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Vinculin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340859/comparative-proteomics-of-chromium-transformed-beas-2b-cells-by-2d-dige-and-maldi-tof-tof-ms
#1
Jian Lu, Miaomiao Tang, Yi Liu, Jin Wang, Zhanao Wu
Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic, common heavy metal used in industrial production. There are two types of Cr in nature: hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and chromium trichloride (Cr(III)). Cr(III) is involved in the metabolism of sugars and lipids, whereas Cr(VI) is absorbed through the respiratory tract and skin and generates free radicals that result in secondary toxicity. Cr(VI) leads to cancer in the occupational population and is therefore recognized as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer...
January 16, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338385/does-the-mesenchymal-stem-cell-source-influence-smooth-muscle-regeneration-in-tissue-engineered-urinary-bladders
#2
Marta Pokrywczynska, Arkadiusz Jundzill, Karolina Warda, Lukasz Buchholz, Marta Rasmus, Jan Adamowicz, Magdalena Bodnar, Andrzej Marszalek, Anna Helmin-Basa, Jacek Michalkiewicz, Maciej Gagat, Alina Grzanka, Malgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz, Agata Magdalena Gastecka, Tomasz Kloskowski, Maciej Nowacki, Camillo Ricordi, Tomasz Drewa
A variety of tissue engineering techniques utilizing different cells and biomaterials are currently being explored to construct urinary bladder walls de novo, but so far no approach is clearly superior. The aim of this study was to determine whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from different sources, (bone marrow [BM-MSCs] and adipose tissue [ADSCs]), differ in their potential to regenerate smooth muscles in tissue-engineered urinary bladders and to determine an optimal number of MSCs for urinary bladder smooth muscle regeneration...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338098/increase-in-motility-and-invasiveness-of-mcf7-cancer-cells-induced-by-nicotine-is-abolished-by-melatonin-through-inhibition-of-erk-phosphorylation
#3
Sara Proietti, Angela Catizone, Maria Grazia Masiello, Simona Dinicola, Gianmarco Fabrizi, Mirko Minini, Giulia Ricci, Roberto Verna, Russel J Reiter, Alessandra Cucina, Mariano Bizzarri
Through activation of the ERK pathway nicotine, in both normal MCF-10A and low malignant breast cancer cells (MCF7), promotes increased motility and invasiveness. Melatonin antagonizes both these effects by inhibiting almost completely ERK phosphorylation. As melatonin has no effect on not-stimulated cells, it is likely that melatonin can counteract ERK-activation only downstream of nicotine-induced activation. This finding suggests that melatonin hampers ERK phosphorylation presumably by targeting a still unknown intermediate factor that connects nicotine stimulation to ERK phosphorylation...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295815/toxoplasma-gondii-disrupts-%C3%AE-1-integrin-signaling-and-focal-adhesion-formation-during-monocyte-hypermotility
#4
Joshua H Cook, Norikiyo Ueno, Melissa B Lodoen
The motility of blood monocytes is orchestrated by the activity of cell surface integrins, which translate extracellular signals into cytoskeletal changes to mediate adhesion and migration. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects migratory cells and enhances their motility, but the mechanisms underlying T. gondii-induced hypermotility are incompletely understood. We have investigated the molecular basis for the hypermotility of primary human peripheral blood monocytes and THP-1 cells infected with T...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286091/identifying-heterogeneous-subtypes-of-gastric-cancer-and-subtype%C3%A2-specific-subpaths-of-microrna%C3%A2-target-pathways
#5
Yuanhang Li, Weijun Bai, Xu Zhang
The present study aimed to classify gastric cancer (GC) into subtypes and to screen the subtype‑specific genes, their targeted microRNAs (miRNAs) and enriched pathways to explore the putative mechanism of each GC subtypes. The GSE13861 data set was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus and used to screen differential expression genes (DEGs) in GC samples based on the detection of imbalanced differential signal algorithm. The specific genes in each subtype were identified with the cut‑off criterion of U>0...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282282/force-dependent-binding-of-vinculin-to-%C3%AE-catenin-regulates-cell-cell-contacts-stability-and-collective-cell-behavior
#6
Rima Seddiki, Gautham Hari Narayana Sankara Narayana, Pierre-Olivier Strale, Hayri Emrah Balcioglu, Grégoire Peyret, Mingxi Yao, Anh Phuong Le, Lim Chwee Teck, Jie Yan, Benoit Ladoux, René Marc Mège
The shaping of a multicellular body and repair of adult tissues require fine-tuning of cell adhesion, cell mechanics and intercellular transmission of mechanical load. Adherens junctions (AJs) are the major intercellular junctions by which cells sense and exert mechanical force on each other. However, how AJs adapt to mechanical stress and how this adaptation contributes to cell-cell cohesion and eventually to tissue-scale dynamics and mechanics remains largely unknown. Here, by analyzing the tension-dependent recruitment of vinculin, α-catenin and F-actin as a function of stiffness, as well as the dynamics of GFP-tagged wild-type and mutated α-catenins, altered for their binding capability to vinculin, we demonstrate that the force-dependent binding of vinculin stabilizes α-catenin and is responsible for AJ adaptation to force...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260198/micro-and-nanoscale-topographies-on-silk-regulate-gene-expression-of-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#7
Kai B Kang, Brian D Lawrence, X Raymond Gao, Yuncin Luo, Qiang Zhou, Aihong Liu, Victor H Guaiquil, Mark I Rosenblatt
Purpose: Corneal basement membrane has topographical features that provide biophysical cues to direct cell adherence, migration, and proliferation. In this study, we hypothesize that varying topographic pitch created on silk films can alter epithelial cell morphology, adhesion, and the genetic expression involved in cytoskeletal dynamics-related pathways. Methods: Silicon wafers with parallel ridge widths of 2000, 1000, and 800 nm were produced and used to pattern silk films via soft lithography...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249195/surface-nanotopography-induced-favorable-modulation-of-bioactivity-and-osteoconductive-potential-of-anodized-3d-printed-ti-6al-4v-alloy-mesh-structure
#8
K C Nune, Rdk Misra, X Gai, S J Li, Y L Hao
The objective of the study described here is to fundamentally elucidate the biological response of 3D printed Ti-6Al-4V alloy mesh structures that were surface modified to introduce titania nanotubes with an average pore size of ∼80 nm via an electrochemical anodization process from the perspective of enhancing bioactivity. The bioactivity of the mesh structures were analyzed through immersion test in simulated body fluid, which confirmed the nucleation and growth of fine globular nanoscale apatite on the nanoporous titania-modified (anodized) mesh structure surface, and agglomerated apatite with fine flakes of apatite crystals on as-fabricated mesh structure surface, that were rich in calcium and phosphorous...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248713/new-microtubulin-inhibitor-mt189-suppresses-angiogenesis-via-the-jnk-vegf-vegfr2-signaling-axis
#9
Lin Xu, Wei Wang, Tao Meng, Lan-Ping Ma, Lin-Jiang Tong, Jing-Kang Shen, Ying-Qing Wang, Ze-Hong Miao
The microtubulin inhibitor MT189 possesses anticancer activity and has been shown to overcome multidrug resistance. Here, we report that MT189 also inhibits angiogenesis. MT189 inhibited the proliferation, migration and differentiation of endothelial cells, with or without VEGF stimulation, and suppressed microvessel formation ex vivo and in vivo. MT189 reduced VEGF expression and secretion in both tumor and endothelial cells, under either hypoxic or normoxic conditions. The activation of VEGFR2 and downstream Src was thus abrogated in the MT189-treated endothelial cells...
December 14, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241625/vinculin-is-required-to-maintain-glomerular-barrier-integrity
#10
Franziska Lausecker, Xuefei Tian, Kazunori Inoue, Zhen Wang, Christopher E Pedigo, Hossam Hassan, Chang Liu, Margaret Zimmer, Stephanie Jinno, Abby L Huckle, Hellyeh Hamidi, Robert S Ross, Roy Zent, Christoph Ballestrem, Rachel Lennon, Shuta Ishibe
Cell-matrix interactions and podocyte intercellular junctions are key for maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. Vinculin, a cytoplasmic protein, couples actin filaments to integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and to cadherin-based intercellular junctions. Here, we examined the role of vinculin in podocytes by the generation of a podocyte-specific knockout mouse. Mice lacking podocyte vinculin had increased albuminuria and foot process effacement following injury in vivo. Analysis of primary podocytes isolated from the mutant mice revealed defects in cell protrusions, altered focal adhesion size and signaling, as well as impaired cell migration...
December 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231215/involvement-of-fak-mediated-bmp-2-smad-pathway-in-mediating-osteoblast-adhesion-and-differentiation-on-nano-ha-chitosan-composite-coated-titanium-implant-under-diabetic-conditions
#11
Xiang-Yu Ma, Ya-Fei Feng, Tian-Sheng Wang, Wei Lei, Xiang Li, Da-Peng Zhou, Xin-Xin Wen, Hai-Long Yu, Liang-Bi Xiang, Lin Wang
Chitosan (CS)-based hydroxyapatite (HA) composites have emerged as a novel strategy for promoting bone regeneration. Here nanophase HA/CS composite coated porous titanium implants (nCT) were fabricated and their biological behavior under diabetic conditions was investigated. We proposed that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-mediated BMP-2/Smad pathway played a role in mediating the promotive effect of nCTs on osteoblast adhesion and differentiation under diabetes-induced high reactive oxygen species (ROS) condition...
December 12, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222344/trip6-inhibits-hippo-signaling-in-response-to-tension-at-adherens-junctions
#12
Shubham Dutta, Sebastian Mana-Capelli, Murugan Paramasivam, Ishani Dasgupta, Heather Cirka, Kris Billiar, Dannel McCollum
The transcriptional co-activator YAP controls cell proliferation, survival, and tissue regeneration in response to changes in the mechanical environment. It is not known how mechanical stimuli such as tension are sensed and how the signal is transduced to control YAP activity. Here, we show that the LIM domain protein TRIP6 acts as part of a mechanotransduction pathway at adherens junctions to promote YAP activity by inhibiting the LATS1/2 kinases. Previous studies showed that vinculin at adherens junctions becomes activated by mechanical tension...
December 8, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212803/elastase-alters-contractility-and-promotes-an-inflammatory-synthetic-phenotype-in-airway-smooth-muscle-tissues
#13
Angelia D Lockett, Yidi Wu, Susan J Gunst
Neutrophil elastase is secreted by inflammatory cells during airway inflammation and can elicit airway hyperactivity in vivo. Elastase can degrade multiple components of the extracellular matrix. We hypothesized that elastase might disrupt the connections between airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and the extracellular matrix, and that this might have direct effects on ASM tissue responsiveness and inflammation. The effect of elastase treatment on ASM contractility was assessed in vitro in isolated strips of canine tracheal smooth muscle by stimulating tissues with cumulatively increasing concentrations of ACh and measuring contractile force...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212020/mechanotransmission-and-mechanosensing-of-human-alpha-actinin-1
#14
Shimin Le, Xian Hu, Mingxi Yao, Hu Chen, Miao Yu, Xiaochun Xu, Naotaka Nakazawa, Felix M Margadant, Michael P Sheetz, Jie Yan
α-Actinins, a family of critical cytoskeletal actin-binding proteins that usually exist as anti-parallel dimers, play crucial roles in organizing the framework of the cytoskeleton through crosslinking the actin filaments, as well as in focal adhesion maturation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions are unclear. Here, by mechanical manipulation of single human α-actinin 1 using magnetic tweezers, we determined the mechanical stability and kinetics of the functional domains in α-actinin 1...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209901/abundant-focal-adhesion-kinase-causes-aberrant-neuronal-migration-via-its-phosphorylation-at-tyr925
#15
Lei An, Weiwei Li, Xinde Hu, Wei Zhang, Shanting Zhao
The process of neuronal migration is precisely regulated by different molecules during corticogenesis. The FAK (focal adhesion kinase) plays a critical role in embryogenesis and is involved in cell motility through focal adhesions, but the underlying mechanisms on inordinate expression are unclear. To investigate the effect of FAK overexpression on neuronal migration spatiotemporally, mice FAK was transfected into the neurons in vivo by electroporation. Results showed that exogenous FAK distributed in the cytoplasm (in vivo) and co-localized with vinculin (in vitro) and induced aberrant neuronal migration via phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr925 during cerebral cortex development...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184140/induced-cortical-tension-restores-functional-junctions-in-adhesion-defective-carcinoma-cells
#16
Shoko Ito, Satoru Okuda, Masako Abe, Mari Fujimoto, Tetsuo Onuki, Tamako Nishimura, Masatoshi Takeichi
Normal epithelial cells are stably connected to each other via the apical junctional complex (AJC). AJCs, however, tend to be disrupted during tumor progression, and this process is implicated in cancer dissemination. Here, using colon carcinoma cells that fail to form AJCs, we investigated molecular defects behind this failure through a search for chemical compounds that could restore AJCs, and found that microtubule-polymerization inhibitors (MTIs) were effective. MTIs activated GEF-H1/RhoA signaling, causing actomyosin contraction at the apical cortex...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153504/pressure-dependent-chemical-shifts-in-the-r3-domain-of-talin-show-that-it-is-thermodynamically-poised-for-binding-to-either-vinculin-or-riam
#17
Nicola J Baxter, Thomas Zacharchenko, Igor L Barsukov, Mike P Williamson
Talin mediates attachment of the cell to the extracellular matrix. It is targeted by the Rap1 effector RIAM to focal adhesion sites and subsequently undergoes force-induced conformational opening to recruit the actin-interacting protein vinculin. The conformational switch involves the talin R3 domain, which binds RIAM when closed and vinculin when open. Here, we apply pressure to R3 and measure (1)H, (15)N, and (13)C chemical shift changes, which are fitted using a simple model, and indicate that R3 is only 50% closed: the closed form is a four-helix bundle, while in the open state helix 1 is twisted out...
November 10, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142072/salt-bridges-gate-alpha-catenin-activation-at-intercellular-junctions
#18
Samantha Barrick, Jing Li, Xinyu Kong, Alokananda Ray, Emad Tajkhorshid, Deborah Leckband
Cadherin complexes transduce force fluctuations at junctions to activate signals that reinforce stressed intercellular contacts. α-Catenin is an identified force transducer within cadherin complexes that is autoinhibited under low tension. Increased force triggers a conformational change that exposes a cryptic site for the actin-binding protein vinculin. This study tested predictions that salt bridges within the force-sensing core modulate α-catenin activation. Studies with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based α-catenin conformation sensor demonstrated that the salt-bridge mutations R551A and D503N each enhance α-catenin activation in live cells, but R551A has a greater impact...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137275/vinculin-and-filamin-c-are-two-potential-prognostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-prostate-cancer-cell-migration
#19
Jianzhong Ai, Tao Jin, Lu Yang, Qiang Wei, Yang Yang, Hong Li, Ye Zhu
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common diseases for male population, and the effective treatment for metastatic castration-resistant PCa is still lacking. To unravel the underlying mechanism of PCa cell migration, we plan to analyze the related crucial proteins and their roles. In our study, we firstly identify the differentially expressed proteins using quantitative proteomics, and confirm their mRNA expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The alterations of these proteins at DNA and mRNA levels are obtained from cBioPortal database...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127427/amniotic-membrane-promotes-focal-adhesion-remodeling-to-stimulate-cell-migration
#20
Ángel Bernabé-García, Sergio Liarte, Jose M Moraleda, Gregorio Castellanos, Francisco J Nicolás
During wound healing, the migration of keratinocytes onto newly restored extracellular matrix aims to reestablish continuity of the epidermis. The application of amniotic membrane (AM) to chronic, deep traumatic, non-healing wounds has proven successful at stimulating re-epithelialization. When applied on epithelial cell cultures, AM activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (JNK1/2), with the overexpression and phosphorylation of c-Jun along the wound edge...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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