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Levetiracetam

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101480/spectrum-of-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-to-levetiracetam-and-human-leukocyte-antigen-typing-in-north-indian-patients
#1
Bhargavi Ramanujam, Kavish Ihtisham, Gurvinder Kaur, Shivani Srivastava, Narinder Kumar Mehra, Neena Khanna, Mahip Singh, Manjari Tripathi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aromatic antiepileptic drugs are frequently implicated for cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs); there are case-reports of even severe reactions like drug reaction eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) and Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS)-toxic epidermal necrolysis with Levetiracetam (LEV). Certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-alleles have strong association with cADRs due to specific drugs - HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-A*31:01 in Carbamazepine (CBZ)-related SJS in Han-Chinese and European populations, respectively...
December 2016: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095713/disseminated-eruptive-granuloma-annulare-induced-by-levetiracetam
#2
Betul Sereflican, Tekden Karapinar, Selma Erdogan Duzcu, Şule Aydin Turkoglu
Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign, granulomatous cutaneous disease without clear etiology. Disseminated and drug induced granuloma annulare is a rare presentation. We present a 47-year-old woman with diffuse circular erythematous eruptions following treatment with levetiracetam. Her clinical and histopathological findings were compatible with the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of this skin disease as a result of levetiracetam use. We report this case to highlight this antiepileptic drug as a possible etiologic agent in disseminated granuloma annulare...
January 17, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090524/the-samukeppra-study-in-prehospital-status-epilepticus-lessons-for-future-study
#3
COMMENT
Andrew C Schomer, Jaideep Kapur
In the Lancet Neurology article "Prehospital treatment with levetiracetam plus clonazepam or placebo plus clonazepam in status epilepticus (SAMUKeppra): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial" the authors conducted a prehospital, randomized controlled study to determine which treatment is more effective for status epilepticus (SE): benzodiazepine alone, or in combination with levetiracetam (LEV). Although the study had negative results, several aspects of the trial design likely masked any added effect that LEV may have had in controlling SE, including: higher doses of benzodiazepines, lower thresholds for determining cessation of SE, and a smaller sample size...
December 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067060/update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-myoclonic-seizures
#4
Pasquale Striano, Vincenzo Belcastro
Myoclonic seizures are brief, involuntary muscular jerks arising from the central nervous system that can occur in different epilepsy syndromes, including idiopathic generalized epilepsies or the most severe group of epileptic encephalopathies. Valproate is commonly the first choice alone or in combination with some benzodiazepines or levetiracetam. However, more treatment options exist today as there is emerging evidence to support the efficacy of some newer antiepileptic drugs. In addition, of major importance remains avoidance of medications (e...
January 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065794/adjuvant-quercetin-therapy-for-combined-treatment-of-epilepsy-and-comorbid-depression
#5
Tanveer Singh, Taranjot Kaur, Rajesh Kumar Goel
Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders frequently associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression. The predisposition of tryptophan metabolism towards kynurenine pathway has been reported as one of the plausible reasons for association of depression in epilepsy. Hence, this study was envisaged to evaluate the dose dependent inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme employing quercetin (screened employing in vitro method) with levetiracetam for combined management of epilepsy and comorbid depression...
January 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058866/the-influence-of-thermal-treatment-and-type-of-insoluble-poly-meth-acrylates-on-dissolution-behavior-of-very-soluble-drug-from-hypromellose-matrix-tablets-evaluated-by-multivariate-data-analysis
#6
Katerina Kubova, Daniel Peček, Kristýna Hasserová, Petr Doležel, Miroslava Pavelková, Jakub Vyslouzil, Jan Muselík, David Vetchy
Hypromellose matrices exhibit extended burst effect immediately after contact with aqueous medium, especially when a water-soluble drug is incorporated. The objective of this study was to reduce burst effect and maintain complete dissolution of a very soluble levetiracetam over 12 h period from hypromellose K4M matrices to obtain zero-order kinetics. Desired changes were achieved by applying water dispersions of insoluble Eudragits(®) (NE, NM, RL, RS) as a granulation liquid to the drug/microcrystalline cellulose mixture during high-shear granulation (non-thermal treated set) and consequently by thermally treating granules or final tablets (TT), respectively...
January 6, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057897/review-and-update-of-the-hong-kong-epilepsy-guideline-on-status-epilepticus
#7
REVIEW
E Lw Fung, B Bh Fung
Convulsive status epilepticus is the most extreme form of seizure. It is a medical and neurological emergency that requires prompt and appropriate treatment. Treatment of convulsive status epilepticus is usually divided into stages/steps. The International League Against Epilepsy has released a new definition of status epilepticus that may help to unify the definition in future studies. Over the last few years new information has become available regarding its management. The Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial demonstrated non-inferiority of intramuscular midazolam in early status epilepticus compared with intravenous lorazepam...
January 6, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042096/different-response-to-antiepileptic-drugs-according-to-the-type-of-epileptic-events-in-a-neonatal-ischemia-reperfusion-model
#8
Luc Morin, Julie Enderlin, Pierre-Louis Leger, Gaëtan Perrotte, Philippe Bonnin, Nina Dupuis, Olivier Baud, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Stéphane Auvin
Perinatal arterial stroke is the most frequent form of cerebral infarction in children. Neonatal seizures are the most frequent symptom during the neonatal period. The current management of perinatal stroke is based on supportive care. It is currently unknown if treatment of the seizures modifies the outcome, and no clinical studies have focused on seizures during neonatal stroke. We studied the effect of phenobarbital and levetiracetam on an ischemic-reperfusion stroke model in P7 rats using prolonged electroencephalographic recordings and a histologic analysis of the brain (24h after injury)...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039868/rhabdomyolysis-associated-with-levetiracetam-administration
#9
Rodica Di Lorenzo, Yuebing Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034663/acute-liver-injury-induced-by-levetiracetam-and-temozolomide-co-treatment
#10
Tawfik Khoury, Shmuel Chen, Ayman Abu Rmeileh, Saleh Daher, Shaul Yaari, Ariel A Benson, Jonah Cohen, Meir Mizrahi
BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used for treatment of brain neoplasms and levetiracetam (LEV) is a commonly used antiepileptic. When administered separately each medication has few negative side effects impacting the liver. AIMS: We sought to determine the risk of liver injury associated with the co-administration of TMZ and LEV. METHODS: A case-control study was performed comparing patients who received combination therapy of TMZ and LEV (group A) with matched controls (group B) who received monotherapy with one of either TMZ or LEV...
December 5, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034485/the-photosensitivity-model-is-also-a-model-for-focal-partial-seizures
#11
Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, Pierre Genton, Christian Brandt, Ronald C Reed
The 'Photosensitivity Model' uses a standardized stimulation protocol of repeated intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) over a three-day period, with administration of a single dose of an investigational antiepileptic drug (AED) after a baseline IPS day in photosensitive patients, followed by a third IPS day to determine duration of effect. This 'Photosensitivity Model' has shown its' value in the development of new AEDs. Levetiracetam (LEV), currently a first-line AED in new-onset focal epilepsies, was not effective in classical animal models, but showed dose-dependent efficacy in the human 'Photosensitivity Model'...
December 2, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032682/antiepileptic-drugs-impacts-on-human-serum-paraoxonase-1
#12
Şükrü Beydemir, Yeliz Demir
Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a key enzyme related to high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol particle. It can prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL. The present article focuses on the in vitro inhibition role of some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as valproic acid, gabapentin, primidone, phenytoin, and levetiracetam on human paraoxonase (hPON1). Therefore, PON1 was purified from human serum with a specific activity of 3976.36 EU/mg and 13.96% yield by using simple chromatographic methods...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017579/seizures-caused-by-brain-tumors-in-children
#13
Iván Sánchez Fernández, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: To review the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment of seizures secondary to pediatric brain tumors. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid pediatric tumor and the most common cause of death in pediatric cancer. Seizures are one of the most common symptoms of pediatric brain tumors. Factors associated with increased risk of seizures include supratentorial location, gray matter involvement, low-grade, and certain histological features-especially dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, ganglioglioma, and oligodendroglioma...
December 7, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012162/evidence-for-a-differential-interaction-of-brivaracetam-and-levetiracetam-with-the-synaptic-vesicle-2a-protein
#14
Martyn D Wood, Michel Gillard
OBJECTIVE: Brivaracetam (BRV) and levetiracetam (LEV) are effective antiepileptic drugs that bind selectively to the synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) protein. However, BRV differs from LEV in that it exhibits more potent and complete seizure suppression in animal models including in amygdala-kindled mice, where BRV afforded nearly complete seizure suppression. This raises the possibility that aside from potency differences, BRV and LEV may interact differently with the SV2A protein, which is not apparent in radioligand-binding competition studies...
December 24, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011886/regression-of-a-glioblastoma-multiforme-spontaneous-versus-a-potential-antineoplastic-effect-of-dexamethasone-and-levetiracetam
#15
Prakash Peddi, Nisha Elizabeth Ajit, Gary Von Burton, Hazem El-Osta
Patients with grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have a median survival of <12 months, increased to 14.6 months by maximal safe resection with radiation and temozolamide. In the absence of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, spontaneous regression of GBM or regression while only being on dexamethasone (DEX) and levetiracetam (LEV) have seldom been reported. Here, we present a case of a patient who had significant regression of the GBM with DEX and LEV alone. In this study, we hypothesise a plausible antineoplastic role of DEX and or LEV in GBM and highlight molecular, preclinical and clinical studies supporting this role...
December 23, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005053/-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-and-epilepsy-a-case-report
#16
A S Kotov, E V Gushchina, Yu V Matyuk, M N Borisova, M V Panteleeva, A V Shatalin
A clinical case of a young man with rapid bilateral visual impairment developed 2 months after the onset of generalized convulsive seizures is presented. The replacement of valproate to levetiracetam led to the remission of seizures, but the prognosis for vision remains poor, particularly given the pessimistic results of optical coherence tomography (OCT).
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005051/-russian-experience-of-lacosamide-vimpat-usage-in-treatment-of-uncontrolled-focal-epilepsy
#17
A V Lebedeva, S G Burd, O V Belyaev, P N Vlasov, M Yu Dorofeeva, A M Ismailov, M Ya Kissin, I Yu Kovaleva, N Yu Koroleva, L V Lipatova, K Yu Mukhin, Yu V Solomatin, A Chervyakov, R G Shikkherimov, O A Pylaeva, N V Freidkova
: Many patients with epilepsy receive treatment in polytherapy. Selection of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for the combination should be carried out in accordance with the principles of rational polytherapy, taking into account the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of drugs. Along with levetiracetam, gabapentin, vigabatrin and pregabalin, lacosamide (LCM) shows superior PK profile in rating of all AED and can be combined with any of them. The goal of this study was to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of LCM in patients with uncontrolled partial onset seizures (POS) in routine clinical practice...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005050/-genetics-and-treatment-of-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathies
#18
A A Sharkov, I V Sharkova, E D Belousova, E L Dadali
Epileptic encephalopathies (EE) are the group of progressive conditions with various etiologies that can produce neurocognitive deficit both per se and due to constant epileptiform discharges. Epileptic encephalopathies constitute about 15% of epilepsy in childhood and 40% of all seizures occurring in the first 3 years of life. Ten syndrome forms of EE are identified. Genetic factors contribute to 70-80% of all epileptic diseases and approximately 40% of idiopathic epilepsies have a monogenic mode of inheritance...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003925/fetal-valproate-syndrome-with-limb-defects-an-indian-case-report
#19
Manisha Goyal, Ashok Gupta, Manish Sharma, Priyanshu Mathur, Naresh Bansal
Epilepsy is a common disorder and exposure to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy increases the risk of teratogenicity. Older AEDs such as valproate and phenobarbital are associated with a higher risk of major malformations in the fetus than newer AEDs like lamotrigine and levetiracetam. Exposure to valproic acid during first trimester can result in fetal valproate syndrome (FVS), comprising typical facial features, developmental delay, and a variety of malformations such as neural tube defects, cardiac and genitourinary malformations, and limb defects...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000064/the-importance-of-assessing-behaviour-and-cognition-in-antiepileptic-drug-trials-in-children-and-adolescents
#20
REVIEW
Lieven Lagae
It has long been recognised that uncontrolled childhood epilepsy is detrimental to cognition and behaviour, impacting on a patient's ability to succeed academically. Patients who experience more frequent and serious seizures are at greater risk for cognitive decline, emphasising the need for more effective epilepsy treatments to bring seizures under control. That said, although more effective antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have the potential to limit the impact of uncontrolled seizures on cognitive and behavioural function, recently it has been acknowledged that deficits in these functions may be caused by AEDs themselves...
December 20, 2016: Acta Neurologica Belgica
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