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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149748/in-situ-long-term-modeling-of-phenanthrene-dynamics-in-an-aged-contaminated-soil-using-the-vsoil-platform
#1
Khaled Brimo, Patricia Garnier, François Lafolie, Geoffroy Séré, Stéphanie Ouvrard
Management and remediation actions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated sites require an accurate knowledge of the dynamics of these chemicals in situ under real conditions. Here we developed, under the Virtual Soil Platform, a global model for PAH that describes the principal physical and biological processes controlling the dynamics of PAH in soil under real climatic conditions. The model was applied first to simulate the observed dynamics of phenanthrene in situ field experimental plots of industrial contaminated soil...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149444/morphology-molecular-structure-and-stable-carbon-isotopic-composition-of-black-carbon-bc-in-urban-topsoils
#2
Yutong Zong, Qing Xiao, Shenggao Lu
Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ(13)C)...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149208/synergistic-effects-of-the-components-of-global-change-increased-vegetation-dynamics-in-open-forest-steppe-grasslands-driven-by-wildfires-and-year-to-year-precipitation-differences
#3
Miklós Kertész, Réka Aszalós, Attila Lengyel, Gábor Ónodi
Climate change and land use change are two major elements of human-induced global environmental change. In temperate grasslands and woodlands, increasing frequency of extreme weather events like droughts and increasing severity of wildfires has altered the structure and dynamics of vegetation. In this paper, we studied the impact of wildfires and the year-to-year differences in precipitation on species composition changes in semi-arid grasslands of a forest-steppe complex ecosystem which has been partially disturbed by wildfires...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148655/feframing-climate-change-for-environmental-health
#4
Caitlin Weems, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam
Repeated warnings by the scientific community on the dire consequences of climate change through global warming to the ecology and sustenance of our planet have not been give appropriate attention by the U.S. public. Research has shown that climate change is responsible for catastrophic weather occurrences--such as floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, and heat waves--resulting in environmental and public health issues. The purpose of this report is to examine factors influencing public views on climate change. Theoretical and political perspectives are examined to unpack opinions held by the public in the U...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#5
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145486/geography-of-current-and-future-global-mammal-extinction-risk
#6
Ana D Davidson, Kevin T Shoemaker, Ben Weinstein, Gabriel C Costa, Thomas M Brooks, Gerardo Ceballos, Volker C Radeloff, Carlo Rondinini, Catherine H Graham
Identifying which species are at greatest risk, what makes them vulnerable, and where they are distributed are central goals for conservation science. While knowledge of which factors influence extinction risk is increasingly available for some taxonomic groups, a deeper understanding of extinction correlates and the geography of risk remains lacking. Here, we develop a predictive random forest model using both geospatial and mammalian species' trait data to uncover the statistical and geographic distributions of extinction correlates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145446/large-scale-climatic-effects-on-traditional-hawaiian-fishpond-aquaculture
#7
Daniel McCoy, Margaret A McManus, Keliʻiahonui Kotubetey, Angela Hiʻilei Kawelo, Charles Young, Brandon D'Andrea, Kathleen C Ruttenberg, Rosanna ʻAnolani Alegado
Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142229/impact-of-deforestation-and-climate-on-the-amazon-basin-s-above-ground-biomass-during-1993-2012
#8
Jean-François Exbrayat, Yi Y Liu, Mathew Williams
Since the 1960s, large-scale deforestation in the Amazon Basin has contributed to rising global CO2 concentrations and to climate change. Recent advances in satellite observations enable estimates of gross losses of above-ground biomass (AGB) stocks due to deforestation. However, because of simultaneous regrowth, the net contribution of deforestation emissions to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations is poorly quantified. Climate change may also reduce the potential for forest regeneration in previously disturbed regions...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140600/vegetation-cover-another-dominant-factor-in-determining-global-water-resources-in-forested-regions
#9
Xiaohua Wei, Qiang Li, Mingfang Zhang, Krysta Giles-Hansen, Wenfei Liu, Houbao Fan, Yi Wang, Guoyi Zhou, Shilong Piao, Shirong Liu
Forested catchments provide critically important water resources. Due to dramatic global forest change over the past decades, the importance of including forest or vegetation change in the assessment of water resources under climate change has been highly recognized by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); however, this importance has not yet been examined quantitatively across the globe. Here, we used four remote sensing-based indices to represent changes in vegetation cover in forest dominated regions, and then applied them to widely-used models: the Fuh model and the Choudhury-Yang model to assess relative contributions of vegetation and climate changes to annual runoff variations from 2000 to 2011 in forested landscape (forest coverage > 30%) across the globe...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140586/annual-global-mean-temperature-explains-reproductive-success-in-a-marine-vertebrate-from-1955-2010
#10
Robert A Mauck, Donald C Dearborn, Charles E Huntington
The salient feature of anthropogenic climate change over the last century has been the rise in global mean temperature. However, global mean temperature is not used as an explanatory variable in studies of population-level response to climate change, perhaps because the signal to noise ratio of this gross measure makes its effect difficult to detect in any but the longest of datasets. Using a population of Leach's storm-petrels breeding in the Bay of Fundy, we tested whether local, regional, or global temperature measures are the best index of reproductive success in the face of climate change in species that travel widely between and within seasons...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134520/benchmarking-the-scientific-research-on-wastewater-energy-nexus-by-using-bibliometric-analysis
#11
Tianlong Zheng, Pengyu Li, Zhining Shi, Jianguo Liu
With an exponential increase in urbanization and industrialization, water pollution is an inevitable consequence of relatively lagging wastewater treatment facilities. The conventional activated sludge process for wastewater treatment primarily emphasizes the removal of harmful substances to maintain increasingly stringent effluent discharged standards, which is considered an energy-intensive technique. Therefore, innovative and sustainable wastewater treatment should pay more attention to energy and resource recovery in dealing with fossil fuel depletion, global-scale energy security, and climate change...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#12
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134149/the-response-of-soil-microbial-communities-to-variation-in-annual-precipitation-depends-on-soil-nutritional-status-in-an-oligotrophic-desert
#13
Cristina Montiel-González, Yunuen Tapia-Torres, Valeria Souza, Felipe García-Oliva
Background: Soil microbial communities (SMC) play a central role in the structure and function of desert ecosystems. However, the high variability of annual precipitation could results in the alteration of SMC and related biological processes depending on soil water potential. The nature of the physiological adjustments made by SMC in order to obtain energy and nutrients remains unclear under different soil resource availabilities in desert ecosystems. In order to examine this dynamic, the present study examined the effects of variation in annual precipitation on physiological adjustments by the SMC across two vegetation-soil systems of different soil organic matter input in an oligotrophic desert ecosystem...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134063/diverse-fen-plant-communities-enhance-carbon-related-multifunctionality-but-do-not-mitigate-negative-effects-of-drought
#14
Bjorn J M Robroek, Vincent E J Jassey, Boudewijn Beltman, Mariet M Hefting
Global change, like droughts, can destabilize the carbon sink function of peatlands, either directly or indirectly through changes in plant community composition. While the effects of drought and plant community composition on individual carbon (C) related processes are well understood, their effect on multiple C-related processes simultaneously-multifunctionality-is poorly known. We studied the effect of drought on four C-related processes (net and gross CO2 exchange, methane fluxes, and dissolved organic carbon content) in a plant removal experiment...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134057/a-20-year-investigation-of-declining-leatherback-hatching-success-implications-of-climate-variation
#15
Anthony R Rafferty, Christopher P Johnstone, Jeanne A Garner, Richard D Reina
Unprecedented increases in air temperature and erratic precipitation patterns are predicted throughout the twenty-first century as a result of climate change. A recent global analysis of leatherback turtle hatchling output predicts that the nesting site at Sandy Point National Wildlife Refuge (SPNWR) will experience the most significant regional climate alterations. We aimed to identify how local air temperatures and precipitation patterns influenced within-nest mortality and overall hatchling output at this site between 1990 and 2010...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133902/a-test-of-the-hierarchical-model-of-litter-decomposition
#16
Mark A Bradford, G F Ciska Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M Bradford, Aimee T Classen, J Hans C Cornelissen, Thomas W Crowther, Jonathan R De Long, Gregoire T Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S Maynard, Gregory S Newman, Richard S P Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A Wardle, William R Wieder, Stephen A Wood, Wim H van der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of decomposition at regional to global scales is climate (temperature and moisture), with the controlling effects of decomposers negligible at such broad spatial scales...
November 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133863/a-real-time-global-warming-index
#17
K Haustein, M R Allen, P M Forster, F E L Otto, D M Mitchell, H D Matthews, D J Frame
We propose a simple real-time index of global human-induced warming and assess its robustness to uncertainties in climate forcing and short-term climate fluctuations. This index provides improved scientific context for temperature stabilisation targets and has the potential to decrease the volatility of climate policy. We quantify uncertainties arising from temperature observations, climate radiative forcings, internal variability and the model response. Our index and the associated rate of human-induced warming is compatible with a range of other more sophisticated methods to estimate the human contribution to observed global temperature change...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133415/phenological-shifts-conserve-thermal-niches-in-north-american-birds-and-reshape-expectations-for-climate-driven-range-shifts
#18
Jacob B Socolar, Peter N Epanchin, Steven R Beissinger, Morgan W Tingley
Species respond to climate change in two dominant ways: range shifts in latitude or elevation and phenological shifts of life-history events. Range shifts are widely viewed as the principal mechanism for thermal niche tracking, and phenological shifts in birds and other consumers are widely understood as the principal mechanism for tracking temporal peaks in biotic resources. However, phenological and range shifts each present simultaneous opportunities for temperature and resource tracking, although the possible role for phenological shifts in thermal niche tracking has been widely overlooked...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133408/ecosystem-management-and-land-conservation-can-substantially-contribute-to-california-s-climate-mitigation-goals
#19
D Richard Cameron, David C Marvin, Jonathan M Remucal, Michelle C Passero
Modeling efforts focused on future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy and other sectors in California have shown varying capacities to meet the emissions reduction targets established by the state. These efforts have not included potential reductions from changes in ecosystem management, restoration, and conservation. We examine the scale of contributions from selected activities in natural and agricultural lands and assess the degree to which these actions could help the state achieve its 2030 and 2050 climate mitigation goals under alternative implementation scenarios...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132211/aggregation-behavior-of-dissolved-black-carbon-implications-for-vertical-mass-flux-and-fractionation-in-aquatic-systems
#20
Fanchao Xu, Chenhui Wei, Qingqing Zeng, Xuening Li, Pedro J J Alvarez, Qilin Li, Xiaolei Qu, Dongqiang Zhu
The fluvial export of dissolved black carbon (DBC) is a major land-ocean flux in the global black carbon cycle, affecting the size of refractory carbon pool in the oceans. The aggregation behavior of DBC is a significant determinant of its transport and vertical mass flux. In this study, the aggregation kinetics and interaction energy of DBC leached from biochar were investigated. DBC was mainly stabilized by hydration force and underwent structural compacting in divalent cation solutions. Na+ and Mg2+ had limited impact on the colloidal stability of DBC due to the strong hydration of these cations...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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