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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132547/distribution-of-genes-encoding-resistance-to-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzymes-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-strains
#1
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Atefeh Jenabi, Effat Abbasi Montazeri
Today Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have acquired multiple resistance to a wide range of antibiotics including aminoglycosides. So, this study was aimed to investigate the rate of aminoglycoside resistance and the frequency of aminoglycoside resistance mediated genes of aac(Ia)-2, aph(3)-IIIa and ant(4')-Ia among MRSA strains. A total of 467 staphylococci isolates were collected from various clinical samples. S. aureus strains were identified by standard culture and identification criteria and investigating of presence of 16S rRNA and nuc genes...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123512/alternative-growth-promoters-modulate-broiler-gut-microbiome-and-enhance-body-weight-gain
#2
Serajus Salaheen, Seon-Woo Kim, Bradd J Haley, Jo Ann S Van Kessel, Debabrata Biswas
Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE) from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104530/antibiotic-driven-changes-in-gut-motility-suggest-direct-modulation-of-enteric-nervous-system
#3
Thilini Delungahawatta, Jessica Y Amin, Andrew M Stanisz, John Bienenstock, Paul Forsythe, Wolfgang A Kunze
Antibiotic-mediated changes to the intestinal microbiome have largely been assumed to be the basis of antibiotic-induced neurophysiological and behavioral changes. However, relatively little research has addressed whether antibiotics act directly on the host nervous system to produce these changes. We aimed to identify whether acute exposure of the gastrointestinal tract to antibiotics directly modulates neuronally dependent motility reflexes, ex vivo. Motility of colon and jejunum segments in a perfusion organ bath was recorded by video and alterations to neuronally dependent propagating contractile clusters (PCC), measured using spatiotemporal maps of diameter changes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093665/pi3k-and-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-proteins-modulate-gentamicin-induced-hair-cell-death-in-the-zebrafish-lateral-line
#4
Heather Wiedenhoft, Lauren Hayashi, Allison B Coffin
Inner ear hair cell death leads to sensorineural hearing loss and can be a direct consequence of aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment. Aminoglycosides such as gentamicin are effective therapy for serious Gram-negative bacterial infections such as some forms of meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Aminoglycosides enter hair cells through mechanotransduction channels at the apical end of hair bundles and initiate intrinsic cell death cascades, but the precise cell signaling that leads to hair cell death is incompletely understood...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089598/cellular-uptake-of-modified-aminoglycosides
#5
Kaivin Hadidi, Ezequiel Wexselblatt, Jeffrey D Esko, Yitzhak Tor
The uptake of modified amino- and guanidino-glycosides derived from kanamycin, tobramycin and neomycin in native and mutant CHO cells is examined using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, illustrating the significance of multivalency for mammalian cell internalization of carriers that specifically interact with cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 1 November 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.131.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077917/characterization-of-ornithobacterium-rhinotracheale-from-commercial-layer-chickens-in-eastern-japan
#6
D V Umali, K Shirota, K Sasai, H Katoh
From a total of 72 commercial layer and pullet farms that were monitored in the eastern Japan area, 4 farms had mild to severe respiratory disease accompanied by decreased feed intake and drop in egg production. Microbiological analysis showed that 3 of the 4 farms, particularly from Fukushima, Tochigi, and Ibaraki prefectures, were positive for Ornithobacterum rhinotracheale (ORT). Out of 65 birds examined, ORT was isolated in 21 birds (32.31%). All isolates were Gram-negative pleomorphic rods with a colony size of 0...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063353/high-prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-meca-staphylococcus-aureus-in-dairy-cattle-sheep-and-goat-bulk-tank-milk-in-jordan
#7
Mohammad M Obaidat, Alaa E Bani Salman, Amira A Roess
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of mecA and mecC methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in cattle, sheep, and goat dairy farms in Jordan. Milk samples were collected from bulk tanks at 117 dairy farms (44 cattle, 47 sheep, and 26 goat dairy farms) in each region of the country. MRSA were isolated on mecA and mecC chromogenic media and confirmed by PCR. The confirmed isolates were tested for resistance toward 15 antimicrobials by the disc diffusion method...
October 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050976/evolution-in-situ-of-ari-a-in-pb2-1-a-type-1-incc-plasmid-recovered-from-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-stability-of-tn4352b
#8
Christopher J Harmer, Ruth M Hall
The IncC plasmid pB2-1, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate recovered in Brisbane prior to 1995, belongs to a subtype of type 1 IncC plasmids, here designated type 1a, that includes those carrying carbapenem resistance genes such as blaNDM and blaKPC. pB2-1 carries a 2358bp deletion in the rhs1 gene found in four other type 1a IncC plasmids. pB2-1 confers resistance to ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, tobramycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim. It transferred at a frequency of 4...
October 16, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049477/association-of-the-addition-of-oral-antibiotics-to-mechanical-bowel-preparation-for-left-colon-and-rectal-cancer-resections-with-reduction-of-surgical-site-infections
#9
Elaine Vo, Nader N Massarweh, Christy Y Chai, Hop S Tran Cao, Nader Zamani, Sherry Abraham, Kafayat Adigun, Samir S Awad
Importance: Surgical site infections (SSIs) after colorectal surgery remain a significant complication, particularly for patients with cancer, because they can delay the administration of adjuvant therapy. A combination of oral antibiotics and mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is a potential, yet controversial, SSI prevention strategy. Objective: To determine the association of the addition of oral antibiotics to MBP with preventing SSIs in left colon and rectal cancer resections and its association with the timely administration of adjuvant therapy...
October 18, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040522/behavioral-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-trem2-null-mice-not-all-knockout-mice-are-created-equal
#10
Silvia S Kang, Aishe Kurti, Kelsey E Baker, Chia-Chen Liu, Marco Colonna, Jason D Ulrich, David M Holtzman, Guojun Bu, John D Fryer
It is clear that innate immune system status is altered in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Human genetic studies have demonstrated that Triggering Receptor Expressed in Myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) coding variants have a strong association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. To more thoroughly understand the impact of TREM2 in vivo, we studied the behavioral and cognitive functions of wild-type (WT) and Trem2-/- (KO) mice during basal conditions and brain function in the context of innate immune stimulation with peripherally administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 11, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038257/the-novel-transcriptional-regulator-lmbu-promotes-lincomycin-biosynthesis-through-regulating-expression-of-its-target-genes-in-streptomyces-lincolnensis
#11
Bingbing Hou, Yanwei Lin, Haizhen Wu, Meijin Guo, Hrvoje Petkovic, Liyuan Tao, Xiaoyu Zhu, Jiang Ye, Huizhan Zhang
Lincomycin A is a clinically important antimicrobial agent produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis In this study, a new regulator designated LmbU (Genbank accession no. ABX00623.1) was identified and characterized to regulate lincomycin biosynthesis in a S. lincolnensis wild-type strain NRRL 2936. Both inactivation and overexpression of lmbU result in significant influences on lincomycin production. Transcriptional analysis and in vivo neomycin resistance (neo(r) ) reporter assays demonstrated that LmbU activates expression of the lmbA, lmbC, lmbJ and lmbW genes, and represses expression of the lmbK and lmbU genes...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034471/lipid-signaling-affects-primary-fibroblast-collective-migration-and-anchorage-in-response-to-stiffness-and-microtopography
#12
Michael A Mkrtschjan, Snehal B Gaikwad, Kevin J Kappenman, Christopher Solís, Sagar Dommaraju, Long Le, Tejal A Desai, Brenda Russell
Cell migration is regulated by several mechanotransduction pathways, which consist of sensing and converting mechanical microenvironmental cues to internal biochemical cellular signals, such as protein phosphorylation and lipid signaling. While there has been significant progress in understanding protein changes in the context of mechanotransduction, lipid signaling is more difficult to investigate. In this study, physical cues of stiffness (10 kPa, 100 kPa, 400 kPa, and glass), and microrod or micropost topography were manipulated in order to reprogram primary fibroblasts and assess the effects of lipid signaling on the actin cytoskeleton...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992413/phenotypic-optimization-of-urea-thiophene-carboxamides-to-yield-potent-well-tolerated-and-orally-active-protective-agents-against-aminoglycoside-induced-hearing-loss
#13
Sarwat Chowdhury, Kelly N Owens, R Jason Herr, Qin Jiang, Xinchao Chen, Graham Johnson, Vincent E Groppi, David W Raible, Edwin W Rubel, Julian A Simon
Hearing loss is a major public health concern with no pharmaceutical intervention for hearing protection or restoration. Using zebrafish neuromast hair cells, a robust model for mammalian auditory and vestibular hair cells, we identified a urea-thiophene carboxamide, 1 (ORC-001), as protective against aminoglycoside antibiotic (AGA)-induced hair cell death. The 50% protection (HC50) concentration conferred by 1 is 3.2 μM with protection against 200 μM neomycin approaching 100%. Compound 1 was sufficiently safe and drug-like to validate otoprotection in an in vivo rat hearing loss model...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987554/genetic-transformation-of-the-white-rot-fungus-dichomitus-squalens-using-a-new-commercial-protoplasting-cocktail
#14
Paul Daly, Gillian G Slaghek, Sara Casado López, Ad Wiebenga, Kristiina S Hilden, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä
D. squalens, a white-rot fungus that efficiently degrades lignocellulose in nature, can be used in various biotechnological applications and has several strains with sequenced and annotated genomes. Here we present a method for the transformation of this basidiomycete fungus, using a recently introduced commercial ascomycete protoplasting enzyme cocktail, Protoplast F. In protoplasting of D. squalens mycelia, Protoplast F outperformed two other cocktails while releasing similar amounts of protoplasts to a third cocktail...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986448/an-improved-escherichia-coli-screen-for-rubisco-identifies-a-protein-protein-interface-that-can-enhance-co2-fixation-kinetics
#15
Robert H Wilson, Elena Martin-Avila, Carly Conlan, Spencer M Whitney
An overarching goal of photosynthesis research is to identify how components of the process can be improved to benefit crop productivity, global food security and renewable energy storage. Improving carbon fixation has mostly focused on enhancing the CO2 fixing enzyme Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). This grand challenge has mostly proved ineffective due to catalytic mechanism constraints and required chaperone complementarity that hinder Rubisco biogenesis in alternative hosts. Here we refashion Escherichia coli metabolism by expressing a phosphoribulokinase-neomycin phosphotransferase fusion protein to produce a high fidelity, high throughput Rubisco directed evolution (RDE2) screen that negates false positive selection...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983965/unusual-post-patch-testing-erythema-a-late-granulomatous-non-eczematous-reaction-to-gold-sodium-thiosulfate
#16
H Kosumi, T Yanagi, K Izumi, T Ito, H Shimizu
In patch testing, delayed reactions at day 7 or later are regarded as "late reactions".(1) Neomycin, corticosteroids, paraphenylendiamin and gold are well-known allergens of late reactions.(1,2) Of these, reactions to gold sodium thiosulfate (GSTS) can be significantly delayed, and some cases have been reported to be accompanied with granulomatous changes.(3,4) Clinical reports of this reaction to GSTS are very limited. Here, we report a case of granulomatous reaction to GSTS, and we review the literature to reveal the features of this phenomenon...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968134/autophagy-protects-auditory-hair-cells-against-neomycin-induced-damage
#17
Zuhong He, Lingna Guo, Yilai Shu, Qiaojun Fang, Han Zhou, Yongze Liu, Dingding Liu, Ling Lu, Xiaoli Zhang, Xiaoqiong Ding, Dong Liu, Mingliang Tang, Weijia Kong, Suhua Sha, Huawei Li, Xia Gao, Renjie Chai
Aminoglycosides are toxic to sensory hair cells (HCs). Macroautophagy/autophagy is an essential and highly conserved self-digestion pathway that plays important roles in the maintenance of cellular function and viability under stress. However, the role of autophagy in aminoglycoside-induced HC injury is unknown. Here, we first found that autophagy activity was significantly increased, including enhanced autophagosome-lysosome fusion, in both cochlear HCs and HEI-OC-1 cells after neomycin or gentamicin injury, suggesting that autophagy might be correlated with aminoglycoside-induced cell death...
October 2, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962583/engineering-human-ventricular-heart-muscles-based-on-a-highly-efficient-system-for-purification-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#18
Bin Li, Hui Yang, Xiaochen Wang, Yongkun Zhan, Wei Sheng, Huanhuan Cai, Haoyang Xin, Qianqian Liang, Ping Zhou, Chao Lu, Ruizhe Qian, Sifeng Chen, Pengyuan Yang, Jianyi Zhang, Weinian Shou, Guoying Huang, Ping Liang, Ning Sun
BACKGROUND: Most infarctions occur in the left anterior descending coronary artery and cause myocardium damage of the left ventricle. Although current pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and directed cardiac differentiation techniques are able to generate fetal-like human cardiomyocytes, isolation of pure ventricular cardiomyocytes has been challenging. For repairing ventricular damage, we aimed to establish a highly efficient purification system to obtain homogeneous ventricular cardiomyocytes and prepare engineered human ventricular heart muscles in a dish...
September 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959821/pseudouridine-modifications-influence-binding-of-aminoglycosides-to-helix-69-of-bacterial-ribosomes
#19
Yogo Sakakibara, Christine S Chow
Development of antibiotics that target new regions of functionality is a possible way to overcome antibiotic resistance. In this study, the interactions of aminoglycoside antibiotics with helix 69 of the E. coli 23S rRNA in the context of complete 70S ribosomes or the isolated 50S subunit were investigated by using chemical probing and footprinting analysis. Helix 69 is a dynamic RNA motif that plays major roles in bacterial ribosome activity. Neomycin, paromomycin, and gentamicin interact with the stem region of helix 69 in complete 70S ribosomes, but have diminished binding to the isolated 50S subunit...
October 18, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958576/guanidinylated-neomycin-conjugation-enhances-intranasal-enzyme-replacement-in-the-brain
#20
Wenyong Tong, Chrissa A Dwyer, Bryan E Thacker, Charles A Glass, Jillian R Brown, Kristina Hamill, Kelley W Moremen, Stéphane Sarrazin, Philip L S M Gordts, Lara E Dozier, Gentry N Patrick, Yitzhak Tor, Jeffrey D Esko
Iduronidase (IDUA)-deficient mice accumulate glycosaminoglycans in cells and tissues and exhibit many of the same neuropathological symptoms of patients suffering from Mucopolysaccharidosis I. Intravenous enzyme-replacement therapy for Mucopolysaccharidosis I ameliorates glycosaminoglycan storage and many of the somatic aspects of the disease but fails to treat neurological symptoms due to poor transport across the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we examined the delivery of IDUA conjugated to guanidinoneomycin (GNeo), a molecular transporter...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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