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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771639/hic-5-expression-is-a-major-indicator-of-cancer-cell-morphology-migration-and-plasticity-in-three-dimensional-matrices
#1
Anushree C Gulvady, Fatemeh Dubois, Nicholas O Deakin, Gregory J Goreczny, Christopher E Turner
The focal adhesion proteins, Hic-5 and Paxillin have been previously identified as key regulators of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration and morphologic mesenchymal-amoeboid plasticity in three-dimensional extracellular matrices. However, their respective roles in other cancer cell types has not been evaluated. Herein, utilizing 3D cell-derived matrices and fibronectin-coated 1D substrates, we show that across a variety of cancer cell lines, the level of Hic-5 expression serves as the major indicator of the cells primary morphology, plasticity and in vitro invasiveness...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768188/micropatterned-biodegradable-polyesters-clicked-with-cqaasikvav-promote-cell-alignment-directional-migration-and-neurite-outgrowth
#2
Deteng Zhang, Sai Wu, Jianyong Feng, Yiyuan Duan, Dongming Xing, Changyou Gao
The interplay of microstructures and biological cues is critical to regulate the behaviors of Schwann cells (SCs) in terms of cellular spatial arrangement and directional migration as well as neurite orientation for bridging the proximal and distal stumps of the injured peripheral nervous system. In this study, stripe micropatterns having ridges/grooves of width 20/20 and 20/40 μm were fabricated on the surface of maleimide-functionalized biodegradable poly(ester carbonate) (P(LLA-MTMC)) films by the polydimethylsiloxane mold-pressing method, respectively...
May 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763784/alterations-in-the-distribution-of-actin-and-its-binding-proteins-in-the-porcine-endometrium-during-early-pregnancy-possible-role-in-epithelial-remodeling-and-embryo-adhesion
#3
Beenu Moza Jalali, Pawel Likszo, Aneta Andronowska, Dariusz J Skarzynski
During early pregnancy, uterine epithelial cells undergo major transformations in their cytoskeleton that make the endometrium receptive for conceptus attachment. Actin binding proteins (ABPs) such as cofilin, gelsolin, and vinculin are involved in regulating actin polymerization, severing or crosslinking actin to integrins. However, whether ABPs are involved in epithelial remodeling or embryo adhesion in pigs is unknown. Therefore, the expression and distribution of these proteins were investigated in porcine endometrium on Days 10 and 13 (pre-implantation period), and 16 (attachment phase) of the estrous cycle or pregnancy...
May 8, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762127/electrospun-fiber-surface-nanotopography-influences-astrocyte-mediated-neurite-outgrowth
#4
Christopher D Johnson, Anthony R D'Amato, Devan L Puhl, Douglas M Wich, Amanda Vespermann, Ryan J Gilbert
Aligned, electrospun fiber scaffolds provide topographical guidance for regenerating neurons and glia after central nervous system injury. To date, no study has explored how fiber surface nanotopography affects astrocyte response to fibrous scaffolds. Astrocytes play important roles in the glial scar, the blood brain barrier, and in maintaining homeostasis in the central nervous system. In this study, electrospun poly L-lactic acid fibers were engineered with smooth, pitted, or divoted surface nanotopography...
May 15, 2018: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755164/mass-measurements-of-focal-adhesions-in-single-cells-using-high-resolution-surface-plasmon-resonance-microscopy
#5
Alexander W Peterson, Michael Halter, Alessandro Tona, Anne L Plant, John T Elliott
Surface plasmon resonance microscopy (SPRM) is a powerful label-free imaging technique with spatial resolution approaching the optical diffraction limit. The high sensitivity of SPRM to small changes in index of refraction at an interface allows imaging of dynamic protein structures within a cell. Visualization of subcellular features, such as focal adhesions (FAs), can be performed on live cells using a high numerical aperture objective lens with a digital light projector to precisely position the incident angle of the excitation light...
2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750899/bmp-2-enhances-the-migration-and-proliferation-of-hypoxia-induced-vsmcs-via-actin-cytoskeleton-cd44-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-linkage
#6
Min Yang, Zhiqin Fan, Fei Wang, Zhi-Hua Tian, Bo Ma, Bing Dong, Zhongwu Li, Ming Zhang, Wei Zhao
The persistent proliferation of hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the arterial wall underlie the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism that regulates the behavior of VSMCs, which involve in actin aggregation, and impedes their migration is still elusive. Here, we report that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) leads to enrichment of CD44 and F-actin stress fiber and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) during hypoxia in vitro and following artificial hypoxia-induced atherosclerosis exacerbation in vivo...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746877/liraglutide-attenuates-the-migration-of-retinal-pericytes-induced-by-advanced-glycation-end-products
#7
Wen-Jian Lin, Xue-Fei Ma, Ming Hao, Huan-Ran Zhou, Xin-Yang Yu, Ning Shao, Xin-Yuan Gao, Hong-Yu Kuang
Retinal pericyte migration represents a novel mechanism of pericyte loss in diabetic retinopathy (DR), which plays a crucial role in the early impairment of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been shown to protect the diabetic retina in the early stage of DR; however, the relationship between GLP-1 and retinal pericytes has not been discussed. In this study, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) significantly increased the migration of primary bovine retinal pericytes without influencing cell viability...
May 7, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720549/the-role-of-palladin-in-podocytes
#8
Nadine Artelt, Tim A Ludwig, Henrik Rogge, Panagiotis Kavvadas, Florian Siegerist, Antje Blumenthal, Jens van den Brandt, Carol A Otey, Marie-Louise Bang, Kerstin Amann, Christos E Chadjichristos, Christos Chatziantoniou, Karlhans Endlich, Nicole Endlich
Background Podocyte loss and effacement of interdigitating podocyte foot processes are the major cause of a leaky filtration barrier and ESRD. Because the complex three-dimensional morphology of podocytes depends on the actin cytoskeleton, we studied the role in podocytes of the actin bundling protein palladin, which is highly expressed therein. Methods We knocked down palladin in cultured podocytes by siRNA transfection or in zebrafish embryos by morpholino injection and studied the effects by immunofluorescence and live imaging...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713350/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-is-required-for-mmp-2-function-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-implications-for-cytoskeleton-assembly-and-proliferation
#9
Chiara Sassoli, Federica Pierucci, Alessia Tani, Alessia Frati, Flaminia Chellini, Francesca Matteini, Ambra Vestri, Giulia Anderloni, Daniele Nosi, Sandra Zecchi-Orlandini, Elisabetta Meacci
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell- (BM-MSC-) based therapy is a promising option for regenerative medicine. An important role in the control of the processes influencing the BM-MSC therapeutic efficacy, namely, extracellular matrix remodelling and proliferation and secretion ability, is played by matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2. Therefore, the identification of paracrine/autocrine regulators of MMP-2 function may be of great relevance for improving BM-MSC therapeutic potential. We recently reported that BM-MSCs release the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and, here, we demonstrated an impairment of MMP-2 expression/release when the S1P receptor subtype S1PR1 is blocked...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708657/tio-2-nanoparticles-disrupt-cell-adhesion-and-the-architecture-of-cytoskeletal-networks-of-human-osteoblast-like-cells-in-a-size-dependent-manner
#10
Mohamed Ibrahim, Julia Schoelermann, Kamal Mustafa, Mihaela R Cimpan
Human exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ) is increasing. An internal source of nano-TiO2 is represented by titanium-based orthopedic and dental implants can release nanoparticles (NPs) upon abrasion. Little is known about how the size of NPs influences their interaction with cytoskeletal protein networks and the functional/homeostatic consequences that might follow at the implant-bone interface with regard to osteoblasts. We investigated the effects of size of anatase nano-TiO2 on SaOS-2 human osteoblast-like cells exposed to clinically relevant concentrations (0...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696730/molecular-interactions-between-vinculin-and-phospholipids
#11
Wolfgang H Goldmann
The focal adhesion protein vinculin has been implicated in associating with soluble and membranous phospholipids. Detailed investigations over the past ten years describe the intermolecular interactions of the vinculin tail domain with soluble and membrane phospholipids. Previous studies have implied that the tail&s unstructured C-terminal region affects the mechanical behavior of cells and that the same region, at the molecular level, has bi-stable behavior sensitive to different protonation states. The aim of this short communication is to discuss whether the C-terminal vinculin tail (Vt) domain interacts favorably with membrane-embedded phospholipids such as PIP2 and that the region is also an anchor for lipid membranes...
April 25, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686285/novel-plasma-proteins-in-nepalese-school-aged-children-are-associated-with-a-small-head-size-at-birth
#12
Sun Eun Lee, Keith P West, Robert N Cole, Kerry J Schulze, Lee S-F Wu, James D Yager, John Groopman, Parul Christian
Fetal growth restriction increases the risk of poor childhood growth and development and chronic disease in adulthood. Yet, little is known about biological pathways that mediate the long-lasting effects of suboptimal intrauterine growth. We explored the plasma proteome in a cohort of 500 Nepalese children 6-8 years of age to identify plasma proteins associated with multiple anthropometric size indicators at birth. Among 982 proteins analyzed, no proteins differed by birth weight, length, or weight-for-length indicators...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681215/hyaluronic-acid-dictates-chondrocyte-morphology-and-migration-in-composite-gels
#13
Renu Mohan, Neethu Mohan, Dhanesh Vaikkath
Tissue equivalent collagen-hyaluronic acid based hydrogels are widely used for cartilage tissue engineering, however not much importance has been given to investigate how cellular responses are altered with varying concentrations of hyaluronic acid in gels. In this study, different concentrations of hyaluronic acid dialdehyde (HAD) were combined with collagen to fabricate collagen-HAD composite (CH) gels, and the influence of HAD on cell shape, migration, viability, cytoskeletal organization and gel contraction were examined...
April 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677519/suspended-graphene-oxide-nanosheets-maintain-the-self-renewal-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-via-down-regulating-the-expression-of-vinculin
#14
Guoxin Jing, Zhaojie Wang, Xizhen Zhuang, Xiaolie He, Huijun Wu, Qingxiu Wang, Liming Cheng, Zhongmin Liu, Shilong Wang, Rongrong Zhu
Graphene oxide (GO), with good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, is widely explored as a carrier for various factors in the field of stem cell differentiation. However, its function of sustaining the stemness of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and the underlying mechanisms of this process remains undiscovered. Herein, we explored the biofunction of GO on mESCs and revealed the involved signaling pathways and key gene. The alkaline phosphatase activity detection, pluripotency genes quantification and the teratomas formation in vivo confirmed that GO nanosheets could sustain the self-renewal ability of mESCs instead of influencing its pluripotency...
April 11, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615672/morphometric-analysis-of-spread-platelets-identifies-integrin-%C3%AE-iib-%C3%AE-3-specific-contractile-phenotype
#15
Sebastian Lickert, Simona Sorrentino, Jan-Dirk Studt, Ohad Medalia, Viola Vogel, Ingmar Schoen
Haemostatic platelet function is intimately linked to cellular mechanics and cytoskeletal morphology. How cytoskeletal reorganizations give rise to a highly contractile phenotype that is necessary for clot contraction remains poorly understood. To elucidate this process in vitro, we developed a morphometric screen to quantify the spatial organization of actin fibres and vinculin adhesion sites in single spread platelets. Platelets from healthy donors predominantly adopted a bipolar morphology on fibrinogen and fibronectin, whereas distinguishable, more isotropic phenotypes on collagen type I or laminin...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610258/certhrax-is-an-anti-virulence-factor-for-the-anthrax-like-organism-bacillus-cereus-strain-g9241
#16
Yuliya I Seldina, Courtney D Petro, Stephanie L Servetas, James M Vergis, Christy L Ventura, D Scott Merrell, Alison D O'Brien
Bacillus cereus G9241 caused a life-threatening anthrax-like lung infection in a previously healthy man. This strain harbors two large virulence plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC210, that are absent from typical B cereus isolates. The pBCXO1 plasmid is nearly identical to pXO1 from B. anthracis and carries genes ( pagA1 , lef, and cya ) for the anthrax toxin components protective antigen (called PA1 in G9241), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF), respectively. The plasmid also has an intact hyaluronic acid capsule locus...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603091/platelet-proteomic-analysis-revealed-differential-pattern-of-cytoskeletal-and-immune-related-proteins-at-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Marta González-Sánchez, Teresa Díaz, Consuelo Pascual, Desiree Antequera, Alejandro Herrero-San Martín, Sara Llamas-Velasco, Alberto Villarejo-Galende, Fernando Bartolome, Eva Carro
Platelets are considered a good model system to study a number of elements associated with neuronal pathways as they share biochemical similarities. Platelets represent the major source of amyloid-β (Aβ) in blood contributing to the Aβ accumulation in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. Peripheral blood platelet alterations including cytoskeletal abnormalities, abnormal cytoplasmic calcium fluxes or increased oxidative stress levels have been related to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Therefore, platelets can be considered a peripheral model to study metabolic mechanisms occurring in AD...
March 30, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556803/molecular-mechanisms-driving-streptococcus-mitis-entry-into-human-gingival-fibroblasts-in-presence-of-chitlac-nag-and-saliva
#18
M Di Giulio, V Di Valerio, D Bosco, E Marsich, A Cataldi, L Cellini, S Sancilio
The molecular mechanisms leading to Streptococcus mitis capability of entering oral cells were investigated in a co-culture of S. mitis and Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) in the presence of saliva. An innovative colloidal solution based on silver nanoparticles (Chitlac-nAg), a promising device for daily oral care, was added to the experimental system in order to study the effects of silver on the bacterial overgrowth and ability to enter non-phagocytic eukaryotic cells. The entry of bacteria into the eukaryotic cells is mediated by a signalling pathway involving FAK, integrin β1, and the two cytoskeleton proteins vinculin and F-actin, and down-regulated by the presence of saliva both at 3 and 48 h of culture, whereas Chitlac-n Ag exposure seems to influence, by incrementing it, the number of bacteria entering the fibroblasts only at 48 h...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542234/the-force-sensing-device-region-of-%C3%AE-catenin-is-an-intrinsically-disordered-segment-in-the-absence-of-intramolecular-stabilization-of-the-autoinhibitory-form
#19
Yoshinori Hirano, Yu Amano, Shigenobu Yonemura, Toshio Hakoshima
Mechanotransduction by α-catenin facilitates the force-dependent development of adherens junctions (AJs) by recruiting vinculin to reinforce actin anchoring of AJs. The α-catenin mechanotransducing action is facilitated by its force-sensing device region that autoinhibits the vinculin-binding site 1 (VBS1). Here, we report the high-resolution structure of the force-sensing device region of α-catenin, which shows the autoinhibited form comprised of helix bundles E, F and G. The cryptic VBS1 is embedded into helix bundle E stabilized by direct interactions with the autoinhibitory region forming helix bundles F and G...
March 15, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500611/does-altered-protein-metabolism-interfere-with-postmortem-degradation-analysis-for-pmi-estimation
#20
A Zissler, B Ehrenfellner, E E Foditsch, F C Monticelli, S Pittner
An accurate estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a central aspect in forensic routine. Recently, a novel approach based on the analysis of postmortem muscle protein degradation has been proposed. However, a number of questions remain to be answered until sensible application of this method to a broad variety of forensic cases is possible. To evaluate whether altered in vivo protein metabolism interferes with postmortem degradation patterns, we conducted a comparative study. We developed a standardized animal degradation model in rats, and collected additional muscle samples from animals recovering from muscle injury and from rats with developed disuse muscle atrophy after induced spinal cord injury...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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