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Tumor profiling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732356/the-circrna-interactome-innovative-hallmarks-of-the-intra-and-extracellular-radiation-response
#1
Valerie Bríd O'Leary, Jan Smida, Martina Matjanovski, Corinna Brockhaus, Klaudia Winkler, Simone Moertl, Saak Victor Ovsepian, Michael John Atkinson
Generated by Quaking (QKI), circular RNAs (circRNAs) are newly recognised non-coding RNA (ncRNA) members characterised by tissue specificity, increased stability and enrichment within exosomes. Studies have shown that ionizing radiation (IR) can influence ncRNA transcription. However, it is unknown whether circRNAs or indeed QKI are regulated by IR. Microarray circRNA profiling and next generation sequencing revealed that circRNA expression was altered by low and medium dose exposure sourced predominantly from genes influencing the p53 pathway...
July 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732046/qualitative-differences-in-cellular-immunogenicity-elicited-by-hepatitis-c-virus-t-cell-vaccines-employing-prime-boost-regimens
#2
Wendy G Tan, Iryna Zubkova, Alla Kachko, Frances Wells, Heiko Adler, Gerd Sutter, Marian E Major
T-cell based vaccines have been considered as attractive candidates for prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. In this study we compared the magnitude and phenotypic characteristics of CD8+ T-cells induced by three commonly used viral vectors, Adenovirus-5 (Ad5), Vaccinia virus (VV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein. C57/BL6 mice were primed with DNA expressing NS3/4A and boosted with each of the viral vectors in individual groups of mice. We then tracked the vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell responses using pentamer binding and cytokine production analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731921/loss-of-cdkn1c-in-a-recurrent-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor
#3
Dustin Tran, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Avneesh Gupta, Kate Gowans, Patricia L Robertson, Rajen Mody, Carl Koschmann
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a malignant tumor that is commonly associated with biallelic alterations of SMARCB1. Recurrent or refractory AT/RT has not been molecularly characterized as well. We present the case of a child with recurrent AT/RT who underwent clinically integrated molecular profiling (germline DNA and tumor DNA/RNA sequencing). This demonstrated a somatic lesion in CDKN1C alongside hallmark loss of SMARCB1. This data allowed us to explore potential personalized therapies for this patient and expose a molecular driver that may be involved in similar cases...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731408/defining-the-biological-basis-of-radiomic-phenotypes-in-lung-cancer
#4
Patrick Grossmann, Olya Stringfield, Nehme El-Hachem, Marilyn M Bui, Emmanuel Rios Velazquez, Chintan Parmar, Ralph Th Leijenaar, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Philippe Lambin, Robert Gillies, Hugo Jwl Aerts
Medical imaging can visualize characteristics of human cancer noninvasively. Radiomics is an emerging field that translates these medical images into quantitative data to enable phenotypic profiling of tumors. While radiomics has been associated with several clinical endpoints, the complex relationships of radiomics, clinical factors, and tumor biology are largely unknown. To this end, we analyzed two independent cohorts of respectively 262 North American and 89 European patients with lung cancer, and consistently identified previously undescribed associations between radiomic imaging features, molecular pathways, and clinical factors...
July 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731080/a-tumor-targeted-polymer-theranostics-platform-for-positron-emission-tomography-and-fluorescence-imaging
#5
Eva Koziolová, Shreya Goel, Petr Chytil, Olga Janoušková, Todd E Barnhart, Weibo Cai, Tomáš Etrych
Here, we describe a novel polymer platform suitable for efficient diagnostics and potential theranostics based on (89)Zr-labeled N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA)-based copolymer conjugates. A set of polymers differing in molecular weight with either low dispersity or high dispersity were designed and synthesized and their biodistribution in vivo was successfully and precisely observed over 72 h. Moreover, the feasibility of two imaging techniques, fluorescence imaging (FI) and positron emission tomography (PET), was compared using labeled polymer conjugates...
July 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731043/gastroblastoma-harbors-a-recurrent-somatic-malat1-gli1-fusion-gene
#6
Rondell P Graham, Asha A Nair, Jaime I Davila, Long Jin, Jin Jen, William R Sukov, Tsung-Teh Wu, Henry D Appelman, Jorge Torres-Mora, Kyle D Perry, Lizhi Zhang, Sara M Kloft-Nelson, Ryan A Knudson, Patricia T Greipp, Andrew L Folpe
Gastroblastoma is a rare distinctive biphasic tumor of the stomach. The molecular biology of gastroblastoma has not been studied, and no affirmative diagnostic markers have been developed. We retrieved two gastroblastomas from the consultation practices of the authors and performed transcriptome sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Recurrent predicted fusion genes were validated at genomic and RNA levels. The presence of the fusion gene was confirmed on two additional paraffin-embedded cases of gastroblastoma...
July 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730499/target-inhibition-maps-based-on-responses-to-kinase-inhibitors
#7
Noah Berlow, Ranadip Pal
The prediction of tumor sensitivity to targeted drugs remains a major challenge in the design of optimal therapeutic strategies. This chapter presents a computational modeling approach to infer target inhibition maps based on responses of the tumor culture to a range of kinase inhibitors. The kinase inhibition profiles of the targeted drugs and the functional responses are utilized to infer potential tumor proliferation circuits that can assist in generation of synergistic drug combinations.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730493/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-mrs-based-methods-for-examining-cancer-metabolism-in-response-to-oncogenic-kinase-drug-treatment
#8
Yuen-Li Chung
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an analytical technique that has been extensively used to examine reprogrammed metabolism and treatment response in cancer cells and solid tumors both in vivo and ex vivo. High-resolution MRS (HR-MRS) is one of the best methods for metabolic profiling, as it is highly quantitative, robust, and reproducible. The protocols for dual-phase extraction of cancer cells and tumors and sample preparations for high-resolution (1)H and (31)P HR-MRS analysis are described here. Descriptions of spectra acquisition and analysis are also included in this chapter...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730425/at-101-acts-as-anti-proliferative-and-hormone-suppressive-agent-in-mouse-pituitary-corticotroph-tumor-cells
#9
B S Yurekli, B Karaca, A Kisim, E Bozkurt, H Atmaca, S Cetinkalp, G Ozgen, C Yilmaz, S Uzunoglu, R Uslu, F Saygili
PURPOSE: Gossypol, a naturally occurring compound in cottonseeds, has anticancer effects against several tumor cell lines. It has been extensively studied in clinical trials and is well tolerated with a favorable safety profile. AT-101, a derivative of R (-)-gossypol, binds to Bcl-2 family proteins and induces apoptosis in vitro. Although transsphenoidal surgical excision of the pituitary corticotroph adenoma is the gold standard of care, it is not successful all the time. Medical therapy for Cushing's disease still remains a challenge for the clinicians...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730323/the-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-metastatic-tumors-to-the-ovary-a-comprehensive-review
#10
REVIEW
Ondřej Kubeček, Jan Laco, Jiří Špaček, Jiří Petera, Jindřich Kopecký, Alena Kubečková, Stanislav Filip
Secondary tumors of the ovary account for 10-25% of all ovarian malignancies. The most common tumors that give rise to ovarian metastases include breast, colorectal, endometrial, stomach, and appendix cancer. The correct diagnosis of secondary ovarian tumors may be challenging as they are not infrequently misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancer, particularly in the case of mucinous adenocarcinomas. The distinction from the latter is essential, as it requires different treatment. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from extra-ovarian metastases and, furthermore, may suggest the primary tumor site...
July 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730258/morphology-with-immunohistochemical-and-genetic-profiling-of-high-grade-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-colon-a-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#11
Andrzej Wincewicz, Artur Kowalik, Sebastian Zięba, Stanisław Sułkowski, Stanisław Góźdź
Here we present a challenging case of a hepatic flexure colon tumor of 61-year-old woman with no primary lesion of lung cancer. Immunohistochemistry was applied and 50 genes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The tumor contained medium to large size neoplastic cells with evident nucleoli to be diagnosed poorly differentiated neuroendocrine predominantly large cell carcinoma of colon [G3: World Health Organization (WHO) 2010] (pT3 N0: 7th edition pTNM). Cytokeratin (CK) AE1÷AE3 staining was predominantly membranous with partial distribution in "dot-like" pattern in perinecrotic cancer fields to be reminiscent of small cell carcinoma...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730250/metastatic-high-grade-myxofibrosarcoma-review-of-a-clinical-case
#12
Tiberiu Paul Neagu, Ruxandra Diana Sinescu, Valentin Enache, Sanda Claudia Achim, Mirela Ţigliş, Liliana Elena Mirea
We present the particular clinical and histological features of a metastatic high-grade myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) of the left buttock in a 77-year-old male patient. The tumor was biopsied and surgically removed in order to increase the patient's comfort, due to its increased size and aggressive clinical behavior. Computed tomography (CT) revealed metastases in the pleura and mediastinal lymph nodes, so limb-sparing tumor excision followed by palliative care was the best practice for the patient until the fatal outcome...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730217/novel-perspectives-on-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-gists
#13
Bogdan Stelian Mastalier Manolescu, Cristiana Gabriela Popp, Valentin Popescu, Dan Andraş, Sabina Andrada Zurac, Costin Berceanu, Aida TincuŢa Petca
Since they were described, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are, for pathologists and not only for them, a subject of controversy regarding histological origin, differentiation, nomenclature, malignant potential and prognosis. Before 1998, there were no certainties that GISTs were fundamentally different from other types of abdominal cancers in the big family of mesenchymal tumors. Before the discovery of KIT gene mutations, GISTs were most often classified as leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, leiomyoblastoma, and gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730166/impact-of-chromosomal-rearrangement-upon-dna-methylation-patterns-in-leukemia
#14
Hyang-Min Byun, Shahrooz Eshaghian, Dan Douer, Jonathen Trent, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Ravi Bhatia, Kim Siegmund, Allen S Yang
Genomic instability, including genetic mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, can lead to cancer development. Aberrant DNA methylation occurs commonly in cancer cells. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a specific chromosomal lesion the BCR-ABL translocation t(9:22), in establishing DNA methylation profiles in cancer. Materials and methods We compared DNA methylation of 1,505 selected promoter CpGs in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with and without the Philadelphia chromosome t(9:22), CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells transfected with BCR-ABL, and other tumors without BCR-ABL (acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST)...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730144/molecular-characterization-of-the-human-stomach-microbiota-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#15
Guoqin Yu, Javier Torres, Nan Hu, Rafael Medrano-Guzman, Roberto Herrera-Goepfert, Michael S Humphrys, Lemin Wang, Chaoyu Wang, Ti Ding, Jacques Ravel, Philip R Taylor, Christian C Abnet, Alisa M Goldstein
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the primary cause of gastric cancer but we know little of its relative abundance and other microbes in the stomach, especially at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis. Here we characterized the taxonomic and derived functional profiles of gastric microbiota in two different sets of gastric cancer patients, and compared them with microbial profiles in other body sites. Paired non-malignant and tumor tissues were sampled from 160 gastric cancer patients with 80 from China and 80 from Mexico...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729958/mutational-analysis-of-driver-genes-with-tumor-suppressive-and-oncogenic-roles-in-gastric-cancer
#16
Tianfang Wang, Yining Liu, Min Zhao
Gastric cancer (GC) is a complex disease with heterogeneous genetic mechanisms. Genomic mutational profiling of gastric cancer not only expands our knowledge about cancer progression at a fundamental genetic level, but also could provide guidance on new treatment decisions, currently based on tumor histology. The fact that precise medicine-based treatment is successful in a subset of tumors indicates the need for better identification of clinically related molecular tumor phenotypes, especially with regard to those driver mutations on tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and oncogenes (ONGs)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729837/optimization-and-in-vivo-profiling-of-a-refined-rat-model-of-walker-256-breast-cancer-cell-induced-bone-pain-using-behavioral-radiological-histological-immunohistochemical-and-pharmacological-methods
#17
Priyank Shenoy, Andy Kuo, Irina Vetter, Maree T Smith
In the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer, there is metastatic spread to bones resulting in pain. Clinically available drug treatments for alleviation of breast cancer-induced bone pain (BCIBP) often produce inadequate pain relief due to dose-limiting side-effects. A major impediment to the discovery of novel well-tolerated analgesic agents for the relief of pain due to bony metastases is the fact that most cancer-induced bone pain models in rodents relied on the systemic injection of cancer cells, causing widespread formation of cancer metastases and poor general animal health...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729428/fluorine-18-labeled-carboplatin-derivative-for-pet-imaging-of-platinum-drug-distribution
#18
Narottam Lamichhane, Gajanan K Dewkar, Sundaresan Gobalakrishnan, Li Wang, Purnima Jose, Muhammad Otabashi, Jean-Luc Morelle, Nicholas Farrell, Jamal Zweit
Increasing evidence indicates that reduced intracellular drug accumulation is the parameter most consistently associated with platinum drug resistance, and emphasizes the need to directly measure intra-tumor drug concentration. In the era of precision medicine and with the advent of powerful imaging and proteomics technologies, there is an opportunity to better understand drug resistance, by exploiting these techniques to provide new knowledge on drug-target interactions. Here, we are contributing to this endeavor by reporting on the development of a fluorine-18 labeled carboplatin derivative ((18)F-FCP) that can be used to potentially image drug uptake and retention, including intra-tumoral distribution, by positron emission tomography (PET)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729406/tumor-evolution-as-a-therapeutic-target
#19
REVIEW
Nabil Amirouchene-Angelozzi, Charles Swanton, Alberto Bardelli
Recent technological advances in the field of molecular diagnostics (including blood-based tumor genotyping) allow the measurement of clonal evolution in patients with cancer, thus adding a new dimension to precision medicine: time. The translation of this new knowledge into clinical benefit implies rethinking therapeutic strategies. In essence, it means considering as a target not only individual oncogenes but also the evolving nature of human tumors. Here, we analyze the limitations of targeted therapies and propose approaches for treatment within an evolutionary framework...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729154/tremelimumab-as-second-line-or-third-line-treatment-in-relapsed-malignant-mesothelioma-determine-a-multicentre-international-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2b-trial
#20
Michele Maio, Arnaud Scherpereel, Luana Calabrò, Joachim Aerts, Susana Cedres Perez, Alessandra Bearz, Kristiaan Nackaerts, Dean A Fennell, Dariusz Kowalski, Anne S Tsao, Paul Taylor, Federica Grosso, Scott J Antonia, Anna K Nowak, Maria Taboada, Martina Puglisi, Paul K Stockman, Hedy L Kindler
BACKGROUND: New therapeutic strategies for malignant mesothelioma are urgently needed. In the DETERMINE study, we investigated the effects of the cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody tremelimumab in patients with previously treated advanced malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: DETERMINE was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial done at 105 study centres across 19 countries in patients with unresectable pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma who had progressed after one or two previous systemic treatments for advanced disease...
July 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
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