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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875419/new-treatment-options-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-predominant-diarrhea
#1
H Christian Weber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder with negative impact on quality of life and it represents a substantial economic burden on healthcare cost. The medical management of IBS remains largely symptomatic. This review provides an update related to the most recently published diagnostic Rome IV criteria for IBS and clinical trial data for novel treatment modalities in IBS targeting the peripheral opioid receptors of the enteric nervous system and the gut microbiota...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799923/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-a-university-teaching-hospital-in-china
#2
Jing-Wei Cheng, Meng Xiao, Timothy Kudinha, Fanrong Kong, Zhi-Peng Xu, Lin-Ying Sun, Li Zhang, Xin Fan, Xiu-Li Xie, Ying-Chun Xu
While the developed world has seen a significant increase in the number of scientific articles on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), the developing world still lags behind on this subject due to limited laboratory capacity, low awareness, and limited surveillance of this problem. As such, CDI is considered a neglected but potentially huge problem in developing countries. The major aim of this study was to systemically evaluate the utility of several molecular typing tools for CDI, including their relevance in epidemiological studies in developing countries such as China...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795384/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-skin-isolates-of-staphylococcus-from-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-treated-with-repeat-courses-of-rifaximin
#3
Herbert L DuPont, Ray A Wolf, Robert J Israel, Mark Pimentel
Rifaximin is a nonsystemic antibiotic indicated for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) (1).….
October 24, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785569/-clostridium-difficile-infections-in-geriatric-patients
#4
R Simmerlein, A Basta, M Gosch
Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults in Europe and North America. Infections with C. difficile typically occur in elderly patients with comorbidities and prior antibiotic therapy. Other risk factors are proton pump inhibitors, which are taken by many elderly patients. The main virulence factors are toxins A and B. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic colonization to severe disease with abdominal complications and sepsis. The current diagnostic gold standard is anaerobic culture but is impractical in routine use due to the long duration...
October 26, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775818/rifaximin-has-no-effect-on-hemodynamics-in-decompensated-cirrhosis-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Nina Kimer, Julie Steen Pedersen, Troels Malte Busk, Lise Lotte Gluud, Lise Hobolth, Aleksander Krag, Søren Møller, Flemming Bendtsen
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Decompensated cirrhosis is characterized by disturbed systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics. Bacterial translocation from the gut is considered the key driver in this process. Intestinal decontamination with rifaximin may improve hemodynamics. This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial investigates the effects of rifaximin on hemodynamics, renal function and vasoactive hormones. METHODS: We randomized 54 stable out-patients with cirrhosis and ascites to rifaximin 550 mg BD (n=36) or placebo BD (n=18)...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741171/gut-microbiota-and-the-liver-a-tale-of-2-cities-a-narrative-view-in-2-acts
#6
Maurizio Koch
Microbes are mostly important for the digestion of food, the absorption of some micronutrients, and the production of vitamins. The microbiota stimulates lymphoid structures in the gastrointestinal mucosa and decrease pathogens by competing for nutrients and space. Bacterial translocation is defined as the escape of gut bacteria and their products through the intestinal mucosa to the outside of the intestine as portovenous or systemic circulation. This is induced by a leaky gut barrier. There is evidence for a role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741162/the-possible-innovative-use-of-bifidobacterium-longum-w11-in-association-with-rifaximin-a-new-horizon-for-combined-approach
#7
Teresa Graziano, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Francesca Deidda, Serena Allesina, Marco Pane, Pietro Piffanelli, Francesco Strozzi, Luca Mogna, Mario Del Piano
GOALS: The aim of the study was to unequivocally demonstrate the nontransmissibility of the genes mediating the resistance of the strain Bifidobacterium longum W11 (LMG P-21586) to rifaximin. BACKGROUND: Most antibiotic treatments can induce unfavorable side effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, which is largely attributable to the disruption of the intestinal microbiota. The parallel intake of probiotic bacteria might reduce these events, even if with generally very poor results...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737852/microbiome-antibiotics-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
O F Ahmad, A Akbar
INTRODUCTION: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. Increasing evidence implicates the GI microbiota in IBS pathogenesis and its modulation represents an emerging therapeutic strategy. SOURCES OF DATA: Original and review articles were identified through selective searches performed on PubMed and Google Scholar. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: The role of gut microbiota in IBS is supported by evidence from animal and human studies...
October 13, 2016: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721918/implication-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-complications-of-cirrhosis
#9
Mamatha Bhat, Bianca M Arendt, Venkat Bhat, Eberhard L Renner, Atul Humar, Johane P Allard
The intestinal microbiome (IM) is altered in patients with cirrhosis, and emerging literature suggests that this impacts on the development of complications. The PubMed database was searched from January 2000 to May 2015 for studies and review articles on the composition, pathophysiologic effects and therapeutic modulation of the IM in cirrhosis. The following combination of relevant text words and MeSH terms were used, namely intestinal microbiome, microbiota, or dysbiosis, and cirrhosis, encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, variceal bleeding, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716258/rifaximin-is-an-effective-alternative-to-metronidazole-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-enteropathy-in-dogs-a-randomised-trial
#10
Alessandro Menozzi, Manuel Dall'Aglio, Fausto Quintavalla, Luca Dallavalle, Valentina Meucci, Simone Bertini
BACKGROUND: A clinical trial was conducted in order to assess the efficacy of rifaximin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic with negligible gastrointestinal absorption, in comparison with metronidazole, a commonly employed antimicrobial drug, in dogs with chronic enteropathy. Twenty-four pet dogs were randomly enrolled into two different groups: MET group (10 dogs) and RIF group (14 dogs). Dogs of MET group received metronidazole 15 mg/kg q12h for 21 days by oral route, whereas dogs of RIF group, were given rifaximin 25 mg/kg q12h for 21 days by oral route...
October 6, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711069/rifaximin-microbiota-biology-and-hepatic-encephalopathy
#11
Cedric Peleman, Michael Camilleri
Rifaximin is beneficial in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Kang et al. (Clin Transl Gastroenterol 7: e187; doi:10.1038/ctg.2016.44) investigated the effects of rifaximin in a mouse model of MHE-associated microbiota without concomitant liver disease. In addition to some impact on the composition of microbiota, rifaximin altered bacterial functions, ameliorated local and systemic inflammation, and reduced enterocyte glutaminase activity. We discuss these effects as well as the interpretation of the permeability studies, given the potential interaction of dysbiosis with dysfunctional intestinal barrier, leading to systemic inflammation and increased uptake of bacterial metabolites that contribute to MHE in the presence of hepatic dysfunction...
October 6, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662586/limited-prolonged-effects-of-rifaximin-treatment-on-irritable-bowel-syndrome-related-differences-in-the-fecal-microbiome-and-metabolome
#12
Natalia Zeber-Lubecka, Maria Kulecka, Filip Ambrozkiewicz, Agnieszka Paziewska, Krzysztof Goryca, Jakub Karczmarski, Tymon Rubel, Wojciech Wojtowicz, Piotr Mlynarz, Lukasz Marczak, Roman Tomecki, Michal Mikula, Jerzy Ostrowski
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder and its development may be linked, directly and indirectly, to intestinal dysbiosis. Here we investigated the interactions between IBS symptoms and the gut microbiome, including the relation to rifaximin (1200 mg daily; 11.2 g per a treatment). We recruited 72 patients, including 31 with IBS-D (diarrhea), 11 with IBS-C (constipation), and 30 with IBS-M (mixed constipation and diarrhea) and 30 healthy controls (HCs). Of them, 68%, 64%, and 53% patients with IBS-D, IBS-C, and IBS-M, respectively, achieved 10-12 week-term improvement after the rifaximin treatment...
September 2, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645714/comment-on-treatment-of-acute-hepatic-encephalopathy-comparing-the-effects-of-adding-rifaximin-to-lactulose-on-patient-outcomes
#13
Sarah E Petite
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642742/-chronic-non-infectious-diarrhea-diagnostics-and-therapy
#14
Korinna Ulbricht, Peter Layer, Viola Andresen
Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622998/rifaximin-and-midodrine-improve-clinical-outcome-in-refractory-ascites-including-renal-function-weight-loss-and-short-term-survival
#15
Amr S Hanafy, Ahmad M Hassaneen
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: The occurrence of refractory ascites in nearly 17% of patients with decompensated cirrhosis is an unresolved issue. Advanced liver disease, functional renal impairment, and vascular insensitivity to vasopressors are the main causes of its refractoriness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on diuresis, weight loss, and short-term survival if midodrine and rifaximin were added to the diuretic therapy (DT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study evaluated the eligibility of 650 patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites who were selected during the period from November 2011 to May 2015...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622380/current-management-of-patients-with-diverticulosis-and-diverticular-disease-a-survey-from-the-2nd-international-symposium-on-diverticular-disease
#16
Antonio Tursi, Marcello Picchio, Walter Elisei, Francesco Di Mario, Carmelo Scarpignato, Giovanni Brandimarte
BACKGROUND: Management of diverticular disease (DD) remains a point of debate. GOALS: To investigate the current opinion of participants of the 2nd International Symposium on Diverticular Disease, on real-life management of patients with DD of the colon. STUDY: Twelve questions were aimed at the diagnosis, treatment, and management options for diverticulosis and symptomatic DD. RESULTS: In total, 115 surveys from 8 European Countries were filled out...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622379/a-primary-care-interventional-model-on-the-diverticular-disease-searching-for-the-optimal-therapeutic-schedule
#17
Angelo Campanini, Umberto De Conto, Francesco Cavasin, Fernanda Bastiani, Antonio Camarotto, Luigi Gardini, Alessandra Geremia, Cristina Marastoni, Carlo Missorini, Elena Quarantelli, Umberto Sassi, Francesco Scarabello, Nadia Dal Bo, Matteo Riccò, Simone Grillo, Stefano Landi, Francesco Di Mario
INTRODUCTION: In routine colonoscopy, diverticulosis is the most commonly found feature, but only a minority of these cases show symptoms of diverticular disease.From June 2014 to December 2014, we enrolled prospectively 178 patients affected by symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (Male/Female=0.47, mean age 71.7±11.5 y, range 41 to 95 y) from 15 General Pratictioners patient files. All patients were symptomatic; in all cases, diagnosis was been confirmed by a colonoscopy performed at least 1 year before...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622377/the-management-of-patients-with-diverticulosis-and-diverticular-disease-in-primary-care-an-online-survey-among-italian-general-pratictioners
#18
Rudi De Bastiani, Guido Sanna, Pierluigi Fracasso, Maurizio D'Urso, Edoardo Benedetto, Antonio Tursi
GOALS: To investigate the current opinion of Italian general practitioners (GPs) on the management of patients with diverticular disease (DD) of the colon. BACKGROUND: The management of DD remains a point of debate, and guidelines are not uniform in their advice. STUDY: A web-based survey was conducted among Italian GPs. Twelve questions were aimed at the diagnosis, treatment, and management options for diverticulosis and symptomatic DD. RESULTS: In total, 245 surveys were filled out...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622370/mesalazine-for-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-uncomplicated-diverticular-disease-of-the-colon-and-for-primary-prevention-of-diverticulitis-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#19
Marcello Picchio, Walter Elisei, Giovanni Brandimarte, Francesco Di Mario, Peter Malfertheiner, Carmelo Scarpignato, Antonio Tursi
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a common gastrointestinal disease, because it affects about one fourth of the patient harboring colonic diverticula. GOAL: To assess the effectiveness of mesalazine in improving symptoms (namely abdominal pain) and in preventing diverticulitis occurrence in patients with SUDD. STUDY: Only randomized clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) that compared mesalazine with placebo or any other therapy in SUDD were evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622367/medical-treatment-of-diverticular-disease-antibiotics
#20
Alberto Lué, Viviana Laredo, Angel Lanas
Diverticular disease (DD) of the colon represents the most common disease affecting the large bowel in western countries. Its prevalence is increasing. Recent studies suggest that changes in gut microbiota could contribute to development of symptoms and complication. For this reason antibiotics play a key role in the management of both uncomplicated and complicated DD. Rifaximin has demonstrated to be effective in obtaining symptoms relief at 1 year in patients with uncomplicated DD and to improve symptoms and maintain periods of remission following acute colonic diverticulitis (AD)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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