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Molecular profiling

Louise M Stewart, Katrina Spilsbury, Susan Jordan, Colin Stewart, C D'Arcy J Holman, Aime Powell, Joanne Reekie, Paul Cohen
BACKGROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is not a single disease, but rather a collection of subtypes with differing molecular properties and risk profiles. The most common of these, and the subject of this work, is high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC). METHODS: In this population-based study we identified a cohort of 441,382 women resident in Western Australia who had ever been admitted to hospital in the State. Of these, 454 were diagnosed with HGSC. We used Cox regression to derive hazard ratios (HRs) comparing the risk of disease in women who had each of a range of medical diagnoses and surgical procedures with women who did not...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Wenjia Lou, Hsiu-Chi Ting, Christian jA Reynolds, Yulia Y Tyurina, Vladimir A Tyurin, Yiran Li, Jiajia Ji, Wenxi Yu, Zhuqing Liang, Detcho A Stoyanovsky, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Michael A Frasso, Peter Wipf, Joel S Greenberger, Hülya Bayir, Valerian E Kagan, Miriam L Greenberg
Cardiolipin (CL) is a unique phospholipid localized almost exclusively within the mitochondrial membranes where it is synthesized. Newly synthesized CL undergoes acyl remodeling to produce CL species enriched with unsaturated acyl groups. Cld1 is the only identified CL specific phospholipase in yeast and is required to initiate the CL remodeling pathway. In higher eukaryotes, peroxidation of CL, yielding CLOX , has been implicated in the cellular signaling events that initiate apoptosis. CLOX can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis, resulting in the release of lipid mediators with signaling properties...
June 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anton Buzdin, Maxim Sorokin, Andrew Garazha, Marina Sekacheva, Ella Kim, Nikolay Zhukov, Ye Wang, Xinmin Li, Souvik Kar, Christian Hartmann, Amir Samii, Alf Giese, Nicolas Borisov
Anticancer target drugs (ATDs) specifically bind and inhibit molecular targets that play important roles in cancer development and progression, being deeply implicated in intracellular signaling pathways. To date, hundreds of different ATDs were approved for clinical use in the different countries. Compared to previous chemotherapy treatments, ATDs often demonstrate reduced side effects and increased efficiency, but also have higher costs. However, the efficiency of ATDs for the advanced stage tumors is still insufficient...
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Zhiqian Liu, Simone Rochfort, Ben Cocks
Bovine milk contains 3-5% of fat, of which the dominant portion (about 98%) is in the form of triacylglycerols, whereas polar lipids such as glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids are minor components (0.5-1%) of milk fat. Milk fat is thought to contain several thousand lipid species, making it the most complex material in nature in terms of lipid composition. Significant progress has been made in the past two decades in the identification and quantification of lipid species of milk thanks to the advance in analytical tools especially high-resolution mass spectrometers (MS)...
June 20, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
Jinju Lee, Tomohiro Aoki, Dean Thumkeo, Ratklao Siriwach, Chengcan Yao, Shuh Narumiya
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is the key cytokine for generation of pathogenic IL-17-producing helper T (Th17) cells that critically contribute to autoimmune diseases. However, how IL-23 generates pathogenic Th17 cells remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To examine the involvement, molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of prostaglandin (PG) E2 -EP2/EP4 signaling in induction of IL-23-driven pathogenic Th17 cells. METHODS: The role of PGE2 in induction of pathogenic Th17 cells was investigated in mouse Th17 cells in culture in vitro and in IL-23-induced psoriasis mouse model in vivo...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hongyu Jing, Xinglong Qu, Lingyun Liu, Huan Xia
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of a novel long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), LL22NC03-N64E9.1, and its effect on the phenotype of lung cancer cells and tissues using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequencing data and other publicly available profiling data. MATERIAL AND METHODS The lung cancer dataset GSE30219 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. Differentially expressed lncRNA, LL22NC03-N64E9.1, in 48 lung cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal lung tissues, normal lung cell lines BEAS-2B and A549, and lung cancer cell lines, H1703, and H292, were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (qRT-PCR)...
June 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Abdul Jaleel, A Aneesh Kumar, G S Ajith Kumar, Arun Surendran, Chandrashekaran C Kartha
Endocardial endothelium, which lines the chambers of the heart, is distinct in its origin, structure, and function. Characterization studies using genomics and proteomics have reported molecular signatures supporting the structural and functional heterogeneity of various endothelial cells. However, though functionally very important, no studies at protein level have been conducted so far characterizing endocardial endothelium. In this study, we used endothelial cells from pig heart to investigate if endocardial endothelial cells are distinct at the proteome level...
June 22, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Tao Huang, Ya-Dong Wang, Ming-Ming Xue, Xue Feng, Cai-Xia Sun, An-Si Wang, Shu-Yu Xie, Meng Zhang, Gui-Rong Sun, Ming Li
Reproduction is a complex physiological process that is regulated by multiple genes and pathways. Compared with studies of common livestock, fewer studies of genes related to the fertility of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been reported, and the molecular mechanism of their high productivity is still poorly understood. To identify candidate genes associated with development and prolificacy in rabbits, we analyzed gene expression differences among the ovaries of mature Californian rabbit (LC), and mature (HH) and immature Harbin white rabbit (IH) using digital gene expression technology...
July 2018: Genes & Genomics
Carlson Alexander, A Nithyakumar, M Wilson Bosco Paul, N Arockia Samy
The synthesis of the platinum(II) complexes, [Pt(AIP)(bpy)](PF6 )2 (1) and [Pt(PIP)(phen)](PF6 )2 (2), of anthracene- and pyrene-conjugated imidazophenanthroline ligands and their in vitro cytotoxicity toward the fibroblast cells and the HeLa cell lines are reported. MTT assay demonstrates their cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell lines with the IC50 values of 1.35 and 1.56 µM, respectively, and the cytotoxicity profiles indicate that the HeLa cell lines show more activity than the fibroblast cells. Trypan blue assay highlights significant damage on the HeLa cell lines with a pronounced reduction on their clonogenicity...
July 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Kaicheng Zhu, Federico M Lauro, Haibin Su
In meromictic lakes, the water column is stratified into distinguishable steady layers with different physico-chemical properties. The bottom portion, known as monimolimnion, has been studied for the functional stratification of microbial populations. Recent experiments have reported the profiles of bacterial and nutrient spatial distributions, but quantitative understanding is invoked to unravel the underlying mechanism of maintaining the discrete spatial organization. Here a reaction-diffusion model is developed to highlight the spatial pattern coupled with the light-driven metabolism of bacteria, which is resilient to a wide range of dynamical correlation between bacterial and nutrient species at the molecular level...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
E Cojocaru, C A Parkinson, J D Brenton
Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous group of cancers that differ by cell of origin and genomic features. High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is the commonest histiotype and is characterized by extreme genomic complexity and dysregulation of DNA damage repair pathways, particularly homologous recombination deficiency. New insights from molecular profiling into homologous recombination deficiency now offers the credible possibility of personalizing treatment choices for women with HGSOC using poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor (PARP) therapy...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Jiawei Tan, Mengcheng Zheng, Susu Duan, Yanling Zeng, Ziwei Zhang, Qingyu Cui, Jiamei Zhang, Tingting Hong, Jie Bai, Shouying Du
Cassia fistula L. which is known as “Golden Shower”, is used as an ornamental plant due to its flowers, and fruit parts of this plant have a high medicinal value. There are few reports providing a comprehensive overview of the chemical composition of its fruit or explaining the differences between samples from different sources because of the complexity of its chemical components. The purpose of the present study was to establish a fingerprint evaluation system based on Similarity Analysis (SA), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the composition identification and quality control of this herb...
June 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zaid Ulhassan, Skhawat Ali, Rafaqat A Gill, Theodore M Mwamba, Muhammad Abid, Lan Li, Na Zhang, Weijun Zhou
Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-element for human and animals. In higher plants, Se essentiality or phyto-toxicity is less explored. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of Se (0, 25, 50, and 100 µM) as sodium selenite on the physio-chemical, cell ultra-structural and genomic alterations in hydroponically grown seedlings of four cultivars of B. napus (cvs. Zheda 619, Zheda 622, ZS 758, and ZY 50). Results showed that excessive (100 µM) Se (IV) exhibited significant reduction in plant growth parameters, declined pigment contents, lower water-soluble protein levels, and overproduction of H2 O2 and MDA contents...
June 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Mónica Zuzarte, Jorge M Alves-Silva, Melissa Alves, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro, Maria Teresa Cruz
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thymus camphoratus and T. carnosus are widely used in Portugal for the treatment of inflammatory-related conditions, such as inflammation of the respiratory tract, being the later also used as an antitussive. AIM OF THE STUDY: Bearing in mind the lack of scientific studies focused on the pharmacological activity of Thymus camphoratus and T. carnosus, this work was designed to validate the anti-inflammatory properties ascribed to these traditional species and concomitantly to unveil both the putative molecular mechanisms behind their bioactivity as well as the safety profile of their essential oils and major compounds...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Zhongxiang Sun, Qi Shi, Cuicui Xu, Rumeng Wang, Huanhuan Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Rensen Zeng
The major yolk protein precursors (YPP) gene, vitellogenin (Vg), usually considered as a reproductive indicator and molecular marker for evaluating insect fecundity, is controlled by insect hormone (mainly ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone), transcription factors and many other fecundity-related genes. To better understand the underlying molecular regulation mechanisms of the NlVg in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (N. lugens), the correlation between one early ecdysone response gene E74 and one important fecundity-related gene angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) on the regulation of Vg gene expression, was investigated...
June 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Manuel Merlos, Enrique Portillo-Salido, Alex Brenchat, Bertrand Aubel, Jordi Buxens, Angels Fisas, Xavier Codony, Luz Romero, Daniel Zamanillo, José Miguel Vela
Drug combination for the treatment of pain is common clinical practice. Co-crystal of Tramadol-Celecoxib (CTC) consists of two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely the atypical opioid tramadol and the preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib, at a 1:1 molecular ratio. In this study, a non-formulated 'raw' form of CTC administered in suspension (referred to as ctcsusp ) was compared with both tramadol and celecoxib alone in a rat plantar incision postoperative pain model. For comparison, the strong opioids morphine and oxycodone, and a tramadol plus acetaminophen combination at a molecular ratio of 1:17 were also tested...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Elizabeth G Bannister, Lilly Yuen, Margaret Littlejohn, Rosalind Edwards, Vitina Sozzi, Danni Colledge, Xin Li, Stephen Locarnini, Winita Hardikar, Peter A Revill
Migration from sub-Saharan Africa is contributing to the rising incidence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and its complications in Australia. African CHB is associated with unique genotypes, such as E and A1, which are associated with reduced vaccine efficacy and early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively, although the prevalence of these genotypes outside Africa is poorly described. Treatment-naïve children of African origin with CHB were recruited at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne...
June 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Lori A Ramkissoon, Nicholas Britt, Alexander Guevara, Emily Whitt, Eric Severson, Pratheesh Sathyan, Laurie Gay, Julia Elvin, Jeffrey S Ross, Charlotte Brown, Kimberly Stogner-Underwood, Ryan Mott, David Kram, Roy Strowd, Glenn J Lesser, Shakti H Ramkissoon
In recent years, large-scale genomic studies have expanded our knowledge regarding genomic drivers in tumors of the central nervous system. While histopathologic analysis of brain tumors remains the primary method for tumor classification, the clinical utility of molecular and genomic testing to support and/or complement tumor classification continues to expand. This approach enhances diagnostic accuracy and provides clinicians with objective data to facilitate discussions regarding prognosis and treatment decisions, including selection of clinical trials...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Chengmao Xie, Xiaohui Cai, Xiaoju Wang, Li Lin, Yan Long, Xin Cui
ABCA1 is expressed in placental trophoblasts, such that when the expression level of ABCA1 changes, the function of trophoblasts dramatically changes. However, the mechanism by which ABCA1 affects the function of trophoblast cells remains unclear. Here, we used biochemical and transcriptomic to uncover the potential mechanism of the effect of ABCA1 on trophoblast function. HTR8/SVneo cells were either treated with the agonist T0901317 or transfected with siRNA to regulate ABCA1 expression levels. A human gene expression microarray was used to analyze the expression spectrum of ABCA1...
June 21, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Da-Wei Li, Wei-Hong Xie, Ting-Bin Hao, Jia-Xi Cai, Tian-Bao Zhou, Srinivasan Balamurugan, Wei-Dong Yang, Jie-Sheng Liu, Hong-Ye Li
Photosynthetic microalgae are of burgeoning interest in the generation of commercial bioproducts. Microalgae accumulate high lipid content under adverse conditions, which in turn compromise their growth and hinder their commercial potential. Hence, it is necessary to engineer microalgae to mitigate elevated lipid accumulation and biomass. In this study, we identified acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) in oleaginous microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtACC2) and expressed constitutively in the chloroplast to demonstrate the potential of chloroplast engineering...
June 22, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
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