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Antibiotic Resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651094/in-vitro-susceptibility-of-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-to-a-commercial-citrus-fruit-extract
#1
Pedro J G de Nova, Ana Carvajal, Miguel Prieto, Pedro Rubio
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the main etiological agent of swine dysentery (SD). Nowadays, treatment and control of SD is increasingly difficult due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance together with the restrictions on the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate, as an alternative in the control of this disease, the antimicrobial activity and the main mechanism of action of BIOCITRO, a citrus extract commercialized as raw material and used as feed additive, against B...
June 20, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651019/in-silico-genomic-insights-into-aspects-of-food-safety-and-defense-mechanisms-of-a-potentially-probiotic-lactobacillus-pentosus-mp-10-isolated-from-brines-of-naturally-fermented-alore%C3%A3-a-green-table-olives
#2
Hikmate Abriouel, Beatriz Pérez Montoro, María Del Carmen Casado Muñoz, Charles W Knapp, Antonio Gálvez, Nabil Benomar
Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10, isolated from brines of naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives, exhibited high probiotic potential. The genome sequence of L. pentosus MP-10 is currently considered the largest genome among lactobacilli, highlighting the microorganism's ecological flexibility and adaptability. Here, we analyzed the complete genome sequence for the presence of acquired antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants to understand their defense mechanisms and explore its putative safety in food...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650495/syntheses-of-potent-teixobactin-analogues-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-through-the-replacement-of-l-allo-enduracididine-with-its-isosteres
#3
Anish Parmar, Abhishek Iyer, Daniel G Lloyd, Charlotte S Vincent, Stephen H Prior, Annemieke Madder, Edward J Taylor, Ishwar Singh
The recently discovered cyclic depsipeptide, teixobactin, is a highly potent antibiotic against multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobaterium tuberculosis. It comprises of 4 D amino acids and a rare l-allo-enduracididine amino acid. The synthesis of a properly protected l-allo-enduracididine amino acid and its incorporation into teixobactin is time consuming, synthetically challenging and low yielding and is therefore a major bottleneck in the development of potent analogues of teixobactin...
June 26, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650325/evaluation-of-three-plant-extracts-against-biofilm-formation-and-expression-of-quorum-sensing-regulated-virulence-factors-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Vajihe Karbasizade, Parichehr Dehghan, Maryam Mohammadi Sichani, Kahin Shahanipoor, Reyhaneh Jafari, Rozita Yousefian
Following the increasing antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria, the use of medicinal herbs as antibacterial agents has attracted growing attention. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human opportunistic pathogen that uses quorum sensing for regulating virulence gene expression (pyocyanin, protease, and elastase production and biofilm formation). This study examined the anti-quorum sensing activity of Quercus infectoria, Zataria multiflora and Trachyspermum copticum extracts on standard P. aeruginosa strain...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650313/molecular-mechanisms-and-epidemiology-of-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-the-middle-east-region
#5
Grace El Moujaber, Marwan Osman, Rayane Rafei, Fouad Dabboussi, Monzer Hamze
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal bacterium that normally colonizes the human nasopharyngeal cavity. Once disseminated, it can cause several diseases, ranging from non-invasive infections such as acute otitis media and sinusitis through to invasive infections with higher mortality, including meningitis and septicaemia. Since the identification of the first S. pneumoniae strain with decreased susceptibility to penicillin in the 1960s, antibiotic resistance among S. pneumoniae has increased disturbingly and the mechanisms of resistance have begun to unfold...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650032/antibiotics-from-gram-negative-bacteria-a-comprehensive-overview-and-selected-biosynthetic-highlights
#6
REVIEW
J Masschelein, M Jenner, G L Challis
Covering: up to 2017The overwhelming majority of antibiotics in clinical use originate from Gram-positive Actinobacteria. In recent years, however, Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly recognised as a rich yet underexplored source of novel antimicrobials, with the potential to combat the looming health threat posed by antibiotic resistance. In this article, we have compiled a comprehensive list of natural products with antimicrobial activity from Gram-negative bacteria, including information on their biosynthetic origin(s) and molecular target(s), where known...
June 26, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649977/convection-shapes-the-trade-off-between-antibiotic-efficacy-and-the-selection-for-resistance-in-spatial-gradients
#7
Matti Gralka, Diana Fusco, Stephen Martis, Oskar Hallatschek
Since penicillin was discovered about 90 years ago, we have become used to using drugs to eradicate unwanted pathogenic cells. However, using drugs to kill bacteria, viruses or cancer cells has the serious side effect of selecting for mutant types that survive the drug attack. A key question therefore is how one could eradicate as many cells as possible for a given acceptable risk of drug resistance evolution. We address this general question in a model of drug resistance evolution in spatial drug gradients, which recent experiments and theories have suggested as key drivers of drug resistance...
June 26, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649859/medical-authority-managerial-power-and-political-will-a-bourdieusian-analysis-of-antibiotics-in-the-hospital
#8
Emma Kirby, Alex Broom, Alexandra Gibson, Jennifer Broom, Trent Yarwood, Jeffrey Post
Antibiotic resistance poses a significant global threat, yet clinically inappropriate antibiotic use within hospitals continues despite the implementation of abatement strategies. Antibiotic use and the viability of existing antibiotic options now sit precariously at the nexus of political will, institutional governance and clinical priorities 'at the bedside'. Yet no study has hitherto explored the perspectives of managers, instead of focusing on clinicians. In this article, drawing on qualitative interviews with hospital managers, we explore accounts of responding to antimicrobial resistance, managing antibiotic governance and negotiating clinical and managerial priorities...
June 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649637/the-adaptation-of-escherichia-coli-cells-grown-in-simulated-microgravity-for-an-extended-period-is-both-phenotypic-and-genomic
#9
Madhan R Tirumalai, Fathi Karouia, Quyen Tran, Victor G Stepanov, Rebekah J Bruce, C Mark Ott, Duane L Pierson, George E Fox
Microorganisms impact spaceflight in a variety of ways. They play a positive role in biological systems, such as waste water treatment but can be problematic through buildups of biofilms that can affect advanced life support. Of special concern is the possibility that during extended missions, the microgravity environment will provide positive selection for undesirable genomic changes. Such changes could affect microbial antibiotic sensitivity and possibly pathogenicity. To evaluate this possibility, Escherichia coli (lac plus) cells were grown for over 1000 generations on Luria Broth medium under low-shear modeled microgravity conditions in a high aspect rotating vessel...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649404/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-gardnerella-vaginalis-biofilms-vs-planktonic-cultures-using-rna-seq
#10
Joana Castro, Angela França, Katie R Bradwell, Myrna G Serrano, Kimberly K Jefferson, Nuno Cerca
Bacterial vaginosis is the most common gynecological disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Bacterial vaginosis is frequently associated with the development of a Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Recent data indicates that G. vaginalis biofilms are more tolerant to antibiotics and are able to incorporate other bacterial vaginosis -associated species, yielding a multi-species biofilm. However, despite its apparent role in bacterial vaginosis, little is known regarding the molecular determinants involved in biofilm formation by G...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649083/report-prevalence-of-hospital-acquired-burkholderia-cepacia-infection-and-its-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-a-chinese-hospital
#11
Jinju Duan, Jianbang Kang, Ting Han, Yuqin Ma, Qian Guo, Yan Song, Qiang Zhao, Yan Yang, Ruiqin Zhang
This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility of hospital acquired Burkholderia cepacia infection in Shanxi (China) during August 2009 and December 2012. To characterize an emerging nocosomial infection. The medical records of 112 patients that were tested positive for B. cepacia were retrospectively analyzed. The K-B disk diffusion method was used to determine the drug susceptibility of the isolated strains. A hundred and fifty strains of B. cepacia were isolated from 112 patients. The sensitivity rates of B...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648894/compositional-analysis-of-endogenous-porphyrins-from-helicobacter-pylori
#12
A Battisti, P Morici, G Signore, F Ghetti, A Sgarbossa
Bacteria able to accumulate porphyrins can be inactivated by visible light irradiation thanks to the photosensitizing properties of this class of aromatic pigments (photodynamic therapy, PDT). Since the bacterial resistance to antibiotic is growing, PDT is becoming a valid alternative. In this context, the pathogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a suitable target for PDT since it spontaneously produces and accumulates porphyrins. It is then important to understand the spectroscopic behavior of these endogenous species to exploit them as photosensitizers, thus improving the results given by the application of PDT in the treatment of Hp infections...
June 19, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648860/global-emergence-of-the-widespread-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-st235-clone
#13
Panisa Treepong, Veronica N Kos, Christophe Guyeux, Dominique S Blanc, Xavier Bertrand, Benoit Valot, Didier Hocquet
OBJECTIVES: Despite the non-clonal epidemic population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, several multi-locus sequence types are distributed worldwide and are frequently associated with epidemics where multidrug resistance confounds treatment. ST235 is the most prevalent of these widespread clones. In this study we aimed to understand the origin of ST235 and the molecular basis for its success. METHODS: The genomes of 79 P. aeruginosa ST235 isolates collected worldwide over a 27-year period were examined...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648729/interaction-of-ciprofloxacin-chlorination-products-with-bacteria-in-drinking-water-distribution-systems
#14
Haibo Wang, Chun Hu, Lizhong Liu, Xueci Xing
The interaction of ciprofloxacin chlorination products (CIP-CPs) with bacteria in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) was investigated. The piperazine ring of CIP was destroyed by chlorination. Among of CIP-CPs, by the bacterial role, 7.63% of the derivative with two carboxylic groups went through decarboxylation to form desethylene ciprofloxacin, and then loss of C2H5N group generated aniline compound. Furthermore, 12.3% of the aniline compound, 7.60% of chlorinated aniline compound and 1.35% of defluorinated product were bio-mineralized...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648640/pulmonary-delivery-of-synergistic-combination-of-fluoroquinolone-antibiotic-complemented-with-proteolytic-enzyme-a-novel-antimicrobial-and-antibiofilm-strategy
#15
Purnima V Gupta, Abhijit M Nirwane, Tejashree Bellubi, Mangal S Nagarsenker
Bacterial resistance remains a major hindrance in treatment with antimicrobial agents. Therefore, we assessed the improved antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Levofloxacin (LFX) and Serratiopeptidase (SRP) combinations in in vitro microbiological studies. Further, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of liposomal LFX in combination with SRP (LFX liposome-SRP) were performed in S. aureus infected rats. LFX at sub-MIC with SRP eradicated >90% of the preformed biofilm. The entrapment efficiency of LFX in liposome was >80% and the co-spray dried product had MMAD <5μ...
June 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648181/a-highly-sensitive-carbapenemase-assay-using-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-based-on-a-parylene-matrix-chip
#16
Jong-Min Park, Jo-Il Kim, Joo-Yoon Noh, Mira Kim, Min-Jung Kang, Jae-Chul Pyun
A quantitative carbapenemase assay was developed using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) based on a parylene-matrix chip. As a first step, the reproducibility (spot-to-spot, shot-to-shot, and day-to-day) of LDI-MS based on a parylene-matrix chip and the quantification ranges for four carbapenem antibiotics (doripenem, ertapenem, imipenem, and meropenem) were determined. A carbapenem-susceptibility test was performed using the four carbapenems and 51 bacterial strains that displayed (1) carbapenem resistance with carbapenemase, (2) carbapenem resistance without carbapenemase, or (3) carbapenem susceptibility...
September 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647532/carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-community-a-scoping-review
#17
REVIEW
Ana M Kelly, Barun Mathema, Elaine L Larson
Carbapenem antibiotics are used as a last resort to treat serious Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections, however carbapenemase-producing strains of GNB have emerged as a major source of resistance. Owing to the highly transmissible nature of plasmid-borne carbapenemases, numerous reports have warned about the likely spread into the community from healthcare settings. Since the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in the community is largely unknown, we conducted a scoping review of the literature to assess the percentage of CRE isolates that could be associated with the community...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647364/crystal-structures-of-the-isochorismatase-domains-from-vibrio-anguillarum
#18
Jiansen Du, Tian Deng, Qingjun Ma
Antibiotic resistance is becoming a global threat and overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture disease control worsens the situation. To reduce the risk of drug resistance developed in aquaculture, safer biocontrol programs are needed. Antivirulence therapy, with less chance for developing drug resistance, is a promising approach. To facilitate antivirulence inhibitor design against Vibrio anguillarum, a serious aquaculture pathogen, we present crystal structures for isochorismatase domains of AngB and VabB, which are required to synthesize siderophore, a critical virulence factor...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647120/drrc-protein-of-streptomyces-peucetius-removes-daunorubicin-from-intercalated-dnri-promoter
#19
Francis Prija, Ranjan Prasad
DrrC is a DNA-binding protein of Streptomyces peucetius that provides self-resistance against daunorubicin, the antibiotic produced by the organism. DrrC was expressed in E.coli and purified by using N-terminal MBP-tag which retained DNA-binding property in spite of the tag. Mobility shift assay confirmed the interaction of 313bp DNA that has the dnrI promoter, daunorubicin and MBP-DrrC in the presence of ATP. Biotinylated and immobilized 313bp DNA was intercalated with daunorubicin to observe the release of the drug when MBP-DrrC is allowed to act on the DNA...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647106/-outpatient-consumption-of-antibiotics-with-a-bacterial-resistance-risk-in-2014-in-france
#20
Marie-Céline Casaurancq, Emilie Patras de Campaigno, Manuela Rueter, Bérangère Baricault, Robert Bourrel, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Agnès Sommet
AIM: This article proposes a description of French regional consumption of antibiotics with a bacterial resistance risk (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, third-generation cephalosporins [C3G] and fluoroquinolones). METHODS: Antibiotics reimbursements data were obtained by Open Medic website. The antibiotic consumption profile has been established using some indicators of the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) in daily-defined dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) or in percentage...
May 26, 2017: Thérapie
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