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Deping Song, Qi Peng, Yanjun Chen, Xinrong Zhou, Fanfan Zhang, Anqi Li, Dongyan Huang, Qiong Wu, Yu Ye, Houjun He, Leyi Wang, Yuxin Tang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a devastating cause of diarrhea in pigs worldwide. Most of studies have focused on molecular and pathogenic characterization of PEDV, whereas there were limited studies in understanding the role of gut microbiota (GM) in viral-associated diarrhea. Here, using the Illumina MiSeq platform, we examined and compared the impact of PEDV infection on the GM of sows and their piglets less than 10 days old. Our results showed that PEDV caused alternations in the structure and abundance of GM from levels of phylum to genus, and even species...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
María Carmen Collado, Phillip A Engen, Cristina Bandín, Raúl Cabrera-Rubio, Robin M Voigt, Stefan J Green, Ankur Naqib, Ali Keshavarzian, Frank A J L Scheer, Marta Garaulet
The composition of the diet (what we eat) has been widely related to the microbiota profile. However, whether the timing of food consumption (when we eat) influences microbiota in humans is unknown. A randomized, crossover study was performed in 10 healthy normal-weight young women to test the effect of the timing of food intake on the human microbiota in the saliva and fecal samples. More specifically, to determine whether eating late alters daily rhythms of human salivary microbiota, we interrogated salivary microbiota in samples obtained at 4 specific time points over 24 h, to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between food timing and metabolic alterations in humans...
December 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Pranab K Mukherjee, Hannah Wang, Mauricio Retuerto, Huan Zhang, Brian Burkey, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Charis Eng
Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral (mobile) tongue (OMTC), a non-human papilloma virus-associated oral cancer, is rapidly increasing without clear etiology. Poor oral hygiene has been associated with oral cancers, suggesting that oral bacteriome (bacterial community) and mycobiome (fungal community) could play a role. While the bacteriome is increasingly recognized as an active participant in health, the role of the mycobiome has not been studied in OMTC. Tissue DNA was extracted from 39 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from patients with OMTC...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
Yvonne Stolze, Andreas Bremges, Irena Maus, Alfred Pühler, Alexander Sczyrba, Andreas Schlüter
Biogas production is performed anaerobically by complex microbial communities with key species driving the process. Hence, analyses of their in situ activities are crucial to understand the process. In a previous study, metagenome sequencing and subsequent genome binning for different production-scale biogas plants (BGPs) resulted in four genome bins of special interest, assigned to the phyla Thermotogae, Fusobacteria, Spirochaetes and Cloacimonetes, respectively, that were genetically analysed. In this study, metatranscriptome sequencing of the same BGP samples was conducted, enabling in situ transcriptional activity determination of these genome bins...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
K C Anukam, N R Agbakoba
INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of information on the oral microbiome compositions of Nigerians, mostly due to lack of appropriate molecular techniques. In this pilot study, we sought to determine and characterize the oral bacterial compositions of "healthy" females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral samples were collected from three randomly selected females aged 56, 28, and 8 years. DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA V4 region was amplified using custom-barcoded primers before sequencing with Illumina MiSeq platform...
October 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Shin-Hye Yu, So-Hyung Kwak, Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen, Ye-Seul Seo, Chaeri Song, Il Kyoon Mok, Doman Kim
OBJECTIVES: To develop preventive canine oral health bio-materials consisting of probiotics and glucanase to reduce insoluble glucan and volatile sulfur compound formation. RESULTS: Co-cultivation of Enterococcus faecium T7 with Streptococcus mutans at inoculation ratio of 3:1 (v/v) resulted in 25% reduction in the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Amounts of soluble and insoluble glucans produced by S. mutans were decreased to 70 and 55%, respectively. Insoluble glucan was decreased from 0...
November 21, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Shenzheng Zeng, Zhijian Huang, Dongwei Hou, Jian Liu, Shaoping Weng, Jianguo He
Intestinal microbiota is an integral component of the host and plays important roles in host health. The pacific white shrimp is one of the most profitable aquaculture species commercialized in the world market with the largest production in shrimp consumption. Many studies revealed that the intestinal microbiota shifted significantly during host development in other aquaculture animals. In the present study, 22 shrimp samples were collected every 15 days from larval stage (15 day post-hatching, dph) to adult stage (75 dph) to investigate the intestinal microbiota at different culture stages by targeting the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, and the microbial function prediction was conducted by PICRUSt...
2017: PeerJ
T Dulski, Z Zakęś, S Ciesielski
This study characterized the gastrointestinal microbiome of nine juvenile farmed pikeperch Sander lucioperca using a metagenomics approach based on bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Potential changes in the gut microbiota during 2 months of S. lucioperca juvenile life were investigated. Results revealed that gut microbiota was dominated by Proteobacteria (95-92%), while other phyla Firmicutes (1-1·5%) and Actinobacteria (0·9-1·5%) were less abundant. At the family level, fish-gut microbiota were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae, which constituted c...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
Na Zhang, Chengwen Song, Minxiao Wang, Yuan Liu, Min Hui, Zhaoxia Cui
For deep-sea hydrothermal vent crabs, recent investigations have revealed some epibiotic bacteria, but no study has described the bacterial community associated with the gill and intestine. In this study, the microbiota attached to the gill and intestine of the hydrothermal vent crab Austinograea sp. and two shallow-water crab species (Eriocheir sinensis and Portunus trituberculatus) were compared by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. The highest and lowest diversity in bacterial communities were observed in the gill and intestine of Austinograea sp...
2017: PloS One
M D Weinroth, C R Carlson, J N Martin, J L Metcalf, P S Morley, K E Belk
Liver abscesses are a major economic burden to beef producers. Although a few causative organisms have been cultured from purulent material, the full polymicrobial diversity of liver abscesses has not been reported. The objective of this study was to characterize purulent material collected from liver abscess in beef cattle produced in different production systems in 3 cattle producing states in the United States using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Differences between purulent material microbial communities among geographic region of feeding and application of a common antimicrobial were also investigated...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Guanling Xu, Wei Xing, Tieliang Li, Zhihong Ma, Caixia Liu, Na Jiang, Lin Luo
This study was performed to determine the efficacy of raffinose on the growth, non-specific immunity, intestinal morphology and microbiota of juvenile hybrid sturgeon, (Acipenser baeri Brandt ♀ × A. schrenckii Brandt ♂). Hybrid sturgeons were divided into 2 groups and each group was fed with diets supplemented with or without raffinose for 56 days. Hybrid sturgeon fed diet supplemented with raffinose had significantly higher final body weight (FBW), specific growth rate (SGR), and weight gain ratio (WGR) than fish fed the control diet (P < 0...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xiaochang Huang, Shaoming Fang, Hui Yang, Jun Gao, Maozhang He, Shanlin Ke, Yuanzhang Zhao, Congying Chen, Lusheng Huang
Serum glucose and lipids are important indicators for host metabolic condition. Interaction of host and gut microbes regulates the metabolism process. However, how much the gut microbiome contributes to the variance of serum glucose and lipids is largely unknown. Here we carried out a 16S rRNA gene based association study between cecum microbiome and the concentration of serum glucose and lipids in 240 Chinese Erhualian pigs. We identified tens of bacterial taxa associated with serum glucose and lipids. The butyrate-producing bacteria were significantly associated with serum glucose level...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Puneet Puri, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Jeffrey E Christensen, Vijay H Shah, Patrick S Kamath, Gregory J Gores, Susan Walker, Megan Comerford, Barry Katz, Andrew Borst, Qigui Yu, Divya P Kumar, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Svetlana Radaeva, Naga P Chalasani, David W Crabb, Arun J Sanyal
Intestinal dysbiosis is implicated in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). However, changes in the circulating microbiome, its association with the presence and severity of AH and its functional relevance in AH is unknown. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes in the circulating microbiome were performed by sequencing bacterial DNA in subjects with moderate (n=18) or severe AH (n=19). These data were compared to heavy drinking controls (HDC) without obvious liver disease (n=19) and non-alcohol consuming controls (NAC, n=20)...
October 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Shamim Shamim, Thomas B Waltzek, Roger Huerlimann, Ellen Ariel
Green turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) are endangered marine herbivores that break down food particles, primarily sea grasses, through microbial fermentation. However, the microbial community and its role in health and disease are still largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated and compared the fecal bacterial communities of eight wild-captured green turtles to four stranded turtles in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) regions that include Bowen and Townsville. We used high-throughput sequencing analysis targeting the hypervariable V1- V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
October 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Shai Yitzhaki, Leah Reshef, Uri Gophna, Mel Rosenberg, Nir Sterer
In the past, our inability to cultivate most of the oral microorganisms has limited our view of this complex ecosystem. In the present study, we utilized next generation deep sequencing techniques to revisit the microbiome associated with dentures malodour a growing problem with the rise in life expectancy. Study population comprised of twenty six full dentures patients (mean age 71±6.4, 16 females) who visited the Tel Aviv University dental geriatric clinic. Dentures malodour was rated organoleptically by a single odour judge and dentures scored 2 and above were considered malodour positive...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Juan Alfredo Hernández-García, Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero, Flor N Rivera-Orduña, Gerardo Zúñiga
Dendroctonus bark beetles comprise 20 taxonomically recognized species, which are one of the most destructive pine forest pests in North and Central America, and Eurasia. The aims of this study were to characterize the gut bacterial diversity, to determine the core bacteriome and to explore the ecological association between these bacteria and bark beetles. A total of five bacterial phyla were identified in the gut of 13 Dendroctonus species; Proteobacteria was the most abundant, followed by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Maria Jose Grande Burgos, Jose Luis Romero, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Antonio Cobo Molinos, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas
Tilapia farming is a promising growing sector in aquaculture. Yet, there are limited studies on microbiological risks associated to tilapia farms. The aim of the present study was to analyse the bacterial communities from solid surfaces in contact with air in a tilapia farm in order to evaluate the presence of bacteria potentially toxinogenic or pathogenic to humans or animals. Samples from a local tilapia farm (tank wall, aerator, water outlets, sink and floor) were analyzed by high throughput sequencing technology...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Research
Sarah A Knutie, Caitlin Gabor, Kevin D Kohl, Jason R Rohr
1.Environmental stressors, such as pollutants, can increase disease risk in wildlife. For example, the herbicide atrazine affects host defenses (e.g. resistance and tolerance) of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but the mechanisms for these associations are not always clear. Given that pollutants can alter the gut microbiota of hosts, which in turn can affect their health and immune systems, one potential mechanism by which pollutants could increase infection risk is by influencing host-associated microbiota...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
Qi Xu, Xiaoya Yuan, Tiantian Gu, Yang Li, Wangcheng Dai, Xiaokun Shen, Yadong Song, Yang Zhang, Wenming Zhao, Guobin Chang, Guohong Chen
BACKGROUND: Gut microbial composition is dependent on diet. Geese are herbivores and can digest crude fibre, but the relationship between composition of the microbiota and a fibre-rich diet in geese is not well understood. RESULTS: Here, caecal and faecal samples were collected simultaneously from all-grass-fed geese and high-grain-fed geese and the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. The results was identified that high-grass-fed geese possessed significantly higher alpha diversity both in caecum and faeces compared with that in all-grain-fed geese...
2017: PloS One
Chin-An Yang, Chao Liang, Chia-Li Lin, Chiung-Tzu Hsiao, Ching-Tien Peng, Hung-Chih Lin, Jan-Gowth Chang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected) first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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