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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777620/vegetation-growth-enhancement-in-urban-environments-of-the-conterminous-united-states
#1
Wenxiao Jia, Shuqing Zhao, Shuguang Liu
Cities are natural laboratories for studying vegetation responses to global environmental changes because of their climate, atmospheric, and biogeochemical conditions. However, few holistic studies have been conducted on the impact of urbanization on vegetation growth. We decomposed the overall impacts of urbanization on vegetation growth into direct (replacement of original land surfaces by impervious built-up) and indirect (urban environments) components, using a conceptual framework and remotely-sensed data for 377 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the conterminous United States (CONUS) in 2001, 2006, and 2011...
May 19, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775945/greenhouse-gas-emissions-reduction-in-different-economic-sectors-mitigation-measures-health-co-benefits-knowledge-gaps-and-policy-implications
#2
REVIEW
Jinghong Gao, Hongli Hou, Yunkai Zhai, Alistair Woodward, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Sari Kovats, Paul Wilkinson, Liping Li, Xiaoqin Song, Lei Xu, Bohan Meng, Xiaobo Liu, Jun Wang, Jie Zhao, Qiyong Liu
To date, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mitigation strategies and the accompanying health co-benefits in different economic sectors have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review comprehensively the evidence on GHG mitigation measures and the related health co-benefits, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to promote further development and implementation of climate change response policies. Evidence on GHG emissions, abatement measures and related health co-benefits has been observed at regional, national and global levels, involving both low- and high-income societies...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774975/signals-of-large-scale-climate-drivers-hatchery-enhancement-and-marine-factors-in-yukon-river-chinook-salmon-survival-revealed-with-a-bayesian-life-history-model
#3
Curry J Cunningham, Peter A H Westley, Milo D Adkison
Understanding how species might respond to climate change involves disentangling the influence of co-occurring environmental factors on population dynamics, and is especially problematic for migratory species like Pacific salmon that move between ecosystems. To date, debate surrounding the causes of recent declines in Yukon River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance has centered on whether factors in freshwater or marine environments control variation in survival, and how these populations at the northern extremity of the species range will respond to climate change...
May 18, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774957/progress-and-challenges-in-consolidating-the-management-of-amazonian-protected-areas-and-indigenous-territories
#4
Raymond E Gullison, Jared Hardner
Achieving the effective management of all existing protected areas and indigenous territories in the Amazon Biome may be needed to avoid a deforestation "tipping point" beyond which regional climatic feedbacks and global climate change interact to catalyze irreversible drying and savannization of large portions of the biome. However, the time and money required to consolidate the effective management of all types of protected sites in the Amazon is still poorly understood. At present, protected areas and indigenous territories cover 45...
May 18, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773751/the-projected-effect-on-insects-vertebrates-and-plants-of-limiting-global-warming-to-1-5%C3%A2-c-rather-than-2%C3%A2-c
#5
R Warren, J Price, E Graham, N Forstenhaeusler, J VanDerWal
In the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the United Nations is pursuing efforts to limit global warming to 1.5°C, whereas earlier aspirations focused on a 2°C limit. With current pledges, corresponding to ~3.2°C warming, climatically determined geographic range losses of >50% are projected in ~49% of insects, 44% of plants, and 26% of vertebrates. At 2°C, this falls to 18% of insects, 16% of plants, and 8% of vertebrates and at 1.5°C, to 6% of insects, 8% of plants, and 4% of vertebrates. When warming is limited to 1...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772207/the-role-of-farming-and-rural-development-as-central-to-our-diets
#6
Jessica Fanzo
Farming and rural development are central to the diversity of global food systems and diets, both significant factors in determining the nutrition and health outcomes of the world's population. Diets are not static and indeed are changing due to globalization, urbanization and demographic shifts. In addition, multiple burdens of malnutrition (both undernutrition and overweight and obesity) are not improving fast enough and in some cases, reversing for the worse. Unhealthy diets are major contributors to these burdens...
May 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772087/environmental-change-and-predator-diversity-drive-alpha-and-beta-diversity-in-freshwater-macro-and-microorganisms
#7
Pablo Augusto P Antiqueira, Owen L Petchey, Viviane Piccin Dos Santos, Valéria Maia de Oliveira, Gustavo Quevedo Romero
Global biodiversity is eroding due to anthropogenic causes such as climate change, habitat loss, and trophic simplification of biological communities. Most studies address only isolated causes within a single group of organisms; however, biological groups of different trophic levels may respond in particular ways to different environmental impacts. Our study used natural microcosms to investigate the predicted individual and interactive effects of warming, changes in top predator diversity, and habitat size on the alpha and beta diversity of macrofauna, microfauna and bacteria...
May 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770964/below-ground-biotic-interactions-moderated-the-postglacial-range-dynamics-of-trees
#8
Jason Pither, Brian J Pickles, Suzanne W Simard, Alejandro Ordonez, John W Williams
Tree range shifts during geohistorical global change events provide a useful real-world model for how future changes in forest biomes may proceed. In North America, during the last deglaciation, the distributions of tree taxa varied significantly as regards the rate and direction of their responses for reasons that remain unclear. Local-scale processes such as establishment, growth, and resilience to environmental stress ultimately influence range dynamics. Despite the fact that interactions between trees and soil biota are known to influence local-scale processes profoundly, evidence linking below-ground interactions to distribution dynamics remains scarce...
May 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770047/emerging-infectious-diseases-prediction-and-detection
#9
N H Ogden, P AbdelMalik, Jrc Pulliam
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), including West Nile virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Lyme disease, have had a direct effect within Canada, while many more EIDs such as Zika, chikungunya and Ebola are a threat to Canadians while travelling. Over 75% of EIDs affecting humans are, or were originally, zoonoses (infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans). There are two main ways by which infectious diseases can emerge: by changes in their geographical ranges and by adaptive emergence, a genetic change in a microorganism that results in it becoming capable of invading a new niche, often by jumping to a new host species such as humans...
October 5, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769728/emerging-trends-in-global-freshwater-availability
#10
M Rodell, J S Famiglietti, D N Wiese, J T Reager, H K Beaudoing, F W Landerer, M-H Lo
Freshwater availability is changing worldwide. Here we quantify 34 trends in terrestrial water storage observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites during 2002-2016 and categorize their drivers as natural interannual variability, unsustainable groundwater consumption, climate change or combinations thereof. Several of these trends had been lacking thorough investigation and attribution, including massive changes in northwestern China and the Okavango Delta. Others are consistent with climate model predictions...
May 16, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769652/niche-conservatism-of-aedes-albopictus-and-aedes-aegypti-two-mosquito-species-with-different-invasion-histories
#11
Sarah Cunze, Judith Kochmann, Lisa K Koch, Sven Klimpel
Biological invasions have been associated with niche changes; however, their occurrence is still debated. We assess whether climatic niches between native and non-native ranges have changed during the invasion process using two globally spread mosquitoes as model species, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. Considering the different time spans since their invasions (>300 vs. 30-40 years), niche changes were expected to be more likely for Ae. aegypti than for Ae. albopictus. We used temperature and precipitation variables as descriptors for the realized climatic niches and different niche metrics to detect niche dynamics in the native and non-native ranges...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768696/the-isohydric-trap-a-proposed-feedback-between-water-shortage-stomatal-regulation-and-nutrient-acquisition-drives-differential-growth-and-survival-of-european-pines-under-climatic-dryness
#12
D Salazar-Tortosa, J Castro, P Villar-Salvador, B Viñegla, L Matías, A Michelsen, R Rubio de Casas, J I Querejeta
Climatic dryness imposes limitations on vascular plant growth by reducing stomatal conductance, thereby decreasing CO2 uptake and transpiration. Given that transpiration-driven water flow is required for nutrient uptake, climatic stress-induced nutrient deficit could be a key mechanism for decreased plant performance under prolonged drought. We propose the existence of an "isohydric trap", a dryness-induced detrimental feedback leading to nutrient deficit and stoichiometry imbalance in strict isohydric species...
May 16, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768668/assessing-the-effects-of-information-about-global-population-growth-on-risk-perceptions-and-support-for-mitigation-and-prevention-strategies
#13
Ian G J Dawson
The human population is forecast to increase by 3-4 billion people during this century and many scientists have expressed concerns that this could increase the likelihood of certain adverse events (e.g., climate change and resource shortages). Recent research shows that these concerns are mirrored in public risk perceptions and that these perceptions correlate with a willingness to adopt mitigation behaviors (e.g., reduce resource consumption) and preventative actions (e.g., support actions to limit growth)...
May 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768443/use-of-existing-hydrographic-infrastructure-to-forecast-the-environmental-spawning-conditions-for-eastern-baltic-cod
#14
Burkhard von Dewitz, Susanne Tamm, Katharina Höflich, Rüdiger Voss, Hans-Harald Hinrichsen
The semi-enclosed nature and estuarine characteristics, together with its strongly alternating bathymetry, make the Baltic Sea prone to much stronger interannual variations in the abiotic environment, than other spawning habitats of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Processes determining salinity and oxygen conditions in the basins are influenced both by long term gradual climate change, e.g. global warming, but also by short-term meteorological variations and events. Specifically one main factor influencing cod spawning conditions, the advection of highly saline and well-oxygenated water masses from the North Sea, is observed in irregular frequencies and causes strong interannual variations in stock productivity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765634/noise-induced-transitions-and-shifts-in-a-climate-vegetation-feedback-model
#15
Dmitri V Alexandrov, Irina A Bashkirtseva, Lev B Ryashko
Motivated by the extremely important role of the Earth's vegetation dynamics in climate changes, we study the stochastic variability of a simple climate-vegetation system. In the case of deterministic dynamics, the system has one stable equilibrium and limit cycle or two stable equilibria corresponding to two opposite (cold and warm) climate-vegetation states. These states are divided by a separatrix going across a point of unstable equilibrium. Some possible stochastic scenarios caused by different externally induced natural and anthropogenic processes inherit properties of deterministic behaviour and drastically change the system dynamics...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765385/optimizing-winter-wheat-resilience-to-climate-change-in-rain-fed-crop-systems-of-turkey-and-iran
#16
Marta S Lopes, Conxita Royo, Fanny Alvaro, Miguel Sanchez-Garcia, Emel Ozer, Fatih Ozdemir, Mehmet Karaman, Mozaffar Roustaii, Mohammad R Jalal-Kamali, Diego Pequeno
Erratic weather patterns associated with increased temperatures and decreasing rainfall pose unique challenges for wheat breeders playing a key part in the fight to ensure global food security. Within rain fed winter wheat areas of Turkey and Iran, unusual weather patterns may prevent attaining maximum potential increases in winter wheat genetic gains. This is primarily related to the fact that the yield ranking of tested genotypes may change from one year to the next. Changing weather patterns may interfere with the decisions breeders make about the ideotype(s) they should aim for during selection...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765048/sensible-heat-has-significantly-affected-the-global-hydrological-cycle-over-the-historical-period
#17
G Myhre, B H Samset, Ø Hodnebrog, T Andrews, O Boucher, G Faluvegi, D Fläschner, P M Forster, M Kasoar, V Kharin, A Kirkevåg, J-F Lamarque, D Olivié, T B Richardson, D Shawki, D Shindell, K P Shine, C W Stjern, T Takemura, A Voulgarakis
Globally, latent heating associated with a change in precipitation is balanced by changes to atmospheric radiative cooling and sensible heat fluxes. Both components can be altered by climate forcing mechanisms and through climate feedbacks, but the impacts of climate forcing and feedbacks on sensible heat fluxes have received much less attention. Here we show, using a range of climate modelling results, that changes in sensible heat are the dominant contributor to the present global-mean precipitation change since preindustrial time, because the radiative impact of forcings and feedbacks approximately compensate...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764954/survey-of-uk-horse-owners-knowledge-of-equine-arboviruses-and-disease-vectors
#18
Gail Elaine Chapman, Matthew Baylis, Debra C Archer
Increased globalisation and climate change have led to concern about the increasing risk of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) outbreaks globally. An outbreak of equine arboviral disease in northern Europe could impact significantly on equine welfare, and result in economic losses. Early identification of arboviral disease by horse owners may help limit disease spread. In order to determine what horse owners understand about arboviral diseases of horses and their vectors, the authors undertook an open, cross-sectional online survey of UK horse owners...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763879/plant-and-vegetation-functional-responses-to-cumulative-high-nitrogen-deposition-in-rear-edge-heathlands
#19
Angela Taboada, Javier Calvo-Fernández, Elena Marcos, Leonor Calvo
Elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is a major driver of change, altering the structure/functioning of nutrient-poor Calluna vulgaris-heathlands over Europe. These effects amply proven for north-western/central heathlands may, however, vary across the ecosystem's distribution, especially at the range limits, as heathlands are highly vulnerable to land-use changes combined with present climate change. This is an often overlooked and greatly understudied aspect of the ecology of heathlands facing global change...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763877/impacts-and-responses-to-environmental-change-in-coastal-livelihoods-of-south-west-bangladesh
#20
Mostafa A R Hossain, Munir Ahmed, Elena Ojea, Jose A Fernandes
Aquatic ecosystems are of global importance for maintaining high levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and for the number of livelihoods dependent on them. In Bangladesh, coastal and delta communities rely on these systems for a livelihood, and the sustainability of the productivity is seriously threatened by both climate change and unsustainable management. These multiple drivers of change shape the livelihood dependence and adaptation responses, where a better understanding is needed to achieve sustainable management in these systems, while maintaining and improving dependent livelihoods...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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