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Xiaozhou Fan, Alexander V Alekseyenko, Jing Wu, Brandilyn A Peters, Eric J Jacobs, Susan M Gapstur, Mark P Purdue, Christian C Abnet, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, George Miller, Jacques Ravel, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
OBJECTIVE: A history of periodontal disease and the presence of circulating antibodies to selected oral pathogens have been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, direct relationships of oral microbes with pancreatic cancer have not been evaluated in prospective studies. We examine the relationship of oral microbiota with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in a large nested case-control study. DESIGN: We selected 361 incident adenocarcinoma of pancreas and 371 matched controls from two prospective cohort studies, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II and the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial...
October 14, 2016: Gut
Daniela Numberger, Daniel P R Herlemann, Klaus Jürgens, Guido Dehnhardt, Heide Schulz-Vogt
The gut microbiota has many beneficial effects on host metabolism and health, and its composition is determined by numerous factors. It is also assumed that there was a co-evolution of mammals and the bacteria inhabiting their gut. Current knowledge of the mammalian gut microbiota mainly derives from studies on humans and terrestrial animals, whereas those on marine mammals are sparse. However, they could provide additional information on influencing factors, such as the role of diet and co-evolution with the host...
October 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Jing Han, Peng Wang, Shaohua Ge
The object of this study is to characterize the bacterial community of subgingival plaque of two subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) pre- and post-treatment. We picked two patients with GAgP and used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. V4 hypervariable region was picked for PCR amplification of subgingival samples. Then, the PCR products were sequenced through Illumina MiSeq platform. One month after therapy, both the clinical features and periodontal parameters improved obviously. Moreover, the composition and structure of subgingival bacterial community changed after initial periodontal therapy...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Yukun Liu, Yayun Yao, Huan Li, Fang Qiao, Junlin Wu, Zhen-Yu Du, Meiling Zhang
Gender is one of the factors influencing the intestinal microbial composition in mammals, but whether fish also have gender-specific intestinal microbial patterns remains unknown. In this decade, endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface and ground water of many areas and increasing observation of freshwater male fish displaying female sexual characteristics have been reported. Here we identified the difference in intestinal microbiota between male and female zebrafish, and revealed the influence of endocrine disrupting chemicals on zebrafish intestinal microbiota by using high-throughput sequencing...
2016: PloS One
Katrine M Johannesen, Uffe Bodtger
This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and/or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs...
2016: Infection and Drug Resistance
José F Siqueira, Henrique S Antunes, Isabela N Rôças, Caio T C C Rachid, Flávio R F Alves
INTRODUCTION: Bacteria present in the apical root canal system are directly involved with the pathogenesis of post-treatment apical periodontitis. This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in cryopulverized apical root samples from root canal-treated teeth with post-treatment disease. METHODS: Apical root specimens obtained during periradicular surgery of ten adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis were cryogenically ground...
2016: PloS One
Tony Gutierrez, David Berry, Andreas Teske, Michael D Aitken
The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill led to rapid microbial community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico, including the formation of unprecedented quantities of marine oil snow (MOS) and of a massive subsurface oil plume. The major taxa that bloomed in sea surface oil slicks during the spill included Cycloclasticus, and to a lesser extent Halomonas, Alteromonas, and Pseudoalteromonas-organisms that grow and degrade oil hydrocarbons aerobically. Here, we show that sea surface oil slicks at DWH contained obligate and facultative anaerobic taxa, including members of the obligate anaerobic phylum Fusobacteria that are commonly found in marine sediment environments...
July 27, 2016: Microorganisms
Wen Ren, Qun Zhang, Xuenan Liu, Shuguo Zheng, Lili Ma, Feng Chen, Tao Xu, Baohua Xu
As one of the most complex human-associated microbial habitats, the oral cavity harbors hundreds of bacteria. Halitosis is a prevalent oral condition that is typically caused by bacteria. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbial communities and predict functional profiles in supragingival plaque from healthy individuals and those with halitosis. Ten preschool children were enrolled in this study; five with halitosis and five without. Supragingival plaque was isolated from each participant and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to identify the microbes present...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hongyan Yang, Hao Wu, Lijuan Gao, Hongbai Jia, Yuan Zhang, Zongjun Cui, Yuhua Li
To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on suan cai fermentation, Lactobacillus curvatus and/or Leuconostoc mesenteroides were inoculated into suan cai. Physicochemical indexes were measured, and the microbial dynamics during the fermentation were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) lowered the pH of the fermentation system more rapidly. The decrease in water-soluble carbohydrates in the inoculated treatments occurred more rapidly than in the control...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yuwei Xie, Pu Xia, Hui Wang, Hongxia Yu, John P Giesy, Yimin Zhang, Miguel A Mora, Xiaowei Zhang
Reintroduction of the threatened red-crowned crane has been unsuccessful. Although gut microbiota correlates with host health, there is little information on gut microbiota of cranes under different conservation strategies. The study examined effects of captivity, artificial breeding and life stage on gut microbiota of red-crown cranes. The gut microbiotas of wild, captive adolescent, captive adult, artificially bred adolescent and artificially bred adult cranes were characterized by next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ningwen Tai, Jian Peng, Fuqiang Liu, Elke Gulden, Youjia Hu, Xiaojun Zhang, Li Chen, F Susan Wong, Li Wen
Both animal model and human studies indicate that commensal bacteria may modify type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbes could trigger or protect from diabetes are not fully understood, especially the interaction of commensal bacteria with pathogenic CD8 T cells. In this study, using islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-reactive CD8 T cell receptor NY8.3 transgenic nonobese diabetic mice, we demonstrated that MyD88 strongly modulates CD8(+) T cell-mediated T1D development via the gut microbiota...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Martin Salö, Nittaya Marungruang, Bodil Roth, Tiia Sundberg, Pernilla Stenström, Einar Arnbjörnsson, Frida Fåk, Bodil Ohlsson
BACKGROUND/AIM: The role of the microbiome has been widely discussed in the etiology of appendicitis. The primary aim was to evaluate the microbiome in the normal appendix and in appendicitis specifically divided into the three clinically and histopathologically defined grades of inflammation. Secondary aims were to examine whether there were any microbiome differences between proximal and distal appendices, and relate the microbiome with histopathological findings. METHODS: A prospective pilot study was conducted of children undergoing appendectomy for appendicitis...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Karsten Henne, Antonia-Patricia Gunesch, Carolin Walther, Hendrik Meyer-Lueckel, Georg Conrads, Marcella Esteves-Oliveira
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with many associated microbial taxa, but only a few are notably contributing to acidogenicity. The ribosome number and the corresponding 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) concentration are considered a molecular indicator for general metabolic activity of bacteria, as they are elevated with increased anabolic and catabolic activities. We hypothesize that the activity of aciduric/acidogenic bacterial taxa, reflected by a rise in ribosomal counts, could resolve differences between plaque biofilm from sound surfaces and caries lesions...
2016: Caries Research
Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Alessandra Palladini, Luca Masucci, Carlo Vittorio Cannistraci, Roberta Pastorino, Gianluca Ianiro, Francesca Bugli, Cecilia Martini, Walter Ricciardi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Giovanni Cammarota, Brunella Posteraro
: Besides being part of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment regimens, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are increasingly used to treat dyspepsia. However, little is known about PPI effects on the human gastric microbiota, especially those related to H. pylori infection. The goal of this study was to characterize the stomach microbial communities in patients with dyspepsia and to investigate their relationships with PPI use and H. pylori status. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we analyzed the mucosa-associated microbial populations of 24 patients, of whom 12 were treated with the PPI omeprazole and 9 (5 treated and 4 untreated) were positive to H...
September 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yan Guo, Chao-Qian Liu, Cheng-Xiang Shan, Yue Chen, Hui-Hua Li, Zhi-Ping Huang, Da-Jin Zou
BACKGROUND: Recent work of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery is limited and the results have not been in agreement. Given the role of the gut microbiota in regulating host metabolism, we explored the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on the modifications of gut microbiota with regard to the potential influence of food intake and/or weight loss and examined their links with host metabolism. METHODS: Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into the following groups: RYGB, sham-operated with pair-fed as RYGB, sham-operated fed ad libitum and SG...
August 30, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Xuemei Li, Qingyun Yan, Einar Ringø, Xingbing Wu, Yongfeng He, Deguo Yang
BACKGROUND: Largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti) is of economic importance in China, distributed in upstream regions of the Yangtze River in China. But it has recently dramatically declined and is close to elimination. However, there is little knowing about the character of its intestinal microbiota. This study was conducted to elucidate the intestinal microbiota of wild largemouth bronze gudgeon with different body weight and gender. RESULTS: Thirty wild largemouth bronze gudgeon were measured for body length and body weight, and identified for male and female according to gonadal development, and thereafter the intestinal microbiota's were assessed by MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA genes...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Jessica J Eichmiller, Matthew J Hamilton, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Peter W Sorensen
BACKGROUND: Although the common, silver, and bighead carps are native and sparsely distributed in Eurasia, these fish have become abundant and invasive in North America. An understanding of the biology of these species may provide insights into sustainable control methods. The animal-associated microbiome plays an important role in host health. Characterization of the carp microbiome and the factors that affect its composition is an important step toward understanding the biology and interrelationships between these species and their environments...
2016: Microbiome
Jawad Abed, Johanna E M Emgård, Gideon Zamir, Mouhammad Faroja, Gideon Almogy, Amalie Grenov, Asaf Sol, Ronit Naor, Eli Pikarsky, Karine A Atlan, Anna Mellul, Stella Chaushu, Abigail L Manson, Ashlee M Earl, Nora Ou, Caitlin A Brennan, Wendy S Garrett, Gilad Bachrach
Fusobacterium nucleatum is associated with colorectal cancer and promotes colonic tumor formation in preclinical models. However, fusobacteria are core members of the human oral microbiome and less prevalent in the healthy gut, raising questions about how fusobacteria localize to CRC. We identify a host polysaccharide and fusobacterial lectin that explicates fusobacteria abundance in CRC. Gal-GalNAc, which is overexpressed in CRC, is recognized by fusobacterial Fap2, which functions as a Gal-GalNAc lectin...
August 10, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Santosh K Ghosh, Aaron Weinberg
Fusobacteria are found to be overrepresented in the colorectal tumor microenvironment. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Abed et al. (2016) describe a novel homing mechanism by which fusobacteria localize to tumors by recognizing a host polysaccharide (Gal-GalNAc) on cancer cells using a fusobacterial lectin, Fap2.
August 10, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Cuicui Xiao, Shujun Ran, Zhengwei Huang, Jingping Liang
Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700) clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity), representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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