Read by QxMD icon Read

Global climate change

Anaid Rosas-Navarro, Gerald Langer, Patrizia Ziveri
The sinking properties of three strains of Emiliania huxleyi in response to temperature changes were examined. We used a recently proposed approach to calculate sinking velocities from coccosphere architecture, which has the advantage to be applicable not only to culture samples, but also to field samples including fossil material. Our data show that temperature in the sub-optimal range impacts sinking velocity of E. huxleyi. This response is widespread among strains isolated in different locations and moreover comparatively predictable, as indicated by the similar slopes of the linear regressions...
2018: PloS One
Dong Chen, Tatiana V Loboda, Tao He, Yi Zhang, Shunlin Liang
The Siberian larch forests, taking up about a fifth of the global boreal biome, are different from the North American boreal forests in that they generally do not undergo a secondary succession. While wildfires in the boreal forests in North America have been shown to exert a cooling effect on the climate system through a sharp increase in surface albedo associated with canopy removal and species composition change during succession, the magnitude of the surface forcing resulting from fire-induced albedo change and its longevity in Siberia have not been previously quantified...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jaan Pärn, Jos T A Verhoeven, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Nancy B Dise, Sami Ullah, Anto Aasa, Sergey Egorov, Mikk Espenberg, Järvi Järveoja, Jyrki Jauhiainen, Kuno Kasak, Leif Klemedtsson, Ain Kull, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Elena D Lapshina, Annalea Lohila, Krista Lõhmus, Martin Maddison, William J Mitsch, Christoph Müller, Ülo Niinemets, Bruce Osborne, Taavi Pae, Jüri-Ott Salm, Fotis Sgouridis, Kristina Sohar, Kaido Soosaar, Kathryn Storey, Alar Teemusk, Moses M Tenywa, Julien Tournebize, Jaak Truu, Gert Veber, Jorge A Villa, Seint Sann Zaw, Ülo Mander
Nitrous oxide (N2 O) is a powerful greenhouse gas and the main driver of stratospheric ozone depletion. Since soils are the largest source of N2 O, predicting soil response to changes in climate or land use is central to understanding and managing N2 O. Here we find that N2 O flux can be predicted by models incorporating soil nitrate concentration (NO3 - ), water content and temperature using a global field survey of N2 O emissions and potential driving factors across a wide range of organic soils. N2 O emissions increase with NO3 - and follow a bell-shaped distribution with water content...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Jian Zhao, Amy Bower, Jiayan Yang, Xiaopei Lin
The ocean's role in global climate change largely depends on its heat transport. Therefore, understanding the oceanic meridional heat transport (MHT) variability is a fundamental issue. Prevailing observational and modeling evidence suggests that MHT variability is primarily determined by the large-scale ocean circulation. Here, using new in situ observations in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic Ocean and an eddy-resolving numerical model, we show that energetic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of about 10-100 km profoundly modulate MHT variability on time scales from intra-seasonal to interannual...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
A Justin Nowakowski, Luke O Frishkoff, Michelle E Thompson, Tatiana M Smith, Brian D Todd
Habitat conversion is driving biodiversity loss and restructuring species assemblages across the globe. Responses to habitat conversion vary widely, however, and little is known about the degree to which shared evolutionary history underlies changes in species richness and composition. We analyzed data from 48 studies, comprising 438 species on five continents, to understand how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of amphibian assemblages shifts in response to habitat conversion. We found that evolutionary history explains the majority of variation in species' responses to habitat conversion, with specific clades scattered across the amphibian tree of life being favored by human land uses...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A C Ruiz-Fernández, V Carnero-Bravo, J A Sanchez-Cabeza, L H Pérez-Bernal, O A Amaya-Monterrosa, S Bojórquez-Sánchez, P G López-Mendoza, J G Cardoso-Mohedano, R B Dunbar, D A Mucciarone, A J Marmolejo-Rodríguez
Coastal vegetated habitats can be important sinks of organic carbon (Corg ) and mitigate global warming by sequestering significant quantities of atmospheric CO2 and storing sedimentary Corg for long periods, although their Corg burial and storage capacity may be affected by on-going sea level rise and human intervention. Geochemical data from published210 Pb-dated sediment cores, collected from low-energy microtidal coastal wetlands in El Salvador (Jiquilisco Bay) and in Mexico (Salada Lagoon; Estero de Urias Lagoon; Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve) were revisited to assess temporal changes (within the last 100years) of Corg concentrations, storage and burial rates in tropical salt marshes under the influence of sea level rise and contrasting anthropization degree...
March 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuchun Ma, Graeme Schwenke, Liying Sun, De Li Liu, Bin Wang, Bo Yang
Limited information exists on potential impacts of climate change on nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions by including N2 -fixing legumes in crop rotations from rain-fed cropping systems. Data from two 3-yr crop rotations in northern NSW, Australia, viz. chickpea-wheat-barley (CpWB) and canola-wheat-barley (CaWB), were used to gain an insight on the role of legumes in mitigation of N2 O emissions. High-frequency N2 O fluxes measured with an automated system of static chambers were utilized to test the applicability of Denitrification and Decomposition model...
March 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Emerson Pontes-da-Silva, William E Magnusson, Barry Sinervo, Gabriel H Caetano, Donald B Miles, Guarino R Colli, Luisa M Diele-Viegas, Jessica Fenker, Juan C Santos, Fernanda P Werneck
Temperature increases can impact biodiversity and predicting their effects is one of the main challenges facing global climate-change research. Ectotherms are sensitive to temperature change and, although predictions indicate that tropical species are highly vulnerable to global warming, they remain one of the least studied groups with respect to the extent of physiological variation and local extinction risks. We model the extinction risks for a tropical heliothermic teiid lizard (Kentropyx calcarata) integrating previously obtained information on intraspecific phylogeographic structure, eco-physiological traits and contemporary species distributions in the Amazon rainforest and its ecotone to the Cerrado savannah...
April 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Rong Hui, Ruiming Zhao, Guang Song, Yixuan Li, Yang Zhao, Yanli Wang
A simulation experiment was conducted to explore the influence of enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, water deficit, and their combination on UV-absorbing compounds and osmotic adjustment substances of mosses Bryum argenteum and Didymodon vinealis isolated from biological soil crusts (BSCs) growing in a revegetated area of the Tengger Desert, China. Four levels of UV-B radiation and two gradients of water regime were employed. Compared with their controls, amounts of total flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble sugars, and soluble proteins significantly decreased (p < 0...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Monica Montefalcone, Giada De Falco, Ettore Nepote, Martina Canessa, Marco Bertolino, Giorgio Bavestrello, Carla Morri, Carlo Nike Bianchi
Marine caves are unique and vulnerable habitats exhibiting high biodiversity and heterogeneity, but threatened by multiple global and local disturbances. Marine caves, although widely distributed along the Mediterranean coast, suffer for the lack of quantitative data on their structure and function, which hinder their conservation status assessment. Thanks to the availability of a nearly 30-year-long series of data (1986-2013), we evaluated ecosystem change in the Bergeggi marine cave (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean), a cave with a complex shape and high habitat heterogeneity...
February 21, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, David J Eldridge, Fernando T Maestre, Senani B Karunaratne, Pankaj Trivedi, Peter B Reich, Brajesh K Singh
The technical comment from Sanderman provides a unique opportunity to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms explaining the role of paleoclimate in the contemporary distribution of global soil C content, as reported in our article. Sanderman argues that the role of paleoclimate in predicting soil C content might be accounted for by using slowly changing soil properties as predictors. This is a key point that we highlighted in the supplementary materials of our article, which demonstrated, to the degree possible given available data, that soil properties alone cannot account for the unique portion of the variation in soil C explained by paleoclimate...
March 2018: Science Advances
Dominique Berteaux, Marylène Ricard, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Nicolas Casajus, Catherine Périé, Frieda Beauregard, Sylvie de Blois
The Northern Biodiversity Paradox predicts that, despite its globally negative effects on biodiversity, climate change will increase biodiversity in northern regions where many species are limited by low temperatures. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of a northern network of 1,749 protected areas spread over >600,000 km2 in Quebec, Canada. Using ecological niche modeling, we calculated potential changes in the probability of occurrence of 529 species to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on (1) species gain, loss, turnover, and richness in protected areas, (2) representativity of protected areas, and (3) extent of species ranges located in protected areas...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lu Shen, Loretta J Mickley, Eric M Leibensperger, Mingwei Li
We find that summertime air quality in the eastern U.S. displays strong dependence on North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, resulting from large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions. Using observations, reanalysis data sets, and climate model simulations, we further identify a multidecadal variability in surface air quality driven by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). In one-half cycle (~35 years) of the AMO from cold to warm phase, summertime maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations increase by 1-4 ppbv and PM2...
December 28, 2017: Geophysical Research Letters
J Leifeld, L Menichetti
Soil carbon sequestration and avoidable emissions through peatland restoration are both strategies to tackle climate change. Here we compare their potential and environmental costs regarding nitrogen and land demand. In the event that no further areas are exploited, drained peatlands will cumulatively release 80.8 Gt carbon and 2.3 Gt nitrogen. This corresponds to a contemporary annual greenhouse gas emission of 1.91 (0.31-3.38) Gt CO2 -eq. that could be saved with peatland restoration. Soil carbon sequestration on all agricultural land has comparable mitigation potential...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Yunsong Mu, Zhen Wang, Fengchang Wu, Buqing Zhong, Mingru Yang, Fuhong Sun, Chenglian Feng, Xiaowei Jin, Kenneth M Y Leung, John P Giesy
Metals can pose hazards to marine species and can adversely affect structures and functions of communities of marine species. However, little is known about how structural properties of metal atoms combined with current geographical and climatic conditions affect their toxic potencies. A mathematical model, based on quantitative structure-activity relationships and species sensitivity distributions (QSAR-SSD) was developed by use of acute toxicities of six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Zn) to eight marine species and accessory environmental conditions...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Emma L Cross, Elizabeth M Harper, Lloyd S Peck
The inability of organisms to cope in changing environments poses a major threat to their survival. Rising carbon dioxide concentrations, recently exceeding 400 μatm, are rapidly warming and acidifying our oceans. Current understanding of organism responses to this environmental phenomenon is based mainly on relatively short- to medium-term laboratory and field experiments, which cannot evaluate the potential for long-term acclimation and adaptation, the processes identified as most important to confer resistance...
March 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Manoochehr Shirzaei, Roland Bürgmann
The current global projections of future sea level rise are the basis for developing inundation hazard maps. However, contributions from spatially variable coastal subsidence have generally not been considered in these projections. We use synthetic aperture radar interferometric measurements and global navigation satellite system data to show subsidence rates of less than 2 mm/year along most of the coastal areas along San Francisco Bay. However, rates exceed 10 mm/year in some areas underlain by compacting artificial landfill and Holocene mud deposits...
March 2018: Science Advances
Julie C Schindlbeck, Marion Jegen, Armin Freundt, Steffen Kutterolf, Susanne M Straub, Maryline J Mleneck-Vautravers, Jerry F McManus
It is a longstanding observation that the frequency of volcanism periodically changes at times of global climate change. The existence of causal links between volcanism and Earth's climate remains highly controversial, partly because most related studies only cover one glacial cycle. Longer records are available from marine sediment profiles in which the distribution of tephras records frequency changes of explosive arc volcanism with high resolution and time precision. Here we show that tephras of IODP Hole U1437B (northwest Pacific) record a cyclicity of explosive volcanism within the last 1...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hamish McGowan, John Nikolaus Callow, Joshua Soderholm, Gavan McGrath, Micheline Campbell, Jian-Xin Zhao
Annual resolution reconstructions of alpine temperatures are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere, while no snow cover reconstructions exist. These records are essential to place in context the impact of anthropogenic global warming against historical major natural climate events such as the Roman Warm Period (RWP), Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we show for a marginal alpine region of Australia using a carbon isotope speleothem reconstruction, warming over the past five decades has experienced equivalent magnitude of temperature change and snow cover decline to the RWP and MCA...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yiming Luo, Jerry Tjiputra, Chuncheng Guo, Zhongshi Zhang, Jörg Lippold
Understanding how the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) evolved during crucial past geological periods is important in order to decipher the interplay between ocean dynamics and global climate change. Previous research, based on geological proxies, has provided invaluable insights into past AMOC changes. However, the causes of the changes in water mass distributions in the Atlantic during different periods remain mostly elusive. Using a state-of-the-art Earth system model, we show that the bulk of NCW in the deep South Atlantic Ocean below 4000 m migrated from the western basins at 125 ka to the eastern basins at 115 ka, though the AMOC strength is only slightly reduced...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"