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Yang Wu, Guanyong Su, Song Tang, Wei Liu, Zhiyuan Ma, Xinmei Zheng, Hongling Liu, Hongxia Yu
Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a substitute for brominated flame retardants (FRs) that have been phased out of use, is frequently detected in aqueous environments. However, previous studies on its endocrine disrupting effects have mainly focused on terrestrial mammals. Here, to comprehensively evaluate the potential adverse effects of TCEP on aquatic vertebrates, zebrafish was used as a model to examine developmental phenotypes. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity of TCEP were further explored using in silico and in vivo approaches...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Jianyang Pan, Xingchu Gong, Haibin Qu
A novel quantitative 1H NMR (Q-NMR) combined with HPLC-MS method has been proposed for investigating the degradation process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) components. Through this method, in-situ monitoring of dynamics degradation process of lithospermic acid (LA), one of the popular polyphenolic acids in TCM, was realized under low oxygen condition. Additionally, this methodology was proved to be simple, rapid and specific. Degradation kinetic runs have been carried out to systematically investigate the effects of two key environmental factors, initial pH values and temperatures...
2016: PloS One
Deb P Jaisi, Hui Li, Adam F Wallace, Prajwal Paudel, Mingjing Sun, Avula Balakrishna, Bob N Lerch
Degradation of glyphosate in the presence of Mn oxide and UV light was analyzed using phosphate oxygen isotope ratios and density function theory (DFT). Preference of C-P or C-N bond cleavage was found to vary with changing glyphosate:Mn oxide ratios indicating the potential role of sorption-induced conformational changes on the composition of intermediate degradation products. Isotope data confirmed that one oxygen atom derived solely from water was incorporated into the released phosphate during glyphosate degradation and this might suggest similar nucleophilic substitution at P centers and C-P bond cleavage both in Mn oxide- and UV light-mediated degradation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Araceli Oropeza-Aburto, Alfredo Cruz-Ramírez, Javier Mora-Macías, Luis Herrera-Estrella
Phosphate (Pi) deficient soils are a major limitant factor for crop production in many regions in the world. Despite that plants have innovated several developmental and biochemical strategies to deal with this stress, there are still massive extensions of land which combine several abiotic stresses, including phosphate starvation, that limit their use for plant growth and food production. In several plant species a genetic program underlies the biochemical and developmental responses of the organism to cope with low phosphate (Pi) availability...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Alejandro Parrales, Atul Ranjan, Swathi V Iyer, Subhash Padhye, Scott J Weir, Anuradha Roy, Tomoo Iwakuma
Stabilization of mutant p53 (mutp53) in tumours greatly contributes to malignant progression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic approaches to destabilize mutp53. Here, through high-throughput screening we identify statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, as degradation inducers for conformational or misfolded p53 mutants with minimal effects on wild-type p53 (wtp53) and DNA contact mutants. Statins preferentially suppress mutp53-expressing cancer cell growth. Specific reduction of mevalonate-5-phosphate by statins or mevalonate kinase knockdown induces CHIP ubiquitin ligase-mediated nuclear export, ubiquitylation, and degradation of mutp53 by impairing interaction of mutp53 with DNAJA1, a Hsp40 family member...
October 24, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Zengchun Ye, Qunzi Zhang, Yan Li, Cheng Wang, Jun Zhang, Xinxin Ma, Hui Peng, Tanqi Lou
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the prevalence of HHcy and its role in association with target organ damage in patients with chronickidney disease (CKD) are not well understood. This cross-sectional study included 1042 CKD patients who were admitted to our hospital. Patients were divided into two groups: hyperhomocysteinemia and normohomocysteinemia. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between plasma homocysteine and renal/cardiovascular parameters...
October 20, 2016: Nutrients
Kyle J Seamon, Namandje N Bumpus, James T Stivers
Sterile Alpha Motif and HD Domain Protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a unique enzyme that has important roles in nucleic acid metabolism, viral restriction, and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Although much attention has been focused on its dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity in viral restriction and disease, SAMHD1 also binds to single-stranded RNA and DNA. Here we utilize a UV crosslinking method using 5-bromodeoxyuridine-substituted oligonucleotides coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to identify the binding site for single-stranded nucleic acids (ssNA) on SAMHD1...
October 24, 2016: Biochemistry
Javier Castro Jimenez, Belén González-Gaya, Mariana Pizarro, Paulo Casal, Cristina Pizarro-Alvarez, Jordi Dachs
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers and have been detected ubiquitously in the remote atmosphere. Fourteen OPEs were analysed in one hundred fifteen aerosol phase samples collected from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans during the MALASPINA circumnavigation campaign. OPEs were detected in all samples with concentrations ranging from 360 to 4400 pg m-3 for the sum of compounds. No clear concentration trends were found between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Yuji Mikata, Risa Ohnishi, Risa Nishijima, Hideo Konno
The tetrakisquinoline ligand HT(6-MeO8Q)HPN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(6-methoxy-8-quinolylmethyl)-2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediamine) exhibited Zn(2+)-induced fluorescence enhancement with high specificity and sensitivity (IZn/I0 = 57 and ICd/IZn = 6% in the presence of 2 equiv of Zn(2+); LOD (limit of detection) = 15 nM). This ligand also exhibited fluorescence enhancement specific to inorganic phosphate (PO4(3-)) in DMF-HEPES buffer (50 mM HEPES, 100 mM KCl, pH = 7.5) (1:1) in the presence of 2 equiv of Zn(2+). The structure of the unprecedented tetranuclear zinc complex with a μ4-PO4 bridge was elucidated by X-ray crystallography as the key species responsible for fluorescence enhancement...
October 24, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
María-Victoria Hinckelmann, Amandine Virlogeux, Christian Niehage, Christel Poujol, Daniel Choquet, Bernard Hoflack, Diana Zala, Frédéric Saudou
The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) facilitates fast axonal transport in neurons. However, given that GAPDH does not produce ATP, it is unclear whether glycolysis per se is sufficient to propel vesicles. Although many proteins regulating transport have been identified, the molecular composition of transported vesicles in neurons has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we selectively enrich motile vesicles and perform quantitative proteomic analysis. In addition to the expected molecular motors and vesicular proteins, we find an enrichment of all the glycolytic enzymes...
October 24, 2016: Nature Communications
Nisha Durand, Ligia I Bastea, Jason Long, Heike Döppler, Kun Ling, Peter Storz
Focal adhesions (FAs) are highly dynamic structures that are assembled and disassembled on a continuous basis. The balance between the two processes mediates various aspects of cell behavior, ranging from cell adhesion and spreading to directed cell migration. The turnover of FAs is regulated at multiple levels and involves a variety of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. In the present study, we show that in response to integrin engagement, a subcellular pool of Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) localizes to the FAs...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
György Miklós Buzás
Although fructose was discovered in 1794, it was realised in recent decades only that its malabsorption can lead to intestinal symptoms while its excessive consumption induces metabolic disturbances. Fructose is a monosaccharide found naturally in most fruits and vegetables. Dietary intake of fructose has gradually increased in the past decades, especially because of the consumption of high fructose corn syrup. With its 16.4 kg/year consumption, Hungary ranks secondly after the United States. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine by facilitated transport mediated by glucose transporter proteins-2 and -5, and arrives in the liver cells...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Khaled El Cheikh, Ilaria Basile, Afitz Da Silva, Coralie Bernon, Pierre Cérutti, Frédéric Salgues, Marc Perez, Marie Maynadier, Magali Gary-Bobo, Catherine Caillaud, Martine Cérutti, Marcel Garcia, Alain Morère
Improving therapeutics delivery in enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for lysosomal storage disorders is a challenge. Herein, we present the synthesis of novel analogues of mannose 6-phosphate (M6P), known as AMFAs and functionalized at the anomeric position for enzyme grafting. AMFAs are non-phosphate serum-resistant derivatives that efficiently bind the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR), which is the main pathway to address enzymes to lysosomes. One of the AMFAs was used to improve the treatment of the lysosomal myopathy Pompe disease, in which acid α-glucosidase (GAA) is defective...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Anna Laura Capriotti, Chiara Cavaliere, Patrizia Foglia, Giorgia La Barbera, Roberto Samperi, Salvatore Ventura, Aldo Laganà
Recently, magnetic solid-phase extraction has gained interest because it presents various operational advantages over classical solid-phase extraction. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles are easy to prepare, and various materials can be used in their synthesis. In the literature, there are only few studies on the determination of mycoestrogens in milk, although their carryover in milk has occurred. In this work, we wanted to develop the first (to the best of our knowledge) magnetic solid-phase extraction protocol for six mycoestrogens from milk, followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Wen-Jing Shi, Pui-Chi Lo, Shirui Zhao, Roy C H Wong, Qiong Wang, Wing-Ping Fong, Dennis K P Ng
An efficient ferrocenyl BODIPY based dark quencher has been developed and employed to construct a FRET-based fluorescent probe that contains a biotin moiety as a potential directing ligand for cancer cells and a glutathione-cleavable disulfide linker connecting the quencher and a distyryl BODIPY fluorophore. This molecular probe is deactivated in the native form through FRET followed by intramolecular charge transfer due to the ferrocenyl unit. However, upon interaction with glutathione in phosphate buffered saline and inside cancer cells, the fluorescence emission is significantly increased due to detachment of the fluorophore from the quencher...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Nisha Panth, Keshav Raj Paudel, Kalpana Parajuli
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been the prime cause of mortality worldwide for decades. However, the underlying mechanism of their pathogenesis is not fully clear yet. It has been already established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in the progression of CVDs. ROS are chemically unstable reactive free radicals containing oxygen, normally produced by xanthine oxidase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, lipoxygenases, or mitochondria or due to the uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase in vascular cells...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Maryam Bello-Akinosho, Rosina Makofane, Rasheed Adeleke, Mapitsi Thantsha, Michael Pillay, George Johannes Chirima
Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production...
2016: BioMed Research International
Tai-Sung Lee, Brian K Radak, Michael E Harris, Darrin M York
RNA enzymes serve as a potentially powerful platform from which to design catalysts and engineer new biotechnology. A fundamental understanding of these systems provides insight to guide design. The hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HDVr) is a small, self-cleaving RNA motif widely distributed in nature, that has served as a paradigm for understanding basic principles of RNA catalysis. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding the precise roles of divalent metal ions and key nucleotides in catalysis. In an effort to establish a reaction mechanism model consistent with available experimental data, we utilize molecular dynamics simulations to explore different conformations and metal ion binding modes along the HDVr reaction path...
2016: ACS Catalysis
Shin-Ichi Yokobori, Yoshiki Nakajima, Satoshi Akanuma, Akihiko Yamagishi
Bacteria and Eukarya have cell membranes with sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), whereas archaeal membranes contain sn-glycerol-1-phosphate (G1P). Determining the time at which cells with either G3P-lipid membranes or G1P-lipid membranes appeared is important for understanding the early evolution of terrestrial life. To clarify this issue, we reconstructed molecular phylogenetic trees of G1PDH (G1P dehydrogenase; EgsA/AraM) which is responsible for G1P synthesis and G3PDHs (G3P dehydrogenase; GpsA and GlpA/GlpD) and glycerol kinase (GlpK) which is responsible for G3P synthesis...
2016: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
Stephanie Seneff, Nancy L Swanson, Gerald Koenig, Chen Li
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), a rare side effect of bisphosphonate therapy, is a debilitating disorder with a poorly understood etiology. FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) provides the opportunity to investigate this disease. Our goals were to analyze FAERS data to discover possible relationships between ONJ and specific conditions and drugs and then to consult the scientific literature to deduce biological explanations. Our methodology revealed a very strong association between gastroesophageal reflux and bisphosphonate-induced ONJ, suggesting acidosis as a key factor...
2016: Disease Markers
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