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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894254/divergent-selection-induced-obesity-alters-the-composition-and-functional-pathways-of-chicken-gut-microbiota
#1
Jinmei Ding, Lele Zhao, Lifeng Wang, Wenjing Zhao, Zhengxiao Zhai, Li Leng, Yuxiang Wang, Chuan He, Yan Zhang, Heping Zhang, Hui Li, He Meng
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract is populated by a complex and vast microbial network, with a composition that reflects the relationships of the symbiosis, co-metabolism, and co-evolution of these microorganisms with their host. The mechanism that underlies such interactions between the genetics of the host and gut microbiota remains elusive. RESULTS: To understand how genetic variation of the host shapes the gut microbiota and interacts with it to affect the metabolic phenotype of the host, we compared the abundance of microbial taxa and their functional performance between two lines of chickens (fat and lean) that had undergone long-term divergent selection for abdominal fat pad weight, which resulted in a 4...
November 28, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846300/ontogenetic-characterization-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-channel-catfish-through-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing-reveals-insights-on-temporal-shifts-and-the-influence-of-environmental-microbes
#2
Jacob W Bledsoe, Brian C Peterson, Kelly S Swanson, Brian C Small
Aquaculture recently overtook capture fisheries as the largest producer of food fish, but to continue increasing fish production the industry is in search of better methods of improving fish health and growth. Pre- and probiotic supplementation has gained attention as a means of solving these issues, however, for such approaches to be successful, we must first gain a more holistic understanding of the factors influencing the microbial communities present in the intestines of fish. In this study, we characterize the bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of a highly valuable U...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799062/middle-ear-microbiome-differences-in-indigenous-filipinos-with-chronic-otitis-media-due-to-a-duplication-in-the-a2ml1-gene
#3
Regie Lyn P Santos-Cortez, Diane S Hutchinson, Nadim J Ajami, Ma Rina T Reyes-Quintos, Ma Leah C Tantoco, Patrick John Labra, Sheryl Mae Lagrana, Melquiadesa Pedro, Erasmo Gonzalo D V Llanes, Teresa Luisa Gloria-Cruz, Abner L Chan, Eva Maria Cutiongco-de la Paz, John W Belmont, Tasnee Chonmaitree, Generoso T Abes, Joseph F Petrosino, Suzanne M Leal, Charlotte M Chiong
BACKGROUND: Previously rare A2ML1 variants were identified to confer otitis media susceptibility in an indigenous Filipino community and in otitis-prone US children. The goal of this study is to describe differences in the middle ear microbiome between carriers and non-carriers of an A2ML1 duplication variant that increases risk for chronic otitis media among indigenous Filipinos with poor health care access. METHODS: Ear swabs were obtained from 16 indigenous Filipino individuals with chronic otitis media, of whom 11 carry the A2ML1 duplication variant...
November 1, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797671/nutritional-correlates-of-human-oral-microbiome
#4
Ikuko Kato, Adrian Vasquez, Gregory Moyerbrailean, Susan Land, Zora Djuric, Jun Sun, Ho-Sheng Lin, Jeffrey L Ram
BACKGROUND: Despite many potential effects of the oral microbiome on oral and systemic health, scant information is available regarding the associations between diet and the oral microbiome. METHODS: Oral rinse DNA samples from 182 participants in a population-based case-control study for colorectal cancer were used to amplify a V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq paired end chemistry on 2 runs, yielding approximately 33 million filtered reads that were assigned to bacterial classes...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742762/human-oral-microbiome-and-prospective-risk-for-pancreatic-cancer-a-population-based-nested-case-control-study
#5
Xiaozhou Fan, Alexander V Alekseyenko, Jing Wu, Brandilyn A Peters, Eric J Jacobs, Susan M Gapstur, Mark P Purdue, Christian C Abnet, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, George Miller, Jacques Ravel, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
OBJECTIVE: A history of periodontal disease and the presence of circulating antibodies to selected oral pathogens have been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, direct relationships of oral microbes with pancreatic cancer have not been evaluated in prospective studies. We examine the relationship of oral microbiota with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in a large nested case-control study. DESIGN: We selected 361 incident adenocarcinoma of pancreas and 371 matched controls from two prospective cohort studies, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II and the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial...
October 14, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734626/comparative-analysis-of-the-fecal-bacterial-community-of%C3%A2-five-harbor-seals-phoca-vitulina
#6
Daniela Numberger, Daniel P R Herlemann, Klaus Jürgens, Guido Dehnhardt, Heide Schulz-Vogt
The gut microbiota has many beneficial effects on host metabolism and health, and its composition is determined by numerous factors. It is also assumed that there was a co-evolution of mammals and the bacteria inhabiting their gut. Current knowledge of the mammalian gut microbiota mainly derives from studies on humans and terrestrial animals, whereas those on marine mammals are sparse. However, they could provide additional information on influencing factors, such as the role of diet and co-evolution with the host...
October 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732961/the-microbial-community-shifts-of-subgingival-plaque-in-patients-with-generalized-aggressive-periodontitis-following-non-surgical-periodontal-therapy-a-pilot-study
#7
Jing Han, Peng Wang, Shaohua Ge
The object of this study is to characterize the bacterial community of subgingival plaque of two subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) pre- and post-treatment. We picked two patients with GAgP and used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. V4 hypervariable region was picked for PCR amplification of subgingival samples. Then, the PCR products were sequenced through Illumina MiSeq platform. One month after therapy, both the clinical features and periodontal parameters improved obviously. Moreover, the composition and structure of subgingival bacterial community changed after initial periodontal therapy...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701432/influence-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-estrogenic-endocrine-on-intestinal-microbiota-in-zebrafish
#8
Yukun Liu, Yayun Yao, Huan Li, Fang Qiao, Junlin Wu, Zhen-Yu Du, Meiling Zhang
Gender is one of the factors influencing the intestinal microbial composition in mammals, but whether fish also have gender-specific intestinal microbial patterns remains unknown. In this decade, endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface and ground water of many areas and increasing observation of freshwater male fish displaying female sexual characteristics have been reported. Here we identified the difference in intestinal microbiota between male and female zebrafish, and revealed the influence of endocrine disrupting chemicals on zebrafish intestinal microbiota by using high-throughput sequencing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695351/lemierre-s-syndrome-current-perspectives-on-diagnosis-and-management
#9
Katrine M Johannesen, Uffe Bodtger
This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and/or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689802/microbiome-in-the-apical-root-canal-system-of-teeth-with-post-treatment-apical-periodontitis
#10
José F Siqueira, Henrique S Antunes, Isabela N Rôças, Caio T C C Rachid, Flávio R F Alves
INTRODUCTION: Bacteria present in the apical root canal system are directly involved with the pathogenesis of post-treatment apical periodontitis. This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in cryopulverized apical root samples from root canal-treated teeth with post-treatment disease. METHODS: Apical root specimens obtained during periradicular surgery of ten adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis were cryogenically ground...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681918/enrichment-of-fusobacteria-in-sea-surface-oil-slicks-from-the-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill
#11
Tony Gutierrez, David Berry, Andreas Teske, Michael D Aitken
The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas-organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments...
July 27, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666996/supragingival-plaque-microbial-community-analysis-of-children-with-halitosis
#12
Wen Ren, Qun Zhang, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Lili Ma, Feng Chen, Tao Xu, Baohua Xu
As one of the most complex human-associated microbial habitats, the oral cavity harbors hundreds of bacteria. Halitosis is a prevalent oral condition that is typically caused by bacteria. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbial communities and predict functional profiles in supragingival plaque from healthy individuals and those with halitosis. Ten preschool children were enrolled in this study; five with halitosis and five without. Supragingival plaque was isolated from each participant and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to identify the microbes present...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666995/effects-of-lactobacillus-curvatus-and-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-on-suan-cai-fermentation-in-northeast-china
#13
Hongyan Yang, Hao Wu, Lijuan Gao, Hongbai Jia, Yuan Zhang, Zongjun Cui, Yuhua Li
To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on suan cai fermentation, Lactobacillus curvatus and/or Leuconostoc mesenteroides were inoculated into suan cai. Physicochemical indexes were measured, and the microbial dynamics during the fermentation were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) lowered the pH of the fermentation system more rapidly. The decrease in water-soluble carbohydrates in the inoculated treatments occurred more rapidly than in the control...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628212/effects-of-captivity-and-artificial-breeding-on-microbiota-in-feces-of-the-red-crowned-crane-grus-japonensis
#14
Yuwei Xie, Pu Xia, Hui Wang, Hongxia Yu, John P Giesy, Yimin Zhang, Miguel A Mora, Xiaowei Zhang
Reintroduction of the threatened red-crowned crane has been unsuccessful. Although gut microbiota correlates with host health, there is little information on gut microbiota of cranes under different conservation strategies. The study examined effects of captivity, artificial breeding and life stage on gut microbiota of red-crown cranes. The gut microbiotas of wild, captive adolescent, captive adult, artificially bred adolescent and artificially bred adult cranes were characterized by next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621416/microbial-antigen-mimics-activate-diabetogenic-cd8-t-cells-in-nod-mice
#15
Ningwen Tai, Jian Peng, Fuqiang Liu, Elke Gulden, Youjia Hu, Xiaojun Zhang, Li Chen, F Susan Wong, Li Wen
Both animal model and human studies indicate that commensal bacteria may modify type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbes could trigger or protect from diabetes are not fully understood, especially the interaction of commensal bacteria with pathogenic CD8 T cells. In this study, using islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-reactive CD8 T cell receptor NY8.3 transgenic nonobese diabetic mice, we demonstrated that MyD88 strongly modulates CD8(+) T cell-mediated T1D development via the gut microbiota...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613729/evaluation-of-the-microbiome-in-children-s-appendicitis
#16
Martin Salö, Nittaya Marungruang, Bodil Roth, Tiia Sundberg, Pernilla Stenström, Einar Arnbjörnsson, Frida Fåk, Bodil Ohlsson
BACKGROUND/AIM: The role of the microbiome has been widely discussed in the etiology of appendicitis. The primary aim was to evaluate the microbiome in the normal appendix and in appendicitis specifically divided into the three clinically and histopathologically defined grades of inflammation. Secondary aims were to examine whether there were any microbiome differences between proximal and distal appendices, and relate the microbiome with histopathological findings. METHODS: A prospective pilot study was conducted of children undergoing appendectomy for appendicitis...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595541/analysis-of-bacterial-activity-in-sound-and-cariogenic-biofilm-a-pilot-in-vivo-study
#17
Karsten Henne, Antonia-Patricia Gunesch, Carolin Walther, Hendrik Meyer-Lueckel, Georg Conrads, Marcella Esteves-Oliveira
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with many associated microbial taxa, but only a few are notably contributing to acidogenicity. The ribosome number and the corresponding 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) concentration are considered a molecular indicator for general metabolic activity of bacteria, as they are elevated with increased anabolic and catabolic activities. We hypothesize that the activity of aciduric/acidogenic bacterial taxa, reflected by a rise in ribosomal counts, could resolve differences between plaque biofilm from sound surfaces and caries lesions...
2016: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590821/effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-on-the-gastric-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-dyspeptic-patients
#18
Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Alessandra Palladini, Luca Masucci, Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci, Roberta Pastorino, Gianluca Ianiro, Francesca Bugli, Cecilia Martini, Walter Ricciardi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Giovanni Cammarota, Brunella Posteraro
: Besides being part of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment regimens, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are increasingly being used to treat dyspepsia. However, little is known about the effects of PPIs on the human gastric microbiota, especially those related to H. pylori infection. The goal of this study was to characterize the stomach microbial communities in patients with dyspepsia and to investigate their relationships with PPI use and H. pylori status. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we analyzed the mucosa-associated microbial populations of 24 patients, of whom 12 were treated with the PPI omeprazole and 9 (5 treated and 4 untreated) were positive for H...
November 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572277/gut-microbiota-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-a-diabetic-rat-model-increased-diversity-and-associations-of-discriminant-genera-with-metabolic-changes
#19
Yan Guo, Chao-Qian Liu, Cheng-Xiang Shan, Yue Chen, Hui-Hua Li, Zhi-Ping Huang, Da-Jin Zou
Recent work with gut microbiota after bariatric surgery is limited, and the results have not been in agreement. Given the role of the gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism, we explored the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on the modifications of gut microbiota with regard to the potential influence of food intake and/or weight loss and examined their links with host metabolism. Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided into the following groups: RYGB; sham-operated with pair-fed as RYGB; sham-operated fed ad libitum; and SG...
August 30, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549138/the-influence-of-weight-and-gender-on-intestinal-bacterial-community-of-wild-largemouth-bronze-gudgeon-coreius-guichenoti-1874
#20
Xuemei Li, Qingyun Yan, Einar Ringø, Xingbing Wu, Yongfeng He, Deguo Yang
BACKGROUND: Largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti) is of economic importance in China, distributed in upstream regions of the Yangtze River in China. But it has recently dramatically declined and is close to elimination. However, there is little knowing about the character of its intestinal microbiota. This study was conducted to elucidate the intestinal microbiota of wild largemouth bronze gudgeon with different body weight and gender. RESULTS: Thirty wild largemouth bronze gudgeon were measured for body length and body weight, and identified for male and female according to gonadal development, and thereafter the intestinal microbiota's were assessed by MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA genes...
2016: BMC Microbiology
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