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Antibiotic Resistance

Kavita Morparia, Courtney Peshkovsky, Meena Kalyanaraman
Purulent pericarditis occurs rarely in the current antibiotic era. We describe clinical and echocardiographic features of purulent pericarditis in a previously healthy child with influenza and community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus co-infection. The child was already on appropriate antibiotics and had a very subtle clinical presentation, with prominent abdominal symptoms. Timely surgical drainage led to complete recovery.
September 17, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Jhih-Cheng Wang, Shao-Wen Chi, Tai-Hua Yang, Han-Sheng Chuang
Rapid detection of bacteria and their susceptibility to specific antibiotics plays a vital role in microbial infection treatments. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is a common measure to select effective drugs. However, the conventional practices, such as broth dilution, E-test, and disk diffusion, in clinical applications require a long turnaround time (~3 days), thereby compromising treatments and increasing mortality. This study presents self-powered sensors for on-site microorganism monitoring and rapid AST based on functionalized microbeads...
September 17, 2018: ACS Sensors
Darren Langdridge, Mark Davis, Lucyna Gozdzielewska, Joanna McParland, Lynn Williams, Mairi Young, Fraser Smith, Jennifer MacDonald, Lesley Price, Paul Flowers
OBJECTIVES: In an innovative approach to improve the contribution of health psychology to public health we have analysed the presence and nature of affect within the visual materials deployed in antimicrobial stewardship interventions targeting the public identified through systematic review. DESIGN: A qualitative analysis focused on the affective content of visual materials garnered from a systematic review of antibiotic stewardship (k = 20). METHODS: A novel method was devised drawing on concepts from semiotics to analyse the affective elements within intervention materials...
September 16, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Hanan Goldberg, Chen Shenhar, Hadar Tamir, Roy Mano, Jack Baniel, David Margel, Daniel Kedar, David Lifshitz, Ofer Yossepowitch
PURPOSE: To compare surgical site infections (SSI) rate after radical cystectomy (RC) over time and ascertain whether antibiotic prophylaxis should be enhanced. METHODS: All medical records of RC patients in a single tertiary uro-oncology center between 2007 and 2017 were analyzed. SSI was defined using the criteria of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All bacterial culture results and antimicrobial resistance rates were recorded. Lastly, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain SSI predictors...
September 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
M Y Ganaie, S Qureshi, Z Kashoo, S A Wani, M I Hussain, R Kumar, R Maqbool, P Sikander, M S Banday, W A Malla, P Mondal, R I N Khan
Bovine mastitis causes severe economic losses to dairy farmers. Staphylococcus aureus, is one of the most important pathogen implicated in etiology of clinical and subclinical mastitis in bovines. In view of increasing antimicrobial resistance alternatives to antibiotic therapy are much needed. The present decade has witnessed a renewed interest in phage based therapeutics and diagnostics. The present study, describes isolation and characterization of two lytic phages SAJK-IND and MSP against Staphylococcus aureus having a potential to be used in therapy against mastitis...
September 15, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Shih-Chun Yang, Tse-Hung Huang, Chun-Hui Chiu, Wei-Ling Chou, Ahmed Alalaiwe, Yuan-Chieh Yeh, Kuan-Wen Su, Jia-You Fang
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease with an associated barrier dysfunction and Staphylococcus aureus infection. The mainstay steroid and calcineurin inhibitor therapy shows some adverse effects. 2,4-Dimethoxy-6-methylbenzene-1,3-diol (DMD) is a benzenoid isolated from Antrodia camphorata. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the inhibitory effect of DMD on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the chemokine production in stimulated keratinocytes, and the AD-like lesion found in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Anders B Nygaard, Colin Charnock
BACKGROUND: In Norway, 91% of children aged 1-5 attend kindergarten where they are exposed to indoor microbiomes which can have relevance for development and health. In order to gain a better understanding of the composition of the indoor microbiome and how it is affected by occupancy over time, floor dust samples from a newly opened kindergarten were investigated. Samples were collected during an 11-month period. Samples were analyzed for bacterial composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
September 15, 2018: Microbiome
Ashleigh Bope, Mark H Weir, Amy Pruden, Michael Morowitz, Jade Mitchell, Karen C Dannemiller
Here, we summarize a symposium entitled "Microbiology of the Built Environment: Implications for Health and Design" that was presented at the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) 17th National Conference and Global Forum in January 2017. We covered topics including indoor microbial exposures and childhood asthma, the influence of hospital design on neonatal development, the role of the microbiome in our premise (i.e., building) plumbing systems, antibiotic resistance, and quantitative microbial risk assessment...
September 15, 2018: Microbiome
Titus H Divala, Katherine L Fielding, Marriott Nliwasa, Derek J Sloan, Ankur Gupta-Wright, Elizabeth L Corbett
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) drives use of 'trial-of-antibiotics (non-tuberculosis)' in an attempt to distinguish PTB patients from those with bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The underlying assumption-that patients with LRTI will report 'response' to broad-spectrum antibiotics, while those with PTB will not-has minimal evidence base for such a widely used intervention. Numerous potential causes of misclassification include bacterial super-infection of active PTB, placebo effect, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
September 15, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Cyrille Ngoufack Tagousop, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou, Steve Endeguele Ekom, David Ngnokam, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko
BACKGROUND: The search for new antimicrobials should take into account drug resistance phenomenon. Medicinal plants are known as sources of potent antimicrobial compounds including flavonoids. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of flavonoid glycosides from Graptophyllum grandulosum, as well as to determine their mechanism of antibacterial action using lysis, leakage and osmotic stress assays. METHODS: The plant extracts were prepared by maceration in organic solvents...
September 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Akram M Salam, Cassandra L Quave
The continued spread of antimicrobial resistance represents one of the most serious infectious disease threats to global health. There is consensus that a key component of addressing this threat is to replenish the waning pipeline of antimicrobials, with attention being paid to novel mechanisms of action. This includes the development of new classes of classic bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics as well as antivirulence drugs, and it is especially in these areas where plant natural products demonstrate great potential...
September 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Mazdak Badri, Bo Nilson, Sigurdur Ragnarsson, Erik Senneby, Magnus Rasmussen
OBJECTIVES: Gram-positive, anaerobic cocci (GPAC) can cause infections in humans. Only few cases of bacteremia with GPAC have been reported. We describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of GPAC bacteremia. METHODS: A retrospective population-based study of GPAC bacteremia 2012-2016 in southern Sweden was performed. GPAC were identified using MALDI-TOF MS or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Etests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibilities. Data on patient and infection characteristics, treatment, and outcome were collected from the medical records...
September 11, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Satoru Mitsuboshi, Masami Tsugita
There are limited data available on the relationship between multidrug-resistant bacteria and infection control activities in small to medium-sized hospitals. Therefore, we collected data on the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs), personal protective equipment, antibiotics, and the levels of detectable bacteria between April 2014 and March 2015 in 11 Japanese hospitals. Average total antibiotic consumption was 100 defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days (PD), and average use of ABHSs, masks, plastic aprons, and gloves was 5 L per 1000 PD, and 1, 2, and 26 pieces per 1 PD, respectively...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Zineb Leulmi, Chouaib Kandouli, Ilhem Mihoubi, Kaddour Benlabed, Abdeslam Lezzar, Jean-Marc Rolain
BACKGROUND: Carbapenemase-producing, or carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, are an emerging threat to human and animal health because they are resistant to many of the last-line antimicrobials available for disease treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze antimicrobial resistance patterns and their encoding genes of P. mirabilis isolated in Constantine, Algeria. METHODS: A total of 106 PMP (Proteus- Morganella- Providencia) strains were isolated from a large variety of clinical specimens, at University Hospital of Constantine in Algeria, and identified by the API 20E system and Bruker MALDI Biotyper 2...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Lyssa Y Baker, Chelsea R Hobby, Andrew W Siv, William C Bible, Michael S Glennon, Derek M Anderson, Steven J Symes, David K Giles
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause infections in a variety of compromised human tissues. An emerging mechanism for microbial survival is the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids to alter the cell's membrane phospholipid profile. With these findings, we show that exogenous fatty acid exposure leads to changes in bacterial membrane phospholipid structure, membrane permeability, virulence phenotypes and consequent stress responses that may influence survival and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Bussarakam Chuppava, Birgit Keller, Amr Abd El-Wahab, Jessica Meißner, Manfred Kietzmann, Christian Visscher
Gaining knowledge about the spread of resistance against antibacterial agents is a primary challenge in livestock farming. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of double antibiotic treatment (at days 10⁻14 and days 26⁻30) with enrofloxacin or solely environmental exposition (identical times, directly into the litter) on resistance against antibacterial agents in commensal Escherichia coli in comparison with the control (without treatment), depending on different flooring. A total of 720 Big 6 turkeys participated in three trials...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Vinícius C Cláudio, Irys Gonzalez, Gedimar Barbosa, Vlamir Rocha, Ricardo Moratelli, Fabrício Rassy
Bats play key ecological roles, also hosting many zoonotic pathogens. Neotropical bat microbiota is still poorly known. We speculate that their dietary habits strongly influence their microbiota richness and antibiotic-resistance patterns, which represent growing and serious public health and environmental issue. Here we describe the aerobic microbiota richness of bats from an Atlantic Forest remnant in Southeastern Brazil, and the antibiotic-resistance patterns of bacteria of clinical importance. Oral and rectal cavities of 113 bats from Carlos Botelho State Park were swabbed...
2018: PloS One
Shankaramurthy Channabasappa, Ravisha Chikkamadaiah, Murali Durgaiah, Senthil Kumar, Keerthi Ramesh, Aparna Sreekanthan, Bharathi Sriram
Objectives: P128 is a recombinant chimeric ectolysin with potent antistaphylococcal activity. P128 was evaluated as monotherapy and in combination with two standard-of-care (SoC) antibiotics, vancomycin and daptomycin, in mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. Methods: Healthy BALB/c mice were challenged (intraperitoneally) with 109 cfu of MRSA strain COL or USA300 and treated with a single dose of P128 (0.2-10 mg/kg). Drug synergy was tested using a single dose of P128 (0...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Vanessa M Schmidt, Gina Pinchbeck, K Marie McIntyre, Tim Nuttall, Neil McEwan, Susan Dawson, Nicola J Williams
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical health problem, with systemic antimicrobial therapy driving development of AMR across the host spectrum. Objectives: This study compares longitudinal carriage, at multiple timepoints, of AMR faecal Escherichia coli in dogs undergoing routine antimicrobial treatment. Methods: Faecal samples (n = 457) from dogs (n = 127) were examined pretreatment, immediately after treatment and 1 month and 3 months post-treatment with one of five antimicrobials...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
A Gurtman, E Begier, N Mohamed, J Baber, C Sabharwal, R M Haupt, H Edwards, D Cooper, K U Jansen, A S Anderson
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a challenging bacterial pathogen which can cause a range of diseases, from mild skin infections, to more serious and invasive disease including deep or organ space surgical site infections, life-threatening bacteremia, and sepsis. S. aureus rapidly develops resistance to antibiotic treatments. Despite current infection control measures, the burden of disease remains high. The most advanced vaccine in clinical development is a 4 antigen S. aureus vaccine (SA4Ag) candidate that is being evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy study in patients undergoing elective spinal fusion surgery (STaphylococcus aureus suRgical Inpatient Vaccine Efficacy [STRIVE])...
September 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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