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Antibiotic Resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#1
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340477/environmental-analysis-of-typical-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-args-in-farmland-soil-chronically-fertilized-with-chicken-manure
#2
Xiang Zhao, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Weili Ge, Jun Wang
Antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria and resistance genes (ARGs) are generally considered emerging pollutants. To assess the impacts of tetracycline (TC) and sulfonamide (SA) antibiotics that are eliminated with fecaluria as drug prototypes, farmland soil used to research long-term fertilization with chicken manure was collected at four sites in Shandong Province. In this study, the rates of bacterial drug resistance to the same antibiotic decreased with an increase in the concentration of that antibiotic, and the resistance rates to TCs were lower than those to SAs...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339845/expanded-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-egypt
#3
D A El-Shazly, S A Nasef, F F Mahmoud, Daniel Jonas
Throughout the world, expanded spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are increasing among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, both in humans and animals. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data on ESBL or Ampicillin class C β-lactamase (AmpC) in Egypt, although antimicrobial consumption is high in this developing country. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanisms to expanded spectrum cephalosporins among resistant veterinary Escherichia coli isolates in Egypt. We investigated 50 clinical multi-resistant E...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#4
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339182/widespread-and-indiscriminate-nanosilver-use-genuine-potential-for-microbial-resistance
#5
Cindy Gunawan, Christopher P Marquis, Rose Amal, Georgios A Sotiriou, Scott A Rice, Elizabeth J Harry
In this era of increasing antibiotic resistance, the use of alternative antimicrobials such as silver has become more widespread. Superior antimicrobial activity has been provided through fabrication of silver nanoparticles or nanosilver (NAg), which imparts cytotoxic actions distinct from those of bulk silver. In the wake of the recent discoveries of bacterial resistance to NAg and its rising incorporation in medical and consumer goods such as wound dressings and dietary supplements, we argue that there is an urgent need to monitor the prevalence and spread of NAg microbial resistance...
March 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336313/vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-colonisation-risk-factors-and-risk-for-infection-among-hospitalised-paediatric-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Myrto Eleni Flokas, Spyridon A Karageorgos, Marios Detsis, Michail Alevizakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The objective of this study was to estimate the rate and significance of colonisation with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) among hospitalised children. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were systematically searched (last accessed on 29 May 2016) to identify studies evaluating VRE colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalised children in non-outbreak periods. Of 945 non-duplicate citations, 19 studies enrolling 20 234 children were included. The overall and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rate of VRE colonisation were both 5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3-8% overall and 95% CI 2-9% in the PICU] but was 23% in haematology/oncology units (95% CI 18-29%)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335481/genetic-variants-contributing-to-colistin-cytotoxicity-identification-of-tgif1-and-hoxd10-using-a-population-genomics-approach
#7
Michael T Eadon, Ronald J Hause, Amy L Stark, Ying-Hua Cheng, Heather E Wheeler, Kimberly S Burgess, Eric A Benson, Patrick N Cunningham, Robert L Bacallao, Pierre C Dagher, Todd C Skaar, M Eileen Dolan
Colistin sulfate (polymixin E) is an antibiotic prescribed with increasing frequency for severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. As nephrotoxicity is a common side effect, the discovery of pharmacogenomic markers associated with toxicity would benefit the utility of this drug. Our objective was to identify genetic markers of colistin cytotoxicity that were also associated with expression of key proteins using an unbiased, whole genome approach and further evaluate the functional significance in renal cell lines...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335438/the-food-production-environment-and-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-human-pathogens-of-animal-origin
#8
REVIEW
Manjusha Lekshmi, Parvathi Ammini, Sanath Kumar, Manuel F Varela
Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain...
March 14, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335413/chitin-oligosaccharide-cos-reduces-antibiotics-dose-and-prevents-antibiotics-caused-side-effects-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-ais-patients-with-spinal-fusion-surgery
#9
Yang Qu, Jinyu Xu, Haohan Zhou, Rongpeng Dong, Mingyang Kang, Jianwu Zhao
Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily)...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334931/rgf1p-rho1p-gef-is-required-for-double-strand-break-repair-in-fission-yeast
#10
Elvira Manjón, Tomás Edreira, Sofía Muñoz, Yolanda Sánchez
Rho GTPases are conserved molecules that control cytoskeletal dynamics. These functions are expedited by Rho GEFs that stimulate the release of GDP to enable GTP binding, thereby allowing Rho proteins to initiate intracellular signaling. How Rho GEFs and Rho GTPases protect cells from DNA damage is unknown. Here, we explore the extreme sensitivity of a deletion mutation in the Rho1p exchange factor Rgf1p to the DNA break/inducing antibiotic phleomycin (Phl). The Rgf1p mutant cells are defective in reentry into the cell cycle following the induction of severe DNA damage...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334924/throat-swabs-in-children-with-respiratory-tract-infection-associations-with-clinical-presentation-and-potential-targets-for-point-of-care-testing
#11
Hannah V Thornton, Alastair D Hay, Niamh M Redmond, Sophie L Turnbull, Hannah Christensen, Tim J Peters, John P Leeming, Andrew Lovering, Barry Vipond, Peter Muir, Peter S Blair
Background and objectives.: Diagnostic uncertainty over respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care contributes to over-prescribing of antibiotics and drives antibiotic resistance. If symptoms and signs predict respiratory tract microbiology, they could help clinicians target antibiotics to bacterial infection. This study aimed to determine relationships between symptoms and signs in children presenting to primary care and microbes from throat swabs. Methods.: Cross-sectional study of children ≥3 months to <16 years presenting with acute cough and RTI, with subset follow-up...
February 18, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334919/antibiotics-trigger-initiation-of-sccmec-transfer-by-inducing-sos-responses
#12
Pilong Liu, Zhaowei Wu, Huping Xue, Xin Zhao
The rise of antimicrobial resistance limits therapeutic options for infections by methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element as the only carrier of the methicillin-resistance determinants, the mecA or mecC gene. The use of antibiotics increases the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanism by which antibiotics promote horizontal dissemination of SCCmec is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that many antibiotics, including β-lactams, can induce the expression of ccrC1 and SCCmec excision from the bacterial chromosome...
March 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334649/binding-of-tem-1-beta-lactamase-to-beta-lactam-antibiotics-by-frontal-affinity-chromatography
#13
Xiu Chen, Yuhua Li, Yan Zhang, Jianting Yang, Liujiao Bian
TEM-1 beta-lactamases can accurately catalyze the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics, which make beta-lactam antibiotics lose its activity, and the prerequisite for the hydrolysis procedure in the binding interaction of TEM-1 beta-lactamases with beta-lactam antibiotics is the beta-lactam rings in beta-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, the binding of TEM-1 beta-lactamase to three beta-lactam antibiotics including penicillin G, cefalexin as well as cefoxitin was explored here by frontal affinity chromatography in combination with fluorescence spectra, adsorption and thermodynamic data in the temperature range of 278-288K under simulated physiological conditions...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334267/resistomap-online-visualization-of-human-gut-microbiota-antibiotic-resistome
#14
Konstantin S Yarygin, Boris A Kovarsky, Tatyana S Bibikova, Damir S Melnikov, Alexander V Tyakht, Dmitry G Alexeev
Summary: We created ResistoMap - a Web-based interactive visualization of the presence of genetic determinants conferring resistance to antibiotics, biocides and heavy metals in human gut microbiota. ResistoMap displays the data on more than 1500 published gut metagenomes of world populations including both healthy subjects and patients. Multiparameter display filters allow visual assessment of the associations between the meta-data and proportions of resistome. The geographic map navigation layer allows to state hypotheses regarding the global trends of antibiotic resistance and correlate the gut resistome variations with the national clinical guidelines on antibiotics application...
March 14, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334251/isolation-of-vibrionaceae-from-wild-blue-mussel-mytilus-edulis-adults-and-their-impact-on-blue-mussel-larviculture
#15
Mieke Eggermont, Peter Bossier, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro Pande, Vyshal Delahaut, Ali Md Rayhan, Nipa Gupta, Shikder Saiful Islam, Elsie Yumo, Nancy Nevejan, Patrick Sorgeloos, Bruno Gomez-Gil, Tom Defoirdt
The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is known as a robust mollusk species, although its larviculture appears to be highly susceptible to diseases. In this study, we isolated 17 strains from induced mortality events in healthy wild-caught blue mussel adults and demonstrated that they caused between 17 and 98% mortality in blue mussel larvae in a newly developed, highly controlled immersion challenge test model. Eight of the isolates belong to the Splendidus clade of vibrios, while the other isolates belong to the genus Photobacterium...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333355/wgs-to-predict-antibiotic-mics-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#16
David W Eyre, Dilrini De Silva, Kevin Cole, Joanna Peters, Michelle J Cole, Yonatan H Grad, Walter Demczuk, Irene Martin, Michael R Mulvey, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Tim E A Peto, John Paul
Background: Tracking the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major priority for national surveillance programmes. Objectives: We investigate whether WGS and simultaneous analysis of multiple resistance determinants can be used to predict antimicrobial susceptibilities to the level of MICs in N. gonorrhoeae. Methods: WGS was used to identify previously reported potential resistance determinants in 681 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, from England, the USA and Canada, with phenotypes for cefixime, penicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline determined as part of national surveillance programmes...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333335/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-restores-intestinal-barrier-integrity-by-regulation-of-e-cadherin-recycling
#17
Chloé Terciolo, Aurélie Dobric, Mehdi Ouaissi, Carole Siret, Gilles Breuzard, Françoise Silvy, Bastien Marchiori, Sébastien Germain, Renaté Bonier, Adel Hama, Roisin Owens, Dominique Lombardo, Véronique Rigot, Frédéric André
Background and Aims: Alteration in intestinal permeability is the main factor underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases affecting the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Characterization of molecules targeting the restoration of intestinal barrier integrity is therefore vital for the development of alternative therapies. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb), used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated infectious and functional diarrhea, may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of IBD...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333307/formation-physiology-ecology-evolution-and-clinical-importance-of-bacterial-persisters
#18
Bram Van den Bergh, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Persisters are transiently tolerant variants that allow populations to avoid eradication by antibiotic treatment. Their antibiotic tolerance is non-genetic, not inheritable and results from a phenotypic switch from the normal, sensitive cell type to the tolerant, persister state. Here we give a comprehensive overview on bacterial persistence. We first define persistence, summarize the various aspects of persister physiology and show their heterogeneous nature. We then focus on the role of key cellular processes and mechanisms controlling the formation of a subpopulation of tolerant cells...
February 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333294/antibiotic-consumption-by-new-zealand-children-exposure-is-near-universal-by-the-age-of-5%C3%A2-years
#19
Mark R Hobbs, Cameron C Grant, Stephen R Ritchie, Carol Chelimo, Susan M B Morton, Sarah Berry, Mark G Thomas
Background: Increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance and microbiome disruption have stimulated interest in describing antibiotic consumption in young children. Young children are an age group for whom antibiotics are frequently prescribed. Objectives: To describe community antibiotic dispensing during the first 5 years of life in a large, socioeconomically and ethnically diverse cohort of children, and to determine how antibiotic dispensing varied between population subgroups...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333283/rch51-a-multiply-antibiotic-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-st103ip-isolate-carries-resistance-genes-in-three-plasmids-including-a-novel-potentially-conjugative-plasmid-carrying-oxa235-in-transposon-tn6252
#20
Mohammad Hamidian, Steven J Nigro, Rebecca M Hartstein, Ruth M Hall
Objectives: To determine the identity and context of genes conferring antibiotic resistance in a sporadic multiply antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii recovered at Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane. Methods: The antibiotic resistance phenotype for 23 antibiotics was determined using disc diffusion or MIC determination. The whole-genome sequence of RCH51 was determined using the Illumina HiSeq platform. Antibiotic resistance determinants were identified using ResFinder...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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