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Levetiracetam

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430051/reversible-postoperative-blindness-caused-by-bilateral-status-epilepticus-amauroticus-following-thoracolumbar-deformity-correction-case-report
#1
Tarik F Ibrahim, Rochelle T Sweis, Russ P Nockels
Postoperative vision loss (POVL) is a devastating complication and has been reported after complex spine procedures. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and posterior optic neuropathy are the 2 most common causes of POVL. Bilateral occipital lobe seizures causing complete blindness are rare and have not been reported as a cause of POVL after spine surgery with the patient prone. The authors report the case of a 67-year-old man without a history of seizures who underwent a staged thoracolumbar deformity correction and developed POVL 6 hours after surgery...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427029/treatment-of-refractory-and-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-with-brivaracetam-a-cohort-study-from-two-german-university-hospitals
#2
Adam Strzelczyk, Isabel Steinig, Laurent M Willems, Philipp S Reif, Christian Senft, Martin Voss, Bernadette Gaida, Felix von Podewils, Felix Rosenow
PURPOSE: We aimed to ascertain the possible use of brivaracetam (BRV) as an option for treatment of status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: A review of medical records was carried out to detect BRV administration in SE patients treated in Frankfurt and Greifswald during the period February 2016 to January 2017. The primary outcome question concerned SE resolution after BRV initiation. RESULTS: During that period, BRV was started with eleven adult patients with SE...
April 17, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424947/neurodevelopmental-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs
#3
Marissa Kellogg, Kimford J Meador
Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during critical periods of development may induce transient or long-lasting neurodevelopmental deficits across cognitive, motor and behavioral domains. The developing nervous system may endure prolonged chronic exposure to AEDs during pregnancy (in utero) or during childhood, which can lead to neurodevelopmental defects such as congenital neural tube defects, lower IQ, language deficits, autism and ADHD. To date, valproate is the most widely recognized AED to significantly negatively affect neurodevelopment, and demonstrates greater adverse effects than any other AEDs that have been assessed...
April 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424403/-non-convulsive-status-epilepticus-caused-by-hyponatremia-in-an-elderly-woman-a-case-report
#4
Yoshinori Kurauchi, Masahiro Yasaka, Keisuke Tokunaga, Masaki Saito, Shun Shimohama, Yasushi Okada
We report the case of a 67-year-old woman with non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) due to hyponatremia. She had a history of psychogenic polydipsia but not epilepsy. She was admitted to our hospital with dysbulia. On admission, she was confused and disoriented (Glasgow Coma Scale: 6, E1V1M4). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no abnormalities. Laboratory test showed hyponatremia (Na<sup>+</sup> level: 115 mEq/L). The electroencephalography (EEG) showed a generalized slow wave of 5 Hz during recording...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421035/antiepileptic-drugs-impair-shortening-of-isolated-cardiomyocytes
#5
Johanna Hulbert, Christian E Elger, Rainer Meyer, Rainer Surges
BACKGROUND: Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) inhibit seizure generation by acting on voltage-dependent ion channels. Voltage-dependent sodium and calcium channels are commonly expressed in brain and heart, suggesting that AEDs may have considerable cardiodepressive effects, thereby facilitating sudden cardiac death as a potential cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Here, we investigated the effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), lamotrigine (LTG), and levetiracetam (LEV) alone and in combination on the shortening properties of isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes of wild-type mice...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420301/seizures-in-pediatric-patients-with-liver-transplant-and-efficacy-of-levetiracetam
#6
Betül Kılıç, Serdal Güngör, Müjgan Arslan, Mukadder Ayşe Selimoğlu, Sezai Yılmaz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors, clinical implications, and prognosis of new-onset seizures that occurred after pediatric liver transplantation, and to assess the efficacy of levetiracetam treatment. The clinical and laboratory data of liver transplanted 28 children who had seizures after liver transplantation and specifically of 18 children who received levetiracetam were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen patients (88.9%) remained seizure-free and in 2 (11.1%), more than 50% reduction in seizures were detected with levetiracetam treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419133/reproductive-toxicity-after-levetiracetam-administration-in-male-rats-evidence-for-role-of-hormonal-status-and-oxidative-stress
#7
Merve Baysal, Sinem Ilgin, Gozde Kilic, Volkan Kilic, Seyda Ucarcan, Ozlem Atli
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an antiepileptic drug commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy because of its excellent safety profile in all age groups. It is remarkable that there are no studies evaluating the toxic effects of this drug on the male reproductive system, as it is commonly used in male patients of reproductive age. From this point of view, our aim was to evaluate the possible toxic effects of LEV on the male reproductive system. Therefore, LEV was administered to male rats orally at 50, 150, and 300 mg/kg for 70 consecutive days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404210/characteristics-of-epilepsy-in-patients-with-kabuki-syndrome-with-kmt2d-mutations
#8
Naoko Kurahashi, Noriko Miyake, Seiji Mizuno, Eriko Koshimizu, Hirokazu Kurahashi, Keitaro Yamada, Jun Natsume, Yusuke Aoki, Miho Nakamura, Hiroko Taniai, Yuki Maki, Chihiro Abe-Hatano, Naomichi Matsumoto, Koichi Maruyama
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of epilepsy in patients with Kabuki syndrome with KMT2D mutations (KABUK1) have not yet been well documented. This is the first review to explore this. MATERIALS & METHODS: We enrolled 14 patients with KABUK1, whose median age was 13.6years (range=4.1-21.3years). Their medical records from October 1981 to May 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Epilepsy was present in 5 (36%) patients. Four of these patients presented with nonsense mutations and one with missense mutations...
April 9, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397579/secondary-paroxysmal-dyskinesia-in-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-radiological-features-and-treatment-case-report-of-seven-patients
#9
Ethel Ciampi, Reinaldo Uribe-San-Martín, Jaime Godoy-Santín, Juan Pablo Cruz, Claudia Cárcamo-Rodríguez, Carlos Juri
Secondary paroxysmal dyskinesias (SPDs) are short, episodic, and recurrent movement disorders, classically related to multiple sclerosis (MS). Carbamazepine is effective, but with risk of adverse reactions. We identified 7 patients with SPD among 457 MS patients (1.53%). SPD occurred in face ( n = 1), leg ( n = 2), or arm +leg ( n = 4) several times during the day. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new or enhancing lesions in thalamus ( n = 1), mesencephalic tegmentum ( n = 1), and cerebellar peduncles ( n = 5)...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395124/comparison-of-levetiracetam-and-oxcarbazepine-monotherapy-among-korean-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-focal-epilepsy-a-long-term-randomized-open-label-trial
#10
Ji Hyun Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Christian Loesch, Kyungsun Namgoong, Hyang Woon Lee, Seung Bong Hong
This open-label, multicenter, randomized phase IV trial (NCT01498822) of noninferiority design compared the long-term effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of levetiracetam (LEV) monotherapy with those of oxcarbazepine (OXC) monotherapy in adults with newly diagnosed focal epilepsy. Korean patients (16-80 years), with ≥2 unprovoked focal seizures in the year preceding the trial, who had not taken any antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the last 6 months, were randomized to receive LEV or OXC (1:1). Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability were assessed over a 50-week period...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394442/brivaracetam-an-adjunctive-treatment-for-partial-onset-seizures
#11
REVIEW
John A Kappes, William J Hayes, Joe D Strain, Debra K Farver
Brivaracetam is an analogue of levetiracetam that is Food and Drug Administration-approved for adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years and older. In placebo-controlled trials adjunct brivaracetam demonstrated efficacy in reducing the frequency of seizures. The most commonly reported adverse effects are somnolence, dizziness, and fatigue. Clinical trials have evaluated brivaracetam for safety and efficacy in adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years and older for up to 16 weeks...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393712/therapeutic-role-of-synaptic-vesicle-glycoprotein-2a-sv2a-in-modulating-epileptogenesis
#12
Yukihiro Ohno, Kentaro Tokudome
Dysfunction of synaptic neurotransmitter release is closely involved in the pathogenesis of various central nervous system diseases. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a membrane protein specifically expressed in synaptic vesicles and it modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release in the brain. Since 1) SV2A-knockout mice exhibit severe convulsive seizures, 2) SV2A expression in the brain is reportedly altered in various epileptic disorders both in animal models (e.g., kindling and genetic models) and humans (e...
April 4, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386818/potential-risk-factors-for-vitamin-d-levels-in-medium-and-long-term-use-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-childhood
#13
Edibe Pempegül Yildiz, Şükran Poyrazoglu, Gonca Bektas, Aslı Derya Kardelen, Nur Aydinli
Antiepileptic drugs (AED) have potential side effects through vitamin-D. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and potential risk factors for the longitudinal changes of vitamin D levels compared to its baseline levels under AED treatment were investigated in this study. This retrospective study includes patients whose AED therapy were started in only autumn months, between 2000 and 2014. Detailed assessment of neurologic diagnosis and brain MRI findings, ambulatory status, types and durations of AED treatment, and baseline bone health blood tests (vitamin-D, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and phosphate levels) were obtained on all patients...
April 6, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382861/metabolism-of-drugs-used-in-the-therapy-of-seizures-an-analytical-point-of-view-part-1
#14
Roberto Mandrioli, Laura Mercolini
BACKGROUND: Seizures are aetiologically and clinically heterogeneous neurological disorders that are currently treated using a wide array of drugs, belonging to equally heterogeneous chemical classes. Some of them are known as "antiepileptic drugs" (AEDs), due to their main field of use, while others (such as benzodiazepines) are frequently used for other conditions as well as for seizures. Due to their different chemical properties and mechanisms of activity, the metabolic characteristics of anti-seizure drugs can vary widely, also producing big differences in terms of safety, efficacy and therapeutic suitability...
April 6, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378057/tolerability-of-new-antiepileptic-drugs-a-network-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Gaetano Zaccara, Fabio Giovannelli, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Valentina Franco, Sara Gasparini, Umberto Benedetto
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a comparative assessment of tolerability of all licensed new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) through a network meta-analysis (NMA) including all placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trials (RCTs) in all conditions in which these drugs have been tested. METHODS: NMA with a frequentist approach was used to compare proportions of patients withdrawing because of adverse events (AEs). Analyses were conducted for all therapeutic doses pooled and specifically for high therapeutic doses...
April 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370228/pharmacologic-treatment-of-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#16
John R Richards, Brent K Gordon, Aaron R Danielson, Aimee K Moulin
OBJECTIVE: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis use. CHS is often resistant to standard antiemetics. The objective of this study is to review the current evidence for pharmacologic treatment of CHS. METHODS: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, DARE, OpenGrey, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to February 2017. Articles were selected and reviewed independently. Evidence was graded using Oxford CEBM guidelines...
March 31, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370224/do-antiepileptic-drugs-increase-the-risk-of-infectious-diseases-a-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-studies
#17
Gaetano Zaccara, Fabio Giovannelli, Filippo Sean Giorgi, Valentina Franco, Sara Gasparini, Francesco Mandò Tacconi
AIMS: Experimental studies show that some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may modify natural immune defenses, thus influencing the risk of developing infectious diseases. The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore whether AEDs as a class of drugs or singularly may increase risk of infectious diseases. METHODS: A meta-analysis of all randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) investigating any AED in any condition was performed. All terms which could be coded in the System Organ Classes (SOCs) of "infections and infestations" using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) were recorded...
March 31, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364656/effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-thyroid-hormone-function-in-epilepsy-patients
#18
Fu-Yuan Shih, Yao-Chung Chuang, Ming-Jung Chuang, Yan-Ting Lu, Wan-Chen Tsai, Ting-Ying Fu, Meng-Han Tsai
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy are frequently required to take antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for a long period of time. Many studies have shown that AEDs have a negative influence on endocrine function including the thyroid gland, however the risk factors for the development of low thyroid function in these patients are unclear. This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors of low thyroid function in patients with epilepsy. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study including 298 patients with epilepsy...
March 19, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363098/brand-to-generic-levetiracetam-switch-in-patients-with-epilepsy-in-a-routine-clinical-setting
#19
Sofia Markoula, Dimitrios Chatzistefanidis, Stylianos Gatzonis, Anna Siatouni, Eleftheria Siarava, Anastasia Verentzioti, Athanassios P Kyritsis, Philip N Patsalos
PURPOSE: The therapeutic equivalence of generic and brand antiepileptic drugs, based on studies performed on healthy volunteers, has been questioned. We compare, in a routine clinical setting, brand versus generic levetiracetam (LEV) bioequivalence in patients with epilepsy and also the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the substitution. METHODS: A prospective, open-label, non-randomized, steady-state, multiple-dose, bioequivalence study was conducted in 12 patients with epilepsy (5 females), with a mean age of 38...
March 19, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356053/levetiracetam-in-compare-to-sodium-valproate-for-prophylaxis-in-chronic-migraine-headache-a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-trial
#20
Davood Kashipazha, Hooshan Shariati Ghadikolaei, Mehrnoush Siavashi
BACKGROUND: Migraine is not curable, but preventive treatments are usually used to decrease the intensity and frequency of headache attacks. Different therapeutic options are widely studied for chronic migraine (CM), but all of them have different inefficacy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of levetiracetam versus sodium valproate in the treatment of CM. METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 62 patients with chronic migraine (30 patients in intervention group-treated with levetiracetam and 32 patients in control group- treated with sodium valproate)...
March 28, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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