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Justin Parreno, Sneha Raju, Po-Han Wu, Rita A Kandel
Chondrocyte culture as a monolayer for cell number expansion results in dedifferentiation whereby expanded cells acquire contractile features and increased actin polymerization status. This study determined whether the actin polymerization based signaling pathway, myocardin-related transcription factor-a (MRTF-A) is involved in regulating this contractile phenotype. Serial passaging of chondrocytes in monolayer culture to passage 2 resulted in increased gene and protein expression of the contractile molecules alpha-smooth muscle actin, transgelin and vinculin compared to non-passaged, primary cells...
October 14, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Aidan P Maartens, Jutta Wellmann, Emma Wictome, Benjamin Klapholz, Hannah Green, Nicholas H Brown
Vinculin is a highly conserved protein involved in cell adhesion and mechanotransduction, and both gain and loss of its activity causes defective cell behaviour. Here, we examine how altering vinculin activity perturbs integrin function within the context of Drosophila development. Whereas loss of vinculin produced relatively minor phenotypes, gain of vinculin activity, via a loss of head-tail autoinhibition, caused lethality. The minimal domain capable of inducing lethality is the talin-binding D1 domain, and this appears to require talin-binding activity, as lethality was suppressed by competition with single vinculin binding sites from talin...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Junsheng Li, Barbara Kwiatkowska, Hao Lu, Maren Voglstätter, Erika Ueda, Michael Grunze, Jonathan Sleeman, Pavel A Levkin, Irina Nazarenko
Malignant transformation is associated with enhancement of cell plasticity, which allows cancer cells to survive under different conditions by adapting to their microenvironment during growth and metastatic spread. Much effort has been devoted to understanding the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Although the importance of the extracellular matrix and of surface properties in these mechanisms is evident, the direct impact of distinct physical and chemical surfaces characteristics on cell fate remains unclear...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrew W Holle, Alistair J McIntyre, Jared Kehe, Piyumi Wijesekara, Jennifer L Young, Ludovic G Vincent, Adam J Engler
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) receive differentiation cues from a number of stimuli, including extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness. The pathways used to sense stiffness and other physical cues are just now being understood and include proteins within focal adhesions. To rapidly advance the pace of discovery for novel mechanosensitive proteins, we employed a combination of in silico and high throughput in vitro methods to analyze 47 different focal adhesion proteins for cryptic kinase binding sites. High content imaging of hMSCs treated with small interfering RNAs for the top 6 candidate proteins showed novel effects on both osteogenic and myogenic differentiation; Vinculin and SORBS1 were necessary for stiffness-mediated myogenic and osteogenic differentiation, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Marjolein B M Meddens, Elvis Pandzic, Johan A Slotman, Dominique Guillet, Ben Joosten, Svenja Mennens, Laurent M Paardekooper, Adriaan B Houtsmuller, Koen van den Dries, Paul W Wiseman, Alessandra Cambi
Podosomes are cytoskeletal structures crucial for cell protrusion and matrix remodelling in osteoclasts, activated endothelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. In these cells, hundreds of podosomes are spatially organized in diversely shaped clusters. Although we and others established individual podosomes as micron-sized mechanosensing protrusive units, the exact scope and spatiotemporal organization of podosome clustering remain elusive. By integrating a newly developed extension of Spatiotemporal Image Correlation Spectroscopy with novel image analysis, we demonstrate that F-actin, vinculin and talin exhibit directional and correlated flow patterns throughout podosome clusters...
October 10, 2016: Nature Communications
Anna Skoczyńska, Elżbieta Budzisz, Kasjana Podgórna, Helena Rotsztejn
Morphology of senescent cells is constantly changing at the molecular level, which in turn leads to disruption of their function. It is connected with reduced ability to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) and leads to the dysfunction of integrin adhesion molecules and adhesion clusters. In skin, these factors cause a loss of communication between the extracellular matrix and fibroblasts. This contributes to the appearance of signs of aging. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the very important molecule such as paxillin, which is an adaptor protein with mass of 68 kDa...
October 6, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Mridula Dwivedi, Roland Winter
Phosphoinositols are an important class of phospholipids that are involved in a myriad of cellular processes, from cell signaling to motility and adhesion. Vinculin (Vn) is a major adaptor protein that regulates focal adhesions in conjunction with PIP2 in lipid membranes and other cytoskeletal components. The binding and unbinding transitions of Vn at the membrane interface are an important link to understanding the coordination of cell signaling and motility. Using different biophysical tools, including atomic force microscopy combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we studied the nanoscopic interactions of activated and autoinhibited states of Vn with lipid membranes...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Guo-Hua Jin, Wei Xu, Yang Shi, Li-Bo Wang
Gastric cancer (GC) is a prevalent cancer, which remains incurable, and therefore requires an alternative treatment method. Celecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that targets cyclooxygenase-2, and exhibits anticancer effects. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-GC mechanism of celecoxib using bioinformatics methods. Gene expression datasets GSE56807 (GC tissues and normal gastric tissues) and GSE54657 (celecoxib-treated and non-treated human GC epithelial AGS cells) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Shelby Calkins, Noha H Youssef
Focal adhesions (FAs) are large eukaryotic multiprotein complexes that are present in all metazoan cells and function as stable sites of tight adhesion between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cell's cytoskeleton. FAs consist of anchor membrane protein (integrins), scaffolding proteins (e.g. α-actinin, talin, paxillin, and vinculin), signaling proteins of the IPP complex (e.g. integrin-linked kinase, α-parvin, and PINCH), and signaling kinases (e.g. focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src kinase). While genes encoding complete focal adhesion machineries are present in genomes of all multicellular Metazoa; incomplete machineries were identified in the genomes of multiple non-metazoan unicellular Holozoa, basal fungal lineages, and amoebozoan representatives...
2016: PloS One
M Schmulson, R Balbuena, C Corona de Law
INTRODUCTION: Circulating anti-CdtB/anti-vinculin antibodies have been validated as biomarkers to distinguish IBS-D from IBD, but there is no experience with them in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis was carried out on patients seen at a FGIDs/motility clinic over the last 7 months for diarrhea with abdominal pain and/or bloating who were tested for these antibodies. The patients were diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria or with organic disorders, and those presenting with IBS were further classified as post-infectious (PI) or non-PI IBS...
September 24, 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Sue-Jie Koo, Heidi M Spratt, Kizhake V Soman, Susan Stafford, Shivali Gupta, John R Petersen, Maria P Zago, Muge N Kuyumcu-Martinez, Allan R Brasier, John E Wiktorowicz, Nisha Jain Garg
Nitric oxide (NO) protects the heart against ischemic injury; however, NO- and superoxide-dependent S-nitrosylation (S-NO) of cysteines can affect function of target proteins and play a role in disease outcome. We employed 2D-GE with thiol-labeling FL-maleimide dye and MALDI-TOF MS/MS to capture the quantitative changes in abundance and S-NO proteome of HF patients (versus healthy controls, n = 30/group). We identified 93 differentially abundant (59-increased/34-decreased) and 111 S-NO-modified (63-increased/48-decreased) protein spots, respectively, in HF subjects (versus controls, fold-change | ≥1...
2016: International Journal of Proteomics
Enrique Martínez-Campos, Ana Civantos, Juan Alfonso Redondo, Rodrigo Guzmán, Mónica Pérez-Perrino, Alberto Gallardo, Viviana Ramos, Inmaculada Aranaz
Three types of chitosan-based films have been prepared and evaluated: a non-modified chitosan film bearing cationizable aliphatic amines and two films made of N-sulfopropyl chitosan derivatives bearing both aliphatic amines and negative sulfonate groups at different ratios. Cell adhesion and proliferation on chitosan films of C2C12 pre-myoblastic cells and B16 cells as tumoral model have been tested. A differential cell behavior has been observed on chitosan films due to their different surface modification...
September 15, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Alieh Aminian, Bahareh Shirzadi, Zahra Azizi, Kathrin Maedler, Eike Volkmann, Nils Hildebrand, Michael Maas, Laura Treccani, Kurosch Rezwan
Functional bone and dental implant materials are required to guide cell response, offering cues that provide specific instructions to cells at the implant/tissue interface while maintaining full biocompatibility as well as the desired structural requirements and functions. In this work we investigate the influence of covalently immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in bone mineralization, on the first contact and initial cell adhesion. To this end, ALP is covalently immobilized by carbodiimide-mediated chemoligation on two highly bioinert ceramics, alpha-alumina (Al2O3) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) that are well-established for load-bearing applications...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Mitchell K L Han, Esteban Hoijman, Emily Nöel, Laurence Garric, Jeroen Bakkers, Johan de Rooij
Cadherin complexes mediate cell-cell adhesion and are crucial for embryonic development. Besides their structural function, cadherin complexes also transduce tension across the junction-actomyosin axis into proportional biochemical responses. Central to this mechanotransduction is the stretching of the cadherin-F-actin-linker α-catenin, which opens its central domain for binding to effectors such as vinculin. Mechanical unfolding of α-catenin leads to force-dependent reinforcement of cadherin-based junctions as studied in cell culture...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Kabir H Biswas, Kevin L Hartman, Ronen Zaidel-Bar, Jay T Groves
Mechanotransduction at E-cadherin junctions has been postulated to be mediated in part by a force-dependent conformational activation of α-catenin. Activation of α-catenin allows it to interact with vinculin in addition to F-actin, resulting in a strengthening of junctions. Here, using E-cadherin adhesions reconstituted on synthetic, nanopatterned membranes, we show that activation of α-catenin is dependent on E-cadherin clustering, and is sustained in the absence of mechanical force or association with F-actin or vinculin...
September 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Sven Huelsmann, Nina Rintanen, Ritika Sethi, Nicholas H Brown, Jari Ylänne
Cells integrate mechanical properties of their surroundings to form multicellular, three-dimensional tissues of appropriate size and spatial organisation. Actin cytoskeleton-linked proteins such as talin, vinculin and filamin function as mechanosensors in cells, but it has yet to be tested whether the mechanosensitivity is important for their function in intact tissues. Here we tested, how filamin mechanosensing contributes to oogenesis in Drosophila. Mutations that require more or less force to open the mechanosensor region demonstrate that filamin mechanosensitivity is important for the maturation of actin-rich ring canals that are essential for Drosophila egg development...
2016: Scientific Reports
Javier Pizarro-Cerdá, Dror Shlomo Chorev, Benjamin Geiger, Pascale Cossart
The Arp2/3 complex has so far been considered to be a single seven-subunit protein complex required for actin nucleation and actin filament polymerization in diverse critical cellular functions including phagocytosis, vesicular trafficking and lamellipodia extension. The Arp2/3 complex is also exploited by bacterial pathogens and viruses during cellular infectious processes. Recent studies suggest that some subunits of the complex are dispensable in specific cellular contexts, pointing to the existence of alternative 'hybrid Arp2/3 complexes' containing other components such as vinculin or α-actinin, as well as different isoforms or phosphorylation variants of canonical Arp2/3 subunits...
August 29, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Diana María Escobar-García, Eva Aguirre-López, Verónica Méndez-González, Amaury Pozos-Guillén
Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and cellular adhesion of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine (BD) on periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL). Methods. PDL cells were obtained from nonerupted third molars and cultured; MTS cellular profusion test was carried out in two groups: MTA and BD, with respective controls at different time periods. Also, the LIVE/DEAD assay was performed at 24 h. For evaluation of cellular adhesion, immunocytochemistry was conducted to discern the expression of Integrin β1 and Vinculin at 12 h and 24 h...
2016: BioMed Research International
Zi-Dong Bie, Li-Ye Sun, Chuan-Liang Geng, Qing-Guo Meng, Xiao-Jing Lin, Yu-Feng Wang, Xue-Ban Wang, Jun Yang
Myocardial fibrosis (MF), which typically occurs after a myocardial infarction (MI), is a major factor involved in the process of ventricular remodeling and subsequent progression to heart failure. Current studies have found that various microRNAs (miRNAs), such as miR-125b, play an important role in this process. However, few studies have investigated the specific mechanism of miR-125b. Transfection of miR-125b mimics into cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) resulted in significantly increased expression of the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vinculin by Western blot analysis, while transfection of miR-125b inhibitors resulted in the opposite effect...
November 2016: Cell Biology International
Feng Cheng, Liyun Miao, Qing Wu, Xia Gong, Jingwei Xiong, Jian Zhang
Coronary vessel development is a highly coordinated process during heart formation. Abnormal development and dysfunction of the coronary network are contributory factors in the majority of heart disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate coronary vessel formation is crucial for preventing and treating the disease. We report a zebrafish gene-trap vinculin b (vclb) mutant that displays abnormal coronary vessel development among multiple cardiac defects. The mutant shows overproliferation of epicardium-derived cells and disorganization of coronary vessels, and they eventually die off at juvenile stages...
October 1, 2016: Development
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