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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711873/vinculin-mediated-sensing-of-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711870/symmetrical-retrograde-actin-flow-in-the-actin-fusion-structure-is-involved-in-osteoclast-fusion
#2
Jiro Takito, Hirotada Otsuka, Satoshi Inoue, Tsubasa Kawashima, Masanori Nakamura
The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the zipper-like structure (ZLS), a podosome-related structure that transiently appears at the cell contact zone, in osteoclast fusion. Live-cell imaging of osteoclasts derived from RAW264.7 cells transfected with EGFP-actin revealed consistent symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the ZLS, but not in the podosome cluster, the podosome ring or the podosome belt. Confocal imaging showed that the distributions of F-actin, vinculin, paxillin and zyxin in the ZLS were different from those in the podosome belt...
July 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697804/ang-ii-at2r-increases-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-by-signaling-through-the-fak-and-rhoa-cdc42-pathways-in-vitro
#3
Xiu-Ping Xu, Hong-Li He, Shu-Ling Hu, Ji-Bin Han, Li-Li Huang, Jing-Yuan Xu, Jian-Feng Xie, Ai-Ran Liu, Yi Yang, Hai-Bo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate via the bloodstream to sites of injury and are possibly attracted by inflammatory factors. As a proinflammatory mediator, angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances the migration of various cell types by signaling via the Ang II receptor in vitro. However, few studies have focused on the effects of Ang II on MSC migration and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Human bone marrow MSCs migration was measured using wound healing and Boyden chamber migration assays after treatments with different concentrations of Ang II, an AT1R antagonist (Losartan), and/or an AT2R antagonist (PD-123319)...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692740/switching-of-%C3%AE-catenin-from-epithelial-to-neuronal-type-during-lens-epithelial-cell-differentiation
#4
Rupalatha Maddala, Ponugoti Vasantha Rao
Purpose: Ocular lens fiber cell elongation, differentiation, and compaction are associated with extensive reorganization of cell adhesive interactions and cytoskeleton; however, our knowledge of proteins critical to these events is still evolving. This study characterizes the distribution pattern of neuronal-specific α-catenin (αN-catenin) and its interaction with the N-cadherin-associated adherens junctions (AJs) and their stability in the mouse lens fibers. Methods: Expression and distribution of αN-catenin in developing mouse and adult human lenses was determined by RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence analyses...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687667/membrane-tension-controls-adhesion-positioning-at-the-leading-edge-of-cells
#5
Bruno Pontes, Pascale Monzo, Laurent Gole, Anabel-Lise Le Roux, Anita Joanna Kosmalska, Zhi Yang Tam, Weiwei Luo, Sophie Kan, Virgile Viasnoff, Pere Roca-Cusachs, Lisa Tucker-Kellogg, Nils C Gauthier
Cell migration is dependent on adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton remodeling at the leading edge. These events may be physically constrained by the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the mechanical signal produced by an increase in plasma membrane tension triggers the positioning of new rows of adhesions at the leading edge. During protrusion, as membrane tension increases, velocity slows, and the lamellipodium buckles upward in a myosin II-independent manner. The buckling occurs between the front of the lamellipodium, where nascent adhesions are positioned in rows, and the base of the lamellipodium, where a vinculin-dependent clutch couples actin to previously positioned adhesions...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655496/mosquito-aging-modulates-the-heart-rate-and-the-proportional-directionality-of-heart-contractions
#6
Charlotte R Doran, Tania Y Estévez-Lao, Julián F Hillyer
Mosquito aging impacts a myriad of physiological processes, including digestion, flight, mating, reproductive success, and immunity. In the present study, we conducted intravital video imaging in 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20-day-old Anopheles gambiae female adults to assess whether aging impacts mosquito heart physiology. We found that the heart contraction rate increases over the first 15days of adulthood and then decreases. These changes occur for both contraction directions, although aging results in a relative change in the anterograde versus retrograde contraction rates...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654129/nanotopography-featured-polycaprolactone-polyethyleneoxide-microfibers-modulate-endothelial-cell-response
#7
Mehmet Berat Taskin, Dan Xia, Flemming Besenbacher, Mingdong Dong, Menglin Chen
Among many physical properties, surface nanotopography has been found to strongly affect cell adhesion, migration and other functions. Accurate biological interpretation requires the nanotopography to be presented in a three-dimensional (3D) micro-environment. Herein, immiscible blends of polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyethyleneoxide (PEO) were electrospun into a grounded coagulation bath, resulting in macroporous microfibers with nanotopography featured surfaces. Variations in PCL/PEO ratios enabled tunable surface nanotopographic structures, from longitudinal submicron grooves to transverse nano-lamellae...
July 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636424/fluid-shear-stress-regulates-hepg2-cell-migration-though-time-dependent-integrin-signaling-cascade
#8
Hongchi Yu, Yang Shen, Jingsi Jin, Yingying Zhang, Tang Feng, Xiaoheng Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a subtype of malignant liver cancer with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. It is noteworthy that mechanical forces in tumor microenvironment play a pivotal role in mediating the behaviors and functions of tumor cells. As an instrumental type of mechanical forces in vivo, fluid shear stress (FSS) has been reported having potent physiologic and pathologic effects on cancer progression. However, the time-dependent mechanochemical transduction in HCC induced by FSS remains unclear...
June 21, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626446/gnrh-induces-erk-dependent-bleb-formation-in-gonadotrope-cells-involving-recruitment-of-members-of-a-gnrh-receptor-associated-signalosome-to-the-blebs
#9
Liat Rahamim-Ben Navi, Anna Tsukerman, Alona Feldman, Philippa Melamed, Melanija Tomić, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Ulrich Boehm, Rony Seger, Zvi Naor
We have previously described a signaling complex (signalosome) associated with the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). We now report that GnRH induces bleb formation in the gonadotrope-derived LβT2 cells. The blebs appear within ~2 min at a turnover rate of ~2-3 blebs/min and last for at least 90 min. Formation of the blebs requires active ERK1/2 and RhoA-ROCK but not active c-Src. Although the following ligands stimulate ERK1/2 in LβT2 cells: EGF > GnRH > PMA > cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), they produced little or no effect on bleb formation as compared to the robust effect of GnRH (GnRH > PMA > cAMP > EGF), indicating that ERK1/2 is required but not sufficient for bleb formation possibly due to compartmentalization...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620171/mechanical-stability-of-talin-rod-controls-cell-migration-and-substrate-sensing
#10
Rolle Rahikainen, Magdaléna von Essen, Markus Schaefer, Lei Qi, Latifeh Azizi, Conor Kelly, Teemu O Ihalainen, Bernhard Wehrle-Haller, Martin Bastmeyer, Cai Huang, Vesa P Hytönen
Cells adhere to the surrounding tissue and probe its mechanical properties by forming cell-matrix adhesions. Talin is a critical adhesion protein and participates in the transmission of mechanical signals between extracellular matrix and cell cytoskeleton. Force induced unfolding of talin rod subdomains has been proposed to act as a cellular mechanosensor, but so far evidence linking their mechanical stability and cellular response has been lacking. Here, by utilizing computationally designed mutations, we demonstrate that stepwise destabilization of the talin rod R3 subdomain decreases cellular traction force generation, which affects talin and vinculin dynamics in cell-matrix adhesions and results in the formation of talin-rich but unstable adhesions...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611383/integrin-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-in-nonactivated-conformation-can-induce-focal-adhesion-kinase-signaling
#11
Maria Salmela, Johanna Jokinen, Silja Tiitta, Pekka Rappu, R Holland Cheng, Jyrki Heino
Conformational activation of integrins is generally required for ligand binding and cellular signalling. However, we have previously reported that the nonactivated conformation of α2β1 integrin can also bind to large ligands, such as human echovirus 1. In this study, we show that the interaction between the nonactivated integrin and a ligand resulted in the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in a protein kinase C dependent manner. A loss-of-function mutation, α2E336A, in the α2-integrin did not prevent the activation of FAK, nor did EDTA-mediated inactivation of the integrin...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592633/the-phospho-caveolin-1-scaffolding-domain-dampens-force-fluctuations-in-focal-adhesions-and-promotes-cancer-cell-migration
#12
Fanrui Meng, Sandeep Saxena, Youtao Liu, Bharat Joshi, Timothy H Wong, Jay Shankar, Leonard J Foster, Pascal Bernatchez, Ivan R Nabi
Caveolin-1 (Cav1), a major Src kinase substrate phosphorylated on tyrosine-14 (Y14), contains the highly-conserved membrane-proximal caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD; amino acids 82-101). Here we show, using CSD mutants (F92A/V94A) and membrane-permeable CSD competing peptides, that Src kinase-dependent pY14Cav1 regulation of focal adhesion protein stabilization, focal adhesion tension and cancer cell migration is CSD-dependent. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Cav1-GST (1-101 amino acids) pulldowns showed 6-fold increased binding of vinculin and, to a lesser extent, α-actinin, talin and filamin, to phosphomimetic Cav1Y14D relative to non-phosphorylatable Cav1Y14F...
June 7, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576970/low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-promotes-cell-motility-through-vinculin-controlled-rac1-gtpase-activity
#13
Paul Atherton, Franziska Lausecker, Andrew Harrison, Christoph Ballestrem
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a therapy used clinically to promote healing. Using live-cell imaging we show that LIPUS stimulation, acting through integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions, rapidly induces Rac1 activation associated with dramatic actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. Our study demonstrates that the mechanosensitive focal adhesion (FA) protein vinculin, and both focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2) and Rab5 (both the Rab5a and Rab5b isoforms) have key roles in regulating these effects...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575979/live-cell-biosensor-for-assessment-of-adhesion-qualities-of-biomaterials
#14
Svetlana I Ivanova, Stoyan Chakarov, Albena Momchilova, Roumen Pankov
The present study describes a live-cell biosensor, suitable for general evaluation of adhesion qualities of different substrates. It is based on NIH/3T3 fibroblast cell line stably expressing fusion fluorescently tagged proteins mCherry-vinculin and GFP-tensin as quantifiable markers for assessment not only of focal but also of fibrillar contacts. Four measurable parameters - spreading, polarization and development of focal and fibrillar adhesions were used to standardize the adhesion of biosensor cells after plating on five substrates of natural origin - fibronectin, vitronectin, laminin-111, laminin-521 and collagen type I...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554775/zonula-occludens-2-regulates-rho-proteins-activity-and-the-development-of-epithelial-cytoarchitecture-and-barrier-function
#15
Arturo Raya-Sandino, Alejandro Castillo-Kauil, Alaide Domínguez-Calderón, Lourdes Alarcón, David Flores-Benitez, Francisco Cuellar-Perez, Bruno López-Bayghen, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, José Vázquez-Prado, Lorenza González-Mariscal
Silencing Zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2), a tight junctions (TJ) scaffold protein, in epithelial cells (MDCK ZO-2 KD) triggers: 1) Decreased cell to substratum attachment, accompanied by reduced expression of claudin-7 and integrin β1, and increased vinculin recruitment to focal adhesions and stress fibers formation; 2) Lowered cell-cell aggregation and appearance of wider intercellular spaces; 3) Increased RhoA/ROCK activity, mediated by GEF-HI recruitment to cell borders by cingulin; 4) Increased Cdc42 activity, mitotic spindle disorientation and the appearance of cysts with multiple lumens; 5) Increased Rac and cofilin activity, multiple lamellipodia formation and random cell migration but increased wound closure; 6) Diminished cingulin phosphorylation and disappearance of planar network of microtubules at the TJ region; and 7) Increased transepithelial electrical resistance at steady state, coupled to an increased expression of ZO-1 and claudin-4 and a decreased expression of claudin-2 and paracingulin...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552713/mass-spectrometric-detection-combined-with-bioinformatic-analysis-identified-possible-protein-markers-and-key-pathways-associated-with-bladder-cancer
#16
Ziyu Wu, Sugui Wang, Fujin Jiang, Qiang Li, Chao Wang, Huanqiang Wang, Wei Zhang, Peng Xue, Shoulin Wang
We aimed to find possible protein markers and key pathways related to bladder cancer. In total, we extracted three bladder cancer tissues and three paracancerous tissues from Jiangsu Provincial People's Hospital Urology Department, and performed mass spectrometric detection with Q Exactive. Subsequently, we screened the differentially expressed proteins in the disease group and the normal group using the LIMMA package, and performed functional enrichment analyses using DAVID. Further, we constructed protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks with Cytoscape software, and analyzed modules with ClusterONE...
May 25, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549588/graphene-modified-titanium-alloy-promote-the-adhesion-proliferation-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#17
Kewen Li, Jinhong Yan, Chunhui Wang, Long Bi, Qi Zhang, Yisheng Han
We studied the effects of graphene coating on improving the biological activity of a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) widely used in hip and knee joint replacements. The experiments included immunofluorescence staining for observing cellular adhesion, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) for evaluating cellular proliferation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells on different scaffolds. The results showed that G-Ti6Al4V exhibited a higher mean integrated optical density (IOD) for vinculin and resulted in a higher cell proliferation rate and higher osteoblast-specific gene transcription levels...
May 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540429/identification-of-markers-for-quiescent-pancreatic-stellate-cells-in-the-normal-human-pancreas
#18
Michael Friberg Bruun Nielsen, Michael Bau Mortensen, Sönke Detlefsen
Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a central role as source of fibrogenic cells in pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. In contrast to quiescent hepatic stellate cells (qHSCs), a specific marker for quiescent PSCs (qPSCs) that can be used in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) normal human pancreatic tissue has not been identified. The aim of this study was to identify a marker enabling the identification of qPSCs in normal human FFPE pancreatic tissue. Immunohistochemical (IHC), double-IHC, immunofluorescence (IF) and double-IF analyses were carried out using a tissue microarray consisting of cores with normal human pancreatic tissue...
May 25, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499977/human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-the-olfactory-epithelium-express-the-trkb-receptor-and-migrate-in-response-to-bdnf
#19
Leonardo Ortiz-López, Jorge Julio González-Olvera, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Maria García-Anaya, Ana Karen Carapia-Hernández, Julio César Velázquez-Escobar, Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez
Neurogenesis constitutively occurs in the olfactory epithelium of mammals, including humans. The fact that new neurons in the adult olfactory epithelium derive from resident neural stem/progenitor cells suggests a potential use for these cells in studies of neural diseases, as well as in neuronal cell replacement therapies. In this regard, some studies have proposed that the human olfactory epithelium is a source of neural stem/progenitor cells for autologous transplantation. Although these potential applications are interesting, it is important to understand the cell biology and/or whether human neural stem/progenitor cells in the olfactory epithelium sense external signals, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), that is also found in other pro-neurogenic microenvironments...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498477/identification-of-candidate-substrates-of-ubiquitin-specific-protease-13-using-2d-dige
#20
Jianmin Wang, Yingli Liu, Lijuan Tang, Sufen Qi, Yingjun Mi, Dianwu Liu, Qingbao Tian
The present study aimed to identify candidate substrates of ubiquitin-specific protease (USP)13 using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). USP13 is a well-characterized member of the USP family, which regulates diverse cellular functions by cleaving ubiquitin from ubiquitinated protein substrates. However, existing studies indicate that USP13 has no detectable hydrolytic activity in vitro. This finding implies that USP13 likely has different substrate specificity. In this study, a USP cleavage assay was performed using two different types of model substrates (glutathione S-transferase-Ub52 and ubiquitin-β-galactosidase) to detect the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) activity of USP13...
July 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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