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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078798/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-rifaximin-is-effective-and-safe-for-the-treatment-of-small-intestine-bacterial-overgrowth
#1
REVIEW
L Gatta, C Scarpignato
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a heterogeneous syndrome, characterised by an increased number and/or abnormal type of bacteria in the small bowel. Over the past decades, rifaximin has gained popularity for this indication despite its use is not evidence based. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarise evidence about the efficacy and safety of rifaximin to eradicate SIBO in adult patients. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCRCT, Scopus and Web of Science were searched from inception to March 16, 2015 for RCTs and observational studies...
January 12, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070176/advances-in-ibs-2016-a-review-of-current-and-emerging-data
#2
Philip S Schoenfeld
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic intermittent abdominal pain and associated diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), or both. IBS can significantly impact patient function and quality of life. The diagnosis of IBS is based on the presence of characteristic symptoms, the exclusion of concerning features, and selected tests to exclude organic diseases that can mimic IBS. The pathophysiology of IBS remains incompletely understood, and new contributing factors have been identified over the past decade...
August 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059938/the-effects-of-probiotics-and-symbiotics-on-risk-factors-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#3
Daniela Viramontes Hörner, Amanda Avery, Ruth Stow
Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051800/%C3%A2-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhosis-how-long-to-treat
#4
Omesh Goyal, Sandeep S Sidhu, Harsh Kishore
INTRODUCTION: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) can reverse after short-term treatment. However, relapse rate of MHE after stopping treatment has not been studied so far. We aimed to evaluate long-term (9 months) efficacy of a short-term (3 months) treatment of MHE with lactulose/rifaximin, for maintenance of remission from MHE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive patients with cirrhosis and MHE were treated with lactulose/rifaximin for 3 months...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034350/rifaximin-chitosan-nanoparticles-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd
#5
Maria John Newton, Jatinder Kumar
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory Bowel Disease ( IBD) can't be controlled easily and the recurrence is most challenging issue for the physicians. There are various controlled and colon targeted drug delivery sytems are available for the treatment with limited success rate. Nanoparticles prepared by using the colon targeted polymers such as chitosan may improve the IBD due to their smaler size, unique physico chemical properties and targeting potential. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this investigation was designed to formulate and develop a colon targeted polysaccharide nanoparticles of Rifaximin (RFX) by using linear polysaccharide chitosan, for the improvement of rifaximin solubility, overall therapeutic efficacy and colon targeting...
December 30, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007576/rifaximin-reduces-number-and-severity-of-intestinal-lesions-associated-with-use-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-humans
#6
Carmelo Scarpignato, Werner Dolak, Angel Lanas, Peter Matzneller, Cecilia Renzulli, Maria Grimaldi, Markus Zeitlinger, Ingvar Bjarnason
The intestinal microbiota might contribute to enteropathy associated with use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but there have been few human studies of this association. We performed a placebo-controlled study to determine whether a delayed release antibiotic formulation (rifaximin-EIR) prevented development of intestinal lesions in persons taking daily NSAIDs. Sixty healthy volunteers (median age 26 years, 42% female) were given the NSAID diclofenac (75 mg twice daily) plus omeprazole (20 mg once daily), and either rifaximin-EIR (400 mg) or placebo, twice daily for 14 days...
December 19, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981532/rifaximin-modulates-5-fluorouracil-induced-gastrointestinal-mucositis-in-rats
#7
L Ciobanu, M Tantau, S Valean, A Parau, I Bedecean, R Mîrleneanu, C Berce, C Catoi, M Taulescu
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the protective potential of rifaximin in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induced intestinal mucositis in the Wistar rats'. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine Wistar rats were divided into 4 interventional groups of 6 animals (A, B, C and F) and one control group (M) of 5 animals. Groups A, B and C received for three days consecutively rifaximin orally: 50 mg/kg (group A), 100 mg/kg (group B) and 200 mg/kg (group C). In the fourth day, 500 mg/kg of 5-FU was administered intraperitoneally to the groups A, B, C and F...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977438/improvement-of-sleep-architecture-parameters-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-recurrent-hepatic-encephalopathy-with-the-use-of-rifaximin
#8
Marie Bruyneel, Thomas Sersté, Walter Libert, Sandra van den Broecke, Lieveke Ameye, Bernard Dachy, Jean-Pierre Mulkay, Christophe Moreno, Thierry Gustot
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sleep disorders are frequently reported in patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study assessed the effect of rifaximin on sleep architecture parameters in patients with recurrent HE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This sequential, prospective, and exploratory study involved all patients with cirrhosis and recurrent HE admitted between June 2014 and September 2015. HE was assessed according to the West-Haven Classification. Patients underwent 24-h polysomnography (PSG) and 7-day actigraphy...
December 13, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973463/rationale-and-evidences-for-treatment-of-symptomatic-uncomplicated-diverticular-disease
#9
Rosario Cuomo, Martina Cargiolli, Paolo Andreozzi, Francesco P Zito, Giovanni Sarnelli
INTRODUCTION: Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is one of the possible clinical manifestations of diverticular disease. It is a common disorder characterized by chronic abdominal symptoms ranging from lower left abdominal pain to alteration of bowel habit, that significantly reduce quality of life of subject affected. The present article aims to review the current data for medical management of SUDD. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We analyzed the existing literature on the factors involved in the pathogenesis of SUDD and we highlighted the possible target for treatment...
December 14, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971326/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-rifaximin-%C3%A3-administration-for-the-reduction-of-the-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-episodes-in-recurrence-in-france
#10
A Kabeshova, R Launois
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971313/the-impact-of-rifaximin-a-on-non-elective-hospital-admission-and-attendance-costs-in-uk-patients-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#11
M Hudson, J T Whitehouse, P Di Maggio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965666/critical-roles-of-kupffer-cells-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alcoholic-liver-disease-from-basic-science-to-clinical-trials
#12
REVIEW
Tao Zeng, Cui-Li Zhang, Mo Xiao, Rui Yang, Ke-Qin Xie
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a spectrum of liver injury ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and finally cirrhosis. Accumulating evidences have demonstrated that Kupffer cells (KCs) play critical roles in the pathogenesis of both chronic and acute ALD. It has become clear that alcohol exposure can result in increased hepatic translocation of gut-sourced endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide, which is a strong M1 polarization inducer of KCs. The activated KCs then produce a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines, which finally lead to liver injury...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956719/-the-possible-innovative-use-of-bifidobacterium-longum-w11-in-association-with-rifaximin-a-new-horizon-for-combined-approach-erratum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933401/improvement-of-abnormal-vaginal-flora-in-ugandan-women-by-self-testing-and-short-use-of-intravaginal-antimicrobials
#14
G Donders, G Bellen, F Donders, J Pinget, I Vandevelde, T Michiels, J Byamughisa
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875419/new-treatment-options-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-diarrhea
#15
H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS remains largely symptomatic. This review provides an update related to the most recently published diagnostic Rome IV criteria for IBS and clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the peripheral opioid receptors of the enteric nervous system and the gut microbiota...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799923/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-a-university-teaching-hospital-in-china
#16
Jing-Wei Cheng, Meng Xiao, Timothy Kudinha, Fanrong Kong, Zhi-Peng Xu, Lin-Ying Sun, Li Zhang, Xin Fan, Xiu-Li Xie, Ying-Chun Xu
While the developed world has seen a significant increase in the number of scientific articles on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the developing world still lags behind on this subject due to limited laboratory capacity, low awareness, and limited surveillance of this problem. As such, CDI is considered a neglected but potentially huge problem in developing countries. The major aim of this study was to systemically evaluate the utility of several molecular typing tools for CDI, including their relevance in epidemiological studies in developing countries such as China...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795384/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-staphylococcus-isolates-from-the-skin-of-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-treated-with-repeat-courses-of-rifaximin
#17
LETTER
Herbert L DuPont, Ray A Wolf, Robert J Israel, Mark Pimentel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785569/-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-geriatric-patients
#18
R Simmerlein, A Basta, M Gosch
Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults in Europe and North America. Infections with C. difficile typically occur in elderly patients with comorbidities and prior antibiotic therapy. Other risk factors are proton pump inhibitors, which are taken by many elderly patients. The main virulence factors are toxins A and B. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic colonization to severe disease with abdominal complications and sepsis. The current diagnostic gold standard is anaerobic culture but is impractical in routine use due to the long duration...
December 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775818/rifaximin-has-no-effect-on-hemodynamics-in-decompensated-cirrhosis-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Nina Kimer, Julie Steen Pedersen, Troels Malte Busk, Lise Lotte Gluud, Lise Hobolth, Aleksander Krag, Søren Møller, Flemming Bendtsen
: Decompensated cirrhosis is characterized by disturbed systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics. Bacterial translocation from the gut is considered the key driver in this process. Intestinal decontamination with rifaximin may improve hemodynamics. This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01769040) investigates the effects of rifaximin on hemodynamics, renal function, and vasoactive hormones. We randomized 54 stable outpatients with cirrhosis and ascites to rifaximin 550 mg twice a day (n = 36) or placebo twice a day (n = 18)...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741171/gut-microbiota-and-the-liver-a-tale-of-2-cities-a-narrative-view-in-2-acts
#20
Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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