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Irena Branyikova, Monika Filipenska, Katerina Urbanova, Marek C Ruzicka, Martin Pivokonsky, Tomas Branyik
Alkaline flocculation has been studied due to its potential as a low-cost harvesting method for microalgae. However, surface properties (zeta potential, contact angles) as inputs into physicochemical interaction models have not yet been applied systematically. In this work, forced alkaline flocculation of the freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris induced by calcium phosphate precipitates was studied as a model system. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the effect of independent variables (concentration of Ca2+ (0...
March 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jonas Lorenz, Mike Barbeck, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Robert Sader, Henriette Lerner, Shahram Ghanaati
PURPOSE: In this prospective study, the regenerative potential and pathways of a new injectable bone substitute (IBS) material composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hyaluronan were investigated for its application in alveolar bone regeneration within extraction sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bone substitute material was implanted in 44 extraction sockets after removal of teeth not worth preserving in the maxillary and mandibular arches of 21 patients...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Tomáš Vaisar, Erica Couzens, Arnold Hwang, Michael Russell, Carolyn E Barlow, Laura F DeFina, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Francis Kim
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: One of the hallmarks of diabetes is impaired endothelial function. Previous studies showed that HDL can exert protective effects on endothelium stimulating NO production and protecting from inflammation and suggested that HDL in obese people with diabetes and dyslipidemia may have lower endothelial protective function. We aimed to investigate whether type 2 diabetes impairs HDL endothelium protective functions in people with otherwise normal lipid profile. METHODS: In a case-control study (n = 41 per group) nested in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study we tested the ability of HDL to protect endothelium by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity and suppressing NFκB-mediated inflammatory response in endothelial cells...
2018: PloS One
Matthew G K Benesch, Iain T K MacIntyre, Todd P W McMullen, David N Brindley
A quarter-century after the discovery of autotaxin in cell culture, the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate (LPA)-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis is now a promising clinical target for treating chronic inflammatory conditions, mitigating fibrosis progression, and improving the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Nearly half of the literature on this axis has been published during the last five years. In cancer biology, LPA signaling is increasingly being recognized as a central mediator of the progression of chronic inflammation in the establishment of a tumor microenvironment which promotes cancer growth, immune evasion, metastasis, and treatment resistance...
March 15, 2018: Cancers
Karamat Mohammad, Paméla Dakik, Younes Medkour, Mélissa McAuley, Darya Mitrofanova, Vladimir I Titorenko
The concentrations of some key metabolic intermediates play essential roles in regulating the longevity of the chronologically aging yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . These key metabolites are detected by certain ligand-specific protein sensors that respond to concentration changes of the key metabolites by altering the efficiencies of longevity-defining cellular processes. The concentrations of the key metabolites that affect yeast chronological aging are controlled spatially and temporally. Here, we analyze mechanisms through which the spatiotemporal dynamics of changes in the concentrations of the key metabolites influence yeast chronological lifespan...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christine Juergens, James Trammel, Yasuko Shoji, Scott Patterson, Wendy Watson, Chris Webber, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
Injection site reactions (ISRs; redness, swelling and pain) commonly occur within 1-2 days after vaccination. After administration of toxoid vaccines including diphtheria toxoid, a later onset of ISRs has also been observed. As the serotype capsular polysaccharides in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) are conjugated to cross-reactive material 197 (CRM197 ), a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin, the onset of ISRs over 14 days was explored in 8 adult studies with 19 cohorts. Subjects received PCV13 with aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 , n = 5667) or without AlPO4 (n = 304); 109 subjects received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Mohammad Hadi Aazami, Mohammad Hasan Fathi Nasri, Mohsen Mojtahedi, Shahla Roudbar Mohammadi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of heat-killed baker's yeast (HKBY), the cell wall of baker's yeast (CWBY), and cell wall (1→3)-β-d-glucan of baker's yeast (BGBY) to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) spiked with 0.5 μg/mL AFB1 . Baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was heat killed by autoclaving at 121°C for 10 min. The cell wall was physically extracted, and (1→3)-β-d-glucan was extracted by a modified method. The concentration of AFB1 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography after exposure to binders for three contact times, 30 min, 5 h, and 24 h, at room temperature...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Deniz Turan, Monika Gibis, Gurbuz Gunes, Stefan K Baier, Jochen Weiss
The conjugation reaction of electrospun fibers of a mixture of whey protein isolate (WPI) and dextran using different molecular weights (40, 70, and 100 kDa) and mixing ratios was studied. This study includes the electrospinnability of a mixture of WPI and dextran, and the conjugation reaction between them via the initial stage of the Maillard reaction. The WPI-dextran fibers were characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopy. The covalent attachment of dextran to WPI was confirmed using sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis with protein and glycoprotein staining...
March 15, 2018: Food & Function
F Nici, G Oliviero, A P Falanga, S D'Errico, M Marzano, D Musumeci, D Montesarchio, S Noppen, C Pannecouque, G Piccialli, N Borbone
By combining the ability of short G-rich oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing the sequence 5'CGGA3' to form higher order G-quadruplex (G4) complexes with the tetra-end-linked (TEL) concept to produce aptamers targeting the HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), three new TEL-ODNs (1-3) having the sequence 5'CGGAGG3' were synthesized with the aim of studying the effect of G4 dimerization on their anti-HIV activity. Furthermore, in order to investigate the effect of the groups at the 5' position, the 5' ends of 1-3 were left uncapped (1) or capped with either the lipophilic dimethoxytrityl (DMT) (2) or the hydrophilic glucosyl-4-phosphate (3) moieties...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Musammir Khan, Janne T Koivisto, Terttu I Hukka, Mikko Hokka, Minna Kellomäki
Biopolymers are attractive candidates to fabricate biocompatible hydrogels, but the low water solubility of most of them at physiological pH, has hindered their applications. To prepare a water-soluble derivative of chitosan (WSC) biopolymer, it was grafted with a small anionic amino acid, L-glutamic acid, using a single step 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide coupling reaction. This resulted in a zwitterion-tethered structure onto the polymer backbone. The degree of substitution ranged between 13-16 ± 1...
March 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Victor Laurent, Ekaterina Darii, Angelina Aujon, Marine Debacker, Jean-Louis Petit, Virgil Hélaine, Tibor Liptaj, Martin Breza, Aline Mariage, Lionel Nauton, Mounir Traikia, Marielle Lemaire, Marcel Salanoubat, Christine Guérard-Hélaine, Véronique De Berardinis
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP)-dependent rhamnulose aldolases display an unprecedented versatility for ketones as electrophile substrates. We selected and characterized a rhamnulose aldolase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (RhuABthet) to provide a proof of concept. DHAP was added as a nucleophile to several alpha-hydroxylated ketones used as electrophiles. This aldol addition was stereoselective and produced branched-chain monosaccharide adducts with a tertiary alcohol moiety. Several aldols were thus readily obtained in good to excellent yields (from 76 to 95%)...
March 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Tingchao Mao, Chengquan Han, Ruizhi Deng, Biao Wei, Peng Meng, Yan Luo, Yong Zhang
Epigenetic modifications extensively occur in mammalian embryonic development and cell differentiation process. They play an essential role in the reprogramming of nuclei during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and subsequent in vitro embryonic development. Recently, SCNT embryos have been verified to contain a subnormal level of histone H3K4 dimethylation (H3K4me2) in contrast to in vitro fertilized embryos. This finding suggested that increasing H3K4me2 levels may ameliorate the aberrant development of cloned embryos...
March 15, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Reşat Duman, Ayhan Vurmaz
PURPOSE: The exact etiopathogenesis of steroid-induced cataracts (SIC) is not known. Although oxidative stress is one of the most acceptable hypotheses, the exact molecular events in steroid-induced oxidative events in the lens need to be clarified. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, the innate immune system components in SIC formation have not been studied previously. The aim of the present study was to study the oxidative system and the innate immune system components in the cataractous lenses of a developing chick embryo SIC model...
March 15, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Raziyeh Kasaei, David Carmena, Ali Jelowdar, Molouk Beiromvand
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal flagellated protozoan that infects humans and several animal species. Giardiasis causing more than 200 million symptomatic infections globally is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in developing countries. Based on molecular studies mainly targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene locus of the parasite, eight assemblages (A to H) have been identified in humans and other animal species. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the frequency and molecular diversity of G...
March 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Jatindranath Maiti, Nitul Kakati, Sung Pil Woo, Young Soo Yoon
This data provides the fuel cell performance of Nafion based hybrid membranes containing GO and dihydrogen phosphate functionalized ionic liquid (IL) at 70 °C under anhydrous condition. Readers are requested to go through the article entitled "Nafion® based hybrid composite membrane containing GO and dihydrogen phosphate functionalized ionic liquid for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell" (Maiti et al., 2017) [1] for further interpretation and discussion.
February 2018: Data in Brief
Meriem El Ghachi, Nicole Howe, Chia-Ying Huang, Vincent Olieric, Rangana Warshamanage, Thierry Touzé, Dietmar Weichert, Phillip J Stansfeld, Meitian Wang, Fred Kerff, Martin Caffrey
As a protective envelope surrounding the bacterial cell, the peptidoglycan sacculus is a site of vulnerability and an antibiotic target. Peptidoglycan components, assembled in the cytoplasm, are shuttled across the membrane in a cycle that uses undecaprenyl-phosphate. A product of peptidoglycan synthesis, undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate, is converted to undecaprenyl-phosphate for reuse in the cycle by the membrane integral pyrophosphatase, BacA. To understand how BacA functions, we determine its crystal structure at 2...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Satoshi Inoue, Yuichiro Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Koami, Kosuke Yamada C, Futoshi Nagashima, Toru Miike, Takashi Iwamura, Toru Obata
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify a useful biomarker to predict the efficacy of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) in patients with septic shock. METHODS: The 44 patients included in this study were divided into two groups. Group A had an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 30 mmHg after PMX-DHP treatment. Group B had an increase in SBP less than 30 mmHg after PMX-DHP treatment. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and demographics of both groups...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Adam J Chicco, Catherine H Le, Erich Gnaiger, Hans C Dreyer, Jonathan B Muyskens, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Austin D Hocker, Jessica E Prenni, Lisa M Wolfe, Nathan M Sindt, Andrew T Lovering, Andrew W Subudhi, Robert C Roach
Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans.  However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies.  We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jessica N R Peoples, Timmi Maxmillian, Quynh Le, Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Paul S Brookes, George A Porter, Victor L Davidson, Steven N Ebert
Cardiac energy demands during early embryonic periods are sufficiently met through glycolysis, but as development proceeds, oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria becomes increasingly vital. Adrenergic hormones are known to stimulate metabolism in adult mammals and are essential for embryonic development, but relatively little is known about their effects on metabolism in the embryonic heart.  Here, we show that embryos lacking adrenergic stimulation have approximately 10-fold less cardiac ATP compared to littermate controls...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Prem Prakash, Narayan S Punekar, Prasenjit Bhaumik
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme connecting carbon and nitrogen metabolism in all living organisms. Despite extensive studies on GDHs from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the last 40 years, the structural basis of the catalytic features of this enzyme remains incomplete. This study reports the structural basis of the GDH catalytic mechanism and allosteric behavior. We determined the first high-resolution crystal structures of glutamate dehydrogenase from the fungus Aspergillus niger (AnGDH), a unique NADP+ -dependent allosteric enzyme that is forward inhibited by the formation of mixed disulfide...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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