary spread of RVFV. In the last decade, an improved understanding of the molecular biology of RVFV has facilitated significant progress in the development of novel vaccines, including DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) vaccines...
September 19, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925867/lignocellulosic-biomass-derived-functional-materials-synthesis-and-applications-in-biomedical-engineering
#19
Lei Zhang, Xinwen Peng, Linxin Zhong, Weitian Chua, Zhihua Xiang, Runcang Sun
The pertinent issue of resources shortage arising from global climate change in the recent years has accentuated the importance of materials that are environmental friendly. Despite the merits of current material like cellulose as the most abundant natural polysaccharide on earth, the incorporation of lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to value-add the recent development of cellulose-derivatives in drug delivery systems. Lignocellulosic biomass, with a hierarchical structure, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924606/active-pacific-meridional-overturning-circulation-pmoc-during-the-warm-pliocene
#20
Natalie J Burls, Alexey V Fedorov, Daniel M Sigman, Samuel L Jaccard, Ralf Tiedemann, Gerald H Haug
An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400-ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell...
September 2017: Science Advances
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