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Christina D Moon, Wayne Young, Paul H Maclean, Adrian L Cookson, Emma N Bermingham
Interests in the impact of the gastrointestinal microbiota on health and wellbeing have extended from humans to that of companion animals. While relatively fewer studies to date have examined canine and feline gut microbiomes, analysis of the metagenomic DNA from fecal communities using next-generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the microbes that are present, their function, and potential to contribute to overall host nutrition and health. As carnivores, healthy dogs and cats possess fecal microbiomes that reflect the generally higher concentrations of protein and fat in their diets, relative to omnivores and herbivores...
June 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
C Pérez-Monter, I Escalona-Nandez, A Estanes-Hernández, L G Noriega-López, A Torre-Delgadillo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The intestinal microbiota is significantly altered in cirrhotic patients, but the composition of the intestinal microbiota in Mexican patients with the pathology has not been reported. The present study is an attempt to determine the type of intestinal microbiota in healthy subjects and in patients of Mexican mestizo origin that present with cirrhosis of the liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Biochemical liver function parameters (ALT, AST, GGT, BIL-T, etc...
June 11, 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Kiley M Algya, Tzu-Wen L Cross, Kristen N Leuck, Megan E Kastner, Toshiro Baba, Lynn Lye, Maria R C de Godoy, Kelly S Swanson
Despite their popularity, little research has been performed on lightly cooked and raw diet formats for pets. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility (ATTD); fecal characteristics, metabolites, and microbiota; serum chemistry metabolites; urinalysis; and voluntary physical activity levels of adult dogs fed commercial diets differing in processing type. The diets included: 1) Extruded Dry Kibble (EXT) diet; 2) High-Moisture Roasted Refrigerated (RR) diet; 3) High-Moisture Grain-Free Roasted Refrigerated (GFRR) diet; and 4) Raw (RAW) diet...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Huanxin Zhang, Hongshuo Tang, Yu Zang, Xuexi Tang, Ying Wang
The relationship between the internal microbiome of an individual organism and that of its external environment has been little investigated in freshwater ecosystems. Thus, this is an area of interest in freshwater fish biology. Along with the genotype of the fish host, external environment plays an important role in determining the composition of the internal microbiome. Here, we characterized the variability of the microbiome of wild Crucian carp (Carassius auratus), along with those of their surrounding environments (water and mud)...
June 6, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Jacob W Bledsoe, Geoffrey C Waldbieser, Kelly S Swanson, Brian C Peterson, Brian C Small
The microbiota of teleost fish has gained a great deal of research attention within the past decade, with experiments suggesting that both host-genetics and environment are strong ecological forces shaping the bacterial assemblages of fish microbiomes. Despite representing great commercial and scientific importance, the catfish within the family Ictaluridae , specifically the blue and channel catfish, have received very little research attention directed toward their gut-associated microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jae M Shin, Ting Luo, Kyu Han Lee, Diogo Guerreiro, Tatiana M Botero, Neville J McDonald, Alexander H Rickard
INTRODUCTION: Biofilms are present in more than 70% of endodontically diseased teeth. Through the advancements in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, microbiome research has granted a deeper analysis of the microbial communities living in human hosts. Here, we reviewed previous studies that used NGS to profile the microbial communities of root canals. METHODS: A total of 12 peer-reviewed articles from PubMed were identified and critically reviewed...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Jinshan Jin, Lei Guo, Linda VonTungeln, Michelle Vanlandingham, Carl E Cerniglia, Huizhong Chen
The use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) can cause many serious health problems. The oral microbiota plays important roles in oral and systemic health, and the disruption in the oral microbial population is linked to periodontal disease and other health problems. To assess the impact of smokeless tobacco on oral microbiota in vivo, high-throughput sequencing was used to examine the oral microbiota present in Syrian Golden hamster cheek pouches. Sixteen hamsters were divided into four groups and treated with the STP Grizzly snuff (0, 2...
May 28, 2018: Anaerobe
Yali Cao, Min Qiao, Zhigang Tian, Yan Yu, Baohua Xu, Wansheng Lao, Xuguo Ma, Wenge Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Periodontitis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease caused by enhanced inflammation induced by dysbiotic microbes forming on subgingival tooth sites, which may disturb the balance of the microbial composition in the biofilm and finally result in the progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with periodontal pocket formation and/or gingival recession. METHODS: To elucidate the correlation between subgingival microbiome and IgAN incidence in CP (chronic periodontitis at severe levels) patients, subgingival plaque samples were collected from CP patients without IgAN (Control) and CP patients with IgAN (Disease)...
May 22, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Francisca A Burgos, Candis L Ray, Covadonga R Arias
The acquisition of gut microbes does not occur randomly and is highly dependent on host factors, environmental cues, and self-assembly rules exerted by the microbes themselves. The main objective of this project was to characterize how the gut microbiome develops during the early life stages of Channel Catfish and to identify i) which bacteria are the main constituents of the gut microbiome at different ontogenesis stages, and ii) at which time point(s) the gut microbiome stabilizes. High-throughput Illumina Miseq DNA sequencing of the V4 domain of the 16S rRNA gene was used to assess the microbial community composition during the life stages of Channel Catfish along with water and feed samples...
May 23, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
A Salas, I Jeusette, I Castillo, C L Manuelian, C Lionnet, N Iraculis, N Sanchez, S Fernández, L L Vilaseca, C Torre
In developed countries, dogs and cats frequently suffer from obesity. Recently, gut microbiota composition in humans has been related to obesity and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate changes in body composition, and gut microbiota composition in obese Beagle dogs after a 17-week body weight (BW) loss program. A total of six neutered adult Beagle dogs with an average initial BW of 16.34 ± 1.52 kg and BCS of 7.8 ± 0.1 points (9-point scale) were restrictedly fed with a hypocaloric, low-fat and high-fiber dry-type diet...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Chia-Yu Yang, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Hai-Ying Yu, Chia-Yin Chin, Chia-Wei Hsu, Hsuan Liu, Po-Jung Huang, Song-Nian Hu, Chun-Ta Liao, Kai-Ping Chang, Yu-Liang Chang
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a highly aggressive cancer and the fourth leading malignancy among males in Taiwan. Some pathogenic bacteria are associated with periodontitis and oral cancer. However, the comprehensive profile of the oral microbiome during the cancer's progression from the early stage to the late stage is still unclear. We profiled the oral microbiota and identified bacteria biomarkers associated with OSCC. The microbiota of an oral rinse from 51 healthy individuals and 197 OSCC patients at different stages were investigated using 16S rRNA V3V4 amplicon sequencing, followed by bioinformatics and statistical analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
X-M Wang, Z-Y Ma, N Song
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlations of inflammatory factors, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and composition of bacterial flora in the peritoneal fluid with infertility in endometriosis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 55 patients diagnosed with endometriosis and infertility in the Gynecology Clinic of our hospital from June 2014 to July 2017 were selected as observation group, and another 30 non-endometriosis and non-infertility patients were enrolled as control group...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Kerstin Koeller, Daniel P R Herlemann, Tobias Schuldt, Attila Ovari, Ellen Guder, Andreas Podbielski, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Bernhard Olzowy
The role of bacteria in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still not well understood. Whole microbiome analysis adds new aspects to our current understanding that is mainly based on isolated bacteria. It is still unclear how the results of microbiome analysis and the classical culture based approaches interrelate. To address this, middle meatus swabs and tissue samples were obtained during sinus surgery in 5 patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), 5 patients with diffuse CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), 5 patients with unilateral purulent maxillary CRS (upm CRS) and 3 patients with healthy sinus mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lihong Chai, Zhongmin Dong, Aixia Chen, Hongyuan Wang
The assembly of intestinal microbial communities can play major roles in animal development. We hypothesized that intestinal microbial communities could mirror the developmental programs of amphibian metamorphosis. Here, we surveyed the morphological parameters of the body and intestine of Bufo gargarizans at varying developmental stages and inventoried the intestinal microbial communities of B. gargarizans at four key developmental stages via 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Firstly, our survey showed that during metamorphosis, body weight and intestinal weight were reduced by 56...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Xinghao Li, Yuhe Yu, Chang Li, Qingyun Yan
Gut microbiota of four economically important Asian carp species (silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis; grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; common carp, Cyprinus carpio) were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 590,000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut, midgut and hindgut of these four carp species revealed high microbial diversity among the samples. The foregut samples of grass carp exhibited more than 1,600 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) and the highest alpha-diversity index, followed by the silver carp foregut and midgut...
May 7, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Shi-Qi An, Adilia Warris, Steve Turner
OBJECTIVE: The study of the community of microorganisms (the microbiota) in the lower airways in children is restricted to opportunistic sampling in children undergoing elective general anaesthetic. Here we tested the hypothesis that induced sputum is a valid alternative to directly sampling the lower airways to study lower airway microbiota. METHODS: Children scheduled for elective operations were recruited. Pre-operatively a sample of induced sputum was obtained...
May 4, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Imane Allali, Noureddine Boukhatem, Leila Bouguenouch, Hanaa Hardi, H Abir Boudouaya, M Belen Cadenas, Karim Ouldim, Saaïd Amzazi, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Hassan Ghazal
Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death in Morocco, there are no studies of the microbiome changes associated with the disease in the Moroccan population. The aim of our study was to compare the stool microbiome of Moroccan cancer patients with healthy individuals. We analyzed the microbiome composition of samples from 11 CRC patients and 12 healthy individuals by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis of samples revealed defined cancer versus healthy clusters. Our findings showed that cancer samples had higher proportions of Firmicutes (T = 50...
April 23, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Lang Lin, Zai-Bo Wen, Dong-Jiao Lin, Jiang-Ting Dong, Jie Jin, Fei Meng
AIM: To analyze the bacterial community structure and distribution of intestinal microflora in people with and without metabolic syndrome and combined these data with clinical indicators to determine relationships between selected bacteria and metabolic diseases. METHODS: Faecal samples were collected from 20 patients with metabolic syndrome and 16 controls at Cangnan People's Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China. DNA was extracted and the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified for high throughput sequencing...
April 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Wen Wang, Yingbao Liu, Yongsheng Yang, Aizhen Wang, Kirill Sharshov, Yao Li, Mengyao Cao, Puzhen Mao, Laixing Li
In this study, we characterized for the first time the gut microbiota of Greylag geese (Anser anser) using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. The results showed that the phyla Firmicutes (78.55%), Fusobacteria (9.38%), Proteobacteria (7.55%), Bacteroidetes (1.82%), Cyanobacteria (1.44%), and Actinobacteria (0.61%) dominated the gut microbial communities in the Greylag geese. Then, the variations of gut microbial community structures and functions among the three geese species, Greylag geese, Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), and Swan geese (Anser cygnoides), were explored...
June 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Tsutomu Omatsu, Miki Omura, Yukie Katayama, Toru Kimura, Maho Okumura, Atsushi Okumura, Yoshiteru Murata, Tetsuya Mizutani
The intestinal microbiota was revealed with the recent advances in molecular techniques, such as high-throughput sequencing analysis. As a result, the microbial changes are thought to influence the health of humans and animals and such changes are affected by several factors including diet, genetics, age, sex, and diseases. Similar studies are being conducted in dogs, and the knowledge of intestinal microbiota in dogs is expanding. Nonetheless, basic information on intestinal microbiota in dogs is less than that of humans...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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