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Global climate change

Xia Zhu-Barker, Shannon K Bailey, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Martin Burger, William R Horwath
The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH4 emission of 254±76gCday(-1) dry weight (DW) Mg(-1) and lowest average N2O emission of 152±21mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N2O emissions (342±41mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management
Olga De Castro, Antonietta Di Maio, Mirko Di Febbraro, Gennaro Imparato, Michele Innangi, Errol Véla, Bruno Menale
The Mediterranean coastline is a dynamic and complex system which owes its complexity to its past and present vicissitudes, e.g. complex tectonic history, climatic fluctuations, and prolonged coexistence with human activities. A plant species that is widespread in this habitat is the sea daffodil, Pancratium maritimum (Amaryllidaceae), which is a perennial clonal geophyte of the coastal sands of the Mediterranean and neighbouring areas, well adapted to the stressful conditions of sand dune environments. In this study, an integrated approach was used, combining genetic and environmental data with a niche modelling approach, aimed to investigate: (1) the effect of climate change on the geographic range of this species at different times {past (last inter-glacial, LIG; and last glacial maximum, LGM), present (CURR), near-future (FUT)} and (2) the possible influence of environmental variables on the genetic structure of this species in the current period...
2016: PloS One
Pamela Louise M Tolentino, Ate Poortinga, Hideki Kanamaru, Saskia Keesstra, Jerry Maroulis, Carlos Primo C David, Coen J Ritsema
The Philippines is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to the potential impacts of climate change. To fully understand these potential impacts, especially on future hydrological regimes and water resources (2010-2050), 24 river basins located in the major agricultural provinces throughout the Philippines were assessed. Calibrated using existing historical interpolated climate data, the STREAM model was used to assess future river flows derived from three global climate models (BCM2, CNCM3 and MPEH5) under two plausible scenarios (A1B and A2) and then compared with baseline scenarios (20th century)...
2016: PloS One
Dennis Baldocchi, Youngryel Ryu, Trevor Keenan
A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise...
2016: F1000Research
Peng-Fei Xia, Guo-Chang Zhang, Berkley Walker, Seung-Oh Seo, Suryang Kwak, Jingjing Liu, Heejin Kim, Donald Ort, Shu-Guang Wang, Yong-Su Jin
Global climate change caused by the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses (GHGs) is a grand challenge to humanity. To alleviate the trend, the consumption of fossil fuels needs to be largely reduced and alternative energy technologies capable of controlling GHG emissions are anticipated. In this study, we introduced a synthetic reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP) into a xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SR8 to achieve simultaneous lignocellulosic bioethanol production and carbon dioxide recycling...
October 17, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Magali Lucia, Hallvard Strøm, Paco Bustamante, Geir W Gabrielsen
The ivory gull is a high-Arctic species considered endangered in most parts of its breeding range. Ivory gulls must cope with both the reduction of sea ice cover triggered by climate change and increasing contaminant loads due to changes in global contaminant pathways. The objective of this study was to assess the concentration of 14 essential and nonessential trace elements at four colonies of ivory gulls breeding on Barentsøya, Svalbard, and the relationship between contaminant exposure and the diet of individuals...
October 15, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Asma Asemaninejad, R Greg Thorn, Zoë Lindo
Peatlands play an important role in global climate change through sequestration of atmospheric CO2. Climate-driven changes in the structure of fungal communities in boreal peatlands that favor saprotrophic fungi can substantially impact carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in these crucial ecosystems. In a mesocosm study using a full factorial design, 100 intact peat monoliths, complete with living Sphagnum and above-ground vascular vegetation, were subjected to three climate change variables (increased temperature, reduced water table, and elevated CO2 concentrations)...
October 15, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Giulia Gatti, Carlo Nike Bianchi, Monica Montefalcone, Sara Venturini, Giovanni Diviacco, Carla Morri
The dearth of long-time series hampers the measurement of the ecosystem change that followed the global marine climate shift of the 1980-90s. The sessile communities of Portofino Promontory reefs (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean) have been discontinuously studied since the 1950s. Collating information from various sources, three periods of investigations have been distinguished: 1) 1950-70s; 2) 1980-90s; 3) 2000-10s. A cooler phase in time 1 was followed by a rapid warming in time 2, to stabilize at about 0...
October 12, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Brett L Bruyere, Jonathan Trimarco, Saruni Lemungesi
BACKGROUND: The Samburu region of northern Kenya is undergoing significant change, driven by factors including greater value on formal education, improvements in infrastructure and development, a shift from community to private ownership of land, increased sedentary lifestyles and global climate change. One outcome of these changes are an increasingly greater likelihood for adolescent boys to be enrolled in school rather than herding livestock on behalf of the family in a landscape shared with numerous native vegetation and wildlife species...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Jordan M West, Catherine A Courtney, Anna T Hamilton, Britt A Parker, Susan H Julius, Jennie Hoffman, Karen H Koltes, Petra MacGowan
The interactive and cumulative impacts of climate change on natural resources such as coral reefs present numerous challenges for conservation planning and management. Climate change adaptation is complex due to climate-stressor interactions across multiple spatial and temporal scales. This leaves decision makers worldwide faced with local, regional, and global-scale threats to ecosystem processes and services, occurring over time frames that require both near-term and long-term planning. Thus there is a need for structured approaches to adaptation planning that integrate existing methods for vulnerability assessment with design and evaluation of effective adaptation responses...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Management
Margarida Rocheta, João L Coito, Miguel J N Ramos, Luísa Carvalho, Jörg D Becker, Pablo Carbonell-Bejerano, Sara Amâncio
BACKGROUND: Predicted climate changes announce an increase of extreme environmental conditions including drought and excessive heat and light in classical viticultural regions. Thus, understanding how grapevine responds to these conditions and how different genotypes can adapt, is crucial for informed decisions on accurate viticultural actions. Global transcriptome analyses are useful for this purpose as the response to these abiotic stresses involves the interplay of complex and diverse cascades of physiological, cellular and molecular events...
October 12, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Israel Estrada-Contreras, Miguel Equihua, Javier Laborde, Enrique Martínez Meyer, Lázaro R Sánchez-Velásquez
Climate change is recognized as an important threat to global biodiversity because it increases the risk of extinction of many species on the planet. Mexico is a megadiverse country and native tree species such as red cedar (Cedrela odorata) can be used to maintain forests while helping mitigate climate change, because it is considered a fast growing pioneer species with great economic potential in the forestry industry. In order to assess possible shifts in areas suitable for C. odorata plantations in Mexico with ecological niche models, we used the MaxLike algorithm, climate variables, the geo-referenced records of this species, three general circulation models and three scenarios of future emissions...
2016: PloS One
Brian Helmuth, Francis Choi, Allison Matzelle, Jessica L Torossian, Scott L Morello, K A S Mislan, Lauren Yamane, Denise Strickland, P Lauren Szathmary, Sarah E Gilman, Alyson Tockstein, Thomas J Hilbish, Michael T Burrows, Anne Marie Power, Elizabeth Gosling, Nova Mieszkowska, Christopher D G Harley, Michael Nishizaki, Emily Carrington, Bruce Menge, Laura Petes, Melissa M Foley, Angela Johnson, Megan Poole, Mae M Noble, Erin L Richmond, Matt Robart, Jonathan Robinson, Jerod Sapp, Jackie Sones, Bernardo R Broitman, Mark W Denny, Katharine J Mach, Luke P Miller, Michael O'Donnell, Philip Ross, Gretchen E Hofmann, Mackenzie Zippay, Carol Blanchette, J A Macfarlan, Eugenio Carpizo-Ituarte, Benjamin Ruttenberg, Carlos E Peña Mejía, Christopher D McQuaid, Justin Lathlean, Cristián J Monaco, Katy R Nicastro, Gerardo Zardi
At a proximal level, the physiological impacts of global climate change on ectothermic organisms are manifest as changes in body temperatures. Especially for plants and animals exposed to direct solar radiation, body temperatures can be substantially different from air temperatures. We deployed biomimetic sensors that approximate the thermal characteristics of intertidal mussels at 71 sites worldwide, from 1998-present. Loggers recorded temperatures at 10-30 min intervals nearly continuously at multiple intertidal elevations...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Data
Melissa Reyes-Fox, Heidi Steltzer, Daniel R LeCain, Gregory S McMaster
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have been steadily increasing since the Industrial Era and contribute to concurrent increases in global temperatures. Many observational studies suggest climate warming alone contributes to a longer growing season. To determine the relative effect of warming on plant phenology, we investigated the individual and joint effects of warming and CO2 enrichment on a mixed-grass prairie plant community by following the development of six common grassland species and recording four major life history events...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Data
Mona Sarfaty, Jennifer Kreslake, Gary Ewart, Tee L Guidotti, George D Thurston, John R Balmes, Edward W Maibach
The American Thoracic Society (ATS), in collaboration with George Mason University, surveyed international members of the society to assess perceptions, clinical experiences, and preferred policy responses related to global climate change. A recruitment email was sent by the ATS President in October 2015 to 5,013 international members. Subsequently, four reminder emails were sent to nonrespondents. Responses were received from 489 members in 68 countries; the response rate was 9.8%. Half of respondents reported working in countries in Asia (25%) or Europe (25%), with the remainder in South America (18%), North America (Canada and Mexico) (18%), Australia or New Zealand (9%), and Africa (6%)...
October 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
L D Zhu, Z H Li, E Hiltunen
In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae...
2016: BioMed Research International
Karline Soetaert, Christian Mohn, Anna Rengstorf, Anthony Grehan, Dick van Oevelen
Cold-water corals (CWCs) form large mounds on the seafloor that are hotspots of biodiversity in the deep sea, but it remains enigmatic how CWCs can thrive in this food-limited environment. Here, we infer from model simulations that the interaction between tidal currents and CWC-formed mounds induces downwelling events of surface water that brings organic matter to 600-m deep CWCs. This positive feedback between CWC growth on carbonate mounds and enhanced food supply is essential for their sustenance in the deep sea and represents an example of ecosystem engineering of unparalleled magnitude...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
M Z M Amin, A J Shaaban, A Ercan, K Ishida, M L Kavvas, Z Q Chen, S Jang
Impacts of climate change on the hydrologic processes under future climate change conditions were assessed over Muda and Dungun watersheds of Peninsular Malaysia by means of a coupled regional climate and physically-based hydrology model utilizing an ensemble of future climate change projections. An ensemble of 15 different future climate realizations from coarse resolution global climate models' (GCMs) projections for the 21st century was dynamically downscaled to 6km resolution over Peninsular Malaysia by a regional climate model, which was then coupled with the watershed hydrology model WEHY through the atmospheric boundary layer over Muda and Dungun watersheds...
October 7, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zhenzhu Xu, Yanhui Hou, Lihua Zhang, Tao Liu, Guangsheng Zhou
Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two years, whereas warming manipulation had no significant effect...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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