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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142072/salt-bridges-gate-alpha-catenin-activation-at-intercellular-junctions
#1
Samantha Barrick, Jing Li, Xinyu Kong, Alokananda Ray, Emad Tajkhorshid, Deborah Leckband
Cadherin complexes transduce force fluctuations at junctions to activate signals that reinforce stressed intercellular contacts. α-Catenin is an identified force transducer within cadherin complexes that is autoinhibited under low tension. Increased force triggers a conformational change that exposes a cryptic site for the actin-binding protein vinculin. This study tested predictions that salt bridges within the force-sensing core modulate α-catenin activation. Studies with a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based α-catenin conformation sensor demonstrated that the salt-bridge mutations R551A and D503N each enhance α-catenin activation in live cells, but R551A has a greater impact...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137275/vinculin-and-filamin-c-are-two-potential-prognostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-prostate-cancer-cell-migration
#2
Jianzhong Ai, Tao Jin, Lu Yang, Qiang Wei, Yang Yang, Hong Li, Ye Zhu
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common diseases for male population, and the effective treatment for metastatic castration-resistant PCa is still lacking. To unravel the underlying mechanism of PCa cell migration, we plan to analyze the related crucial proteins and their roles. In our study, we firstly identify the differentially expressed proteins using quantitative proteomics, and confirm their mRNA expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The alterations of these proteins at DNA and mRNA levels are obtained from cBioPortal database...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127427/amniotic-membrane-promotes-focal-adhesion-remodeling-to-stimulate-cell-migration
#3
Ángel Bernabé-García, Sergio Liarte, Jose M Moraleda, Gregorio Castellanos, Francisco J Nicolás
During wound healing, the migration of keratinocytes onto newly restored extracellular matrix aims to reestablish continuity of the epidermis. The application of amniotic membrane (AM) to chronic, deep traumatic, non-healing wounds has proven successful at stimulating re-epithelialization. When applied on epithelial cell cultures, AM activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (JNK1/2), with the overexpression and phosphorylation of c-Jun along the wound edge...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112867/mechanosensation-a-catch-bond-that-only-hooks-one-way
#4
Vinay Swaminathan, Gregory M Alushin, Clare M Waterman
Single-molecule force spectroscopy and modeling have revealed that the adhesion molecule vinculin and F-actin form a catch bond that is dependent on the direction of forces along the actin filament. This may underlie the mechanisms by which cells sense directional physical cues.
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110603/characterization-of-polyethersulfone-membranes-for-tear-fluid-collection
#5
Q Yang, X Liu, Z Song, L Lin, K Wu
This study evaluated the utility of polyethersulfone membranes (PESms) for tear collection and compared it with two frequently employed approaches: the use of Schirmer test paper (STP) and capillary tube (CaT). STP and PESms of 0.45 and 0.65 μm (PESm65) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), applied to soak up water and cellular lysates, and employed to collect tear fluid (TF) from rabbits. The proteins in the cellular lysates and TF were characterized through band profiling of SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis (PAGE) gels and Western blot analyzing...
November 1, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104053/polyoma-small-t-upregulates-the-expression-of-cytoskeletal-proteins-in-mammalian-cells-during-mitosis
#6
Irfana Reshi, Zarka Sarwar, Sameer Ahmed Bhat, Syed Qaaifah Gillani, Misbah Shah, Khalid Majid Fazili, Shaida Andrabi
Mammalian cells expressing murine polyoma small T antigen are known to undergo prolonged mitotic arrest followed by extensive cell death. However, the detailed mechanism of this process is not fully understood. While studying the mechanism related to small T induced mitotic arrest in mammalian cells, we observed the expression of various cytoskeletal proteins was unusually altered in polyoma small T expressing cell line. Since most of the cytoskeletal proteins are reoriented during mitosis and are involved in spindle formation, so it was pertinent to investigate the expression of these genes in PyST expressing cell line...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076460/corrigendum-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-on-magnetic-nanowire-substrates-2017-nanotechnology-28-055703
#7
Jose Efrain Perez, Timothy Tavasi, Jurgen Kosel
Stem cells have been shown to respond to extracellular mechanical stimuli by regulating their fate through the activation of specific signaling pathways. In this work, an array of iron nanowires (NWs) aligned perpendicularly to the surface was fabricated by pulsed electrodepositon in porous alumina templates followed by a partial removal of the alumina to reveal 2-3 μm of the NWs. This resulted in alumina substrates with densely arranged NWs of 33 nm in diameter separated by 100 nm. The substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive x-ray analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer...
October 27, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069646/the-intracranial-aneurysm-gene-thsd1-connects-endosome-dynamics-to-nascent-focal-adhesion-assembly
#8
Yan-Ning Rui, Zhen Xu, Xiaoqian Fang, Miriam R Menezes, Julien Balzeau, Airu Niu, John P Hagan, Dong H Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We recently discovered that harmful variants in THSD1 (Thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing protein 1) likely cause intracranial aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage in a subset of both familial and sporadic patients with supporting evidence from two vertebrate models. The current study seeks to elucidate how THSD1 and patient-identified variants function molecularly in focal adhesions. METHODS: Co-immunostaining and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to define THSD1 subcellular localization and interacting partners...
October 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057977/myosin-x-is-recruited-to-nascent-focal-adhesions-at-the-leading-edge-and-induces-multi-cycle-filopodial-elongation
#9
Kangmin He, Tsuyoshi Sakai, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Tomonobu M Watanabe, Mitsuo Ikebe
Filopodia protrude from the leading edge of cells and play important roles in cell motility. Here we report the mechanism of myosin X (encoded by Myo10)-induced multi-cycle filopodia extension. We found that actin, Arp2/3, vinculin and integrin-β first accumulated at the cell's leading edge. Myosin X was then gathered at these sites, gradually clustered by lateral movement, and subsequently initiated filopodia formation. During filopodia extension, we found the translocation of Arp2/3 and integrin-β along filopodia...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045864/molecular-simulations-suggest-a-force-dependent-mechanism-of-vinculin-activation
#10
Li Sun, Jeffrey K Noel, Herbert Levine, José N Onuchic
Focal adhesions are dynamic constructs at the leading edge of migrating cells, linking them to the extracellular matrix and enabling force sensing and transmission. The lifecycle of a focal adhesion is a highly coordinated process involving spatial and temporal variations of protein composition, interaction, and cellular tension. The assembly of focal adhesions requires the recruitment and activation of vinculin. Vinculin is present in the cytoplasm in an autoinhibited conformation in which its tail is held pincerlike by its head domains, further stabilized by two high-affinity head-tail interfaces...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037896/manipulation-of-the-response-of-human-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-by-focal-adhesion-assembly-using-gradient-nanopattern-plates
#11
Long-Hui Cui, Hyung Joon Joo, Dae Hwan Kim, Ha-Rim Seo, Jung Suk Kim, Seung-Cheol Choi, Li-Hua Huang, Ji Eun Na, I-Rang Lim, Jong-Ho Kim, Im Joo Rhyu, Soon Jun Hong, Kyu Back Lee, Do-Sun Lim
Nanotopography plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cellular responses. Nonetheless, little is known about how the gradient size of nanostructural stimuli alters the responses of endothelial progenitor cells without chemical factors. Herein, the fabrication of gradient nanopattern plates intended to mimic microenvironment nanotopography is described. The gradient nanopattern plates consist of nanopillars of increasing diameter ranges [120-200 nm (GP 120/200), 200-280 nm (GP 200/280), and 280-360 nm (GP 280/360)] that were used to screen the responses of human endothelial colony-forming cells (hECFCs)...
October 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027377/contribution-of-extracellular-matrix-and-signal-mechanotransduction-to-epithelial-cell-damage-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-a-proteomic-study
#12
Manuela Moriggi, Luca Pastorelli, Enrica Torretta, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Daniele Capitanio, Stefano Ferrero Bogetto, Maurizio Vecchi, Cecilia Gelfi
This study utilized 2D-DIGE, isotope-coded protein labelling (ICPL) and biochemical assays to characterize protein alteration in Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD) in human epithelial cell and mucosal biopsies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)-affected patients. The aim of this study is to identify the key molecular signatures involved in epithelial cell structure of IBDs. In non-inflamed UC (QUC) keratins, vimentin and FAK increased, whereas vinculin and de-tyrosinated α-tubulin decreased; inflammation (IUC) exacerbated molecular changes, being COL6A1, tenascin-C and vimentin increased...
October 13, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027016/impact-of-flow-shear-stress-on-morphology-of-osteoblast-like-idg-sw3-cells
#13
Huiyun Xu, Jing Duan, Li Ren, Pengfei Yang, Ruixin Yang, Wenbin Li, Dongdong Zhao, Peng Shang, Jean X Jiang
This study constructed an in situ cell culture, real-time observation system based originally on a microfluidic channel, and reported the morphological changes of late osteoblast-like IDG-SW3 cells in response to flow shear stress (FSS). The effects of high (1.2 Pa) and low (0.3 Pa) magnitudes of unidirectional FSS and three concentrations of extracellular Type I collagen (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL) coating on cell morphology were investigated. IDG-SW3 cells were cultured in polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic channels...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016873/cgnl1-an-endothelial-junction-complex-protein-regulates-gtpase-mediated-angiogenesis
#14
Ihsan Chrifi, Dorien Hermkens, Maarten M Brandt, Christian G M van Dijk, Petra E Bürgisser, Remco Haasdijk, Jiayi Pei, Esther H M van de Kamp, Changbin Zhu, Lau Blonden, Johan M Kros, Dirk J Duncker, Henricus J Duckers, Caroline Cheng
Aims: The formation of cell-cell and cell-extra cellular matrix contacts by endothelial cells is crucial for the stability and integrity of a vascular network. We previously identified cingulin-like 1 (Cgnl1) in a transcriptomic screen for new angiogenic modulators. Here we aim to study the function of the cell-cell junction associated protein Cgnl1 during vessel formation. Methods and Results: Unlike family member cingulin, Cgnl1 expression is enriched in endothelial cells during vascular growth...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978740/c-elegans-sorb-1-localizes-to-integrin-adhesion-sites-and-is-required-for-organization-of-sarcomeres-and-mitochondria-in-myocytes
#15
Timothy Loveless, Hiroshi Qadota, Guy M Benian, Jeff Hardin
We have identified and characterized sorb-1, the only Sorbin and SH3 domain-containing protein family member in C. elegans SORB-1 is strongly localized to integrin adhesion complexes in larvae and adults, including adhesion plaques and dense bodies (Z-disks) of striated muscles and attachment plaques of smooth muscles. SORB-1 is recruited to the actin-binding, membrane-distal regions of dense bodies via its C-terminal SH3 domains in an ATN-1(α-actinin)- and ALP-1(ALP/Enigma)-dependent manner, where it contributes to the organization of sarcomeres...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961272/sorbin-and-sh3-domain-containing-protein-2-sorbs2-is-a-component-of-the-acto-myosin-ring-at-the-apical-junctional-complex-in-epithelial-cells
#16
Karin Fredriksson-Lidman, Christina M Van Itallie, Amber J Tietgens, James M Anderson
SORBS2 is a scaffolding protein associated with Abl/Arg non-receptor tyrosine kinase pathways and is known to interact with actin and several other cytoskeletal proteins in various cell types. Previous BioID proximity labeling of tight and adherens junction proteins suggested that SORBS2 is a component of the apical junction complex of epithelial cells. We asked whether SORBS2 plays a previously unappreciated role in controlling perijunctional actin and tight junction barrier function. Using super resolution imaging we confirmed that SORBS2 is localized at the apical junction complex but farther from the membrane than ZO-1 and located partially overlapping both the tight- and adherens junctions with a periodic concentration that alternates with myosin IIB in polarized epithelial cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957700/adaptive-responses-of-murine-osteoblasts-subjected-to-coupled-mechanical-stimuli
#17
Jean C Serrano, Jose Cora-Cruz, Nanette Diffoot-Carlo, Paul A Sundaram
Restitution of the natural organization and orientation of cells is imperative for the construction of functional tissue scaffolds. While numerous studies have exploited mechanical methods to engineer tissues with the desired cellular architecture, fundamental knowledge is still lacking in understanding the manner in which morphological features can be modulated through coupled mechanical cues. To address this knowledge gap, the adhesion and alignment response of murine osteoblast cells under the synergistic effects of matrix rigidity and cyclic mechanical loading was investigated...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945706/multiplexing-molecular-tension-sensors-reveals-piconewton-force-gradient-across-talin-1
#18
Pia Ringer, Andreas Weißl, Anna-Lena Cost, Andrea Freikamp, Benedikt Sabass, Alexander Mehlich, Marc Tramier, Matthias Rief, Carsten Grashoff
Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based tension sensor modules (TSMs) are available for investigating how distinct proteins bear mechanical forces in cells. Yet, forces in the single piconewton (pN) regime remain difficult to resolve, and tools for multiplexed tension sensing are lacking. Here, we report the generation and calibration of a genetically encoded, FRET-based biosensor called FL-TSM, which is characterized by a near-digital force response and increased sensitivity at 3-5 pN. In addition, we present a method allowing the simultaneous evaluation of coexpressed tension sensor constructs using two-color fluorescence lifetime microscopy...
November 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926111/regulating-osteogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-controlling-underlying-substrate-stiffness
#19
Tao Zhang, Shiyu Lin, Xiaoru Shao, Sirong Shi, Qi Zhang, Changyue Xue, Yunfeng Lin, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
Cells reside in a complex microenvironment (niche) in which the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix profoundly affect cell behavior. Extracellular stiffness, one important bio-mechanical characteristic of the cell niche, is important in regulating cell proliferation, migration, and lineage specification. However, the mechanism by which mechanical signals guide osteogenic and adipogenic commitment of stem cells remains difficult to dissect. To explore this question, we generated a range of polydimethylsiloxane-based matrices with differing degrees of stiffness that mimicked the stiffness seen in natural tissues and examined adipose stem cell morphology, spreading, vinculin expression and differentiation along the osteogenic and adipogenic pathways...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925018/mmp-2-and-notch-signal-pathway-regulate-migration-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-chondrocytes-in-co-culture-systems
#20
Qi Zhang, Shuwen Deng, Ke Sun, Shiyu Lin, Yunfeng Lin, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
OBJECTIVES: The crosstalk between chondrocytes and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could regulate the secretion of multiple growth factors. However, it is not clear how the paracrine action in co-culture systems affect cell migration. This study focused on the changes of cell migration of ADSCs and chondrocytes in co-culture conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary ADSCs and chondrocytes were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat. Transwell co-culture systems, inoculated with ADSCs and chondrocytes, were established in vitro...
September 18, 2017: Cell Proliferation
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