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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913616/genetic-contributors-to-intergenerational-cag-repeat-instability-in-huntington-s-disease-knock-in-mice
#1
João Luís Neto, Jong-Min Lee, Ali Afridi, Tammy Gillis, Jolene R Guide, Stephani Dempsey, Brenda Lager, Isabel Alonso, Vanessa C Wheeler, Ricardo Mouro Pinto
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Longer repeat sizes are associated with increased disease penetrance and earlier ages of onset. Intergenerationally unstable transmissions are common in Huntington's disease families, partly underlying the genetic anticipation seen in this disorder. Huntington's disease CAG knock-in mouse models also exhibit a propensity for intergenerational repeat size changes. In this work, we examine intergenerational instability of the CAG repeat in over 20,000 transmissions in the largest Huntington's disease knock-in mouse model breeding datasets reported to date...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896620/antimicrobial-activity-of-topical-agents-against-propionibacterium-acnes-an-in-vitro-study-of-clinical-isolates-from-a-hospital-in-shanghai-china
#2
Ying Ma, Nanxue Zhang, Shi Wu, Haihui Huang, Yanpei Cao
This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial activities of topical agents against Propionibacterium acnes isolated from patients admitted to a hospital in Shanghai, China. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the cultured P. acnes were determined in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Susceptibilities to clindamycin and erythromycin were compared in terms of gender, age, disease duration, previous treatment, and disease severity. A total of 69 P. acnes strains were isolated from 98 patients (70...
November 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884695/linker-dependent-intercalation-of-bisbenzimidazole-aminosugars-in-an-rna-duplex-selectivity-in-rna-vs-dna-binding
#3
Nihar Ranjan, Dev P Arya
Neomycin and Hoechst 33258 are two well-known nucleic acid binders that interact with RNA and DNA duplexes with high affinities respectively. In this manuscript, we report that covalent attachment of bisbenzimidazole unit derived from Hoechst 33258 to neomycin leads to intercalative binding of the bisbenzimidazole unit (oriented at 64-74° with respected to the RNA helical axis) in a linker length dependent manner. The dual binding and intercalation of conjugates were supported by thermal denaturation, CD, LD and UV-Vis absorption experiments...
December 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878810/improvement-of-phytoplankton-culture-isolation-using-single-cell-sorting-by-flow-cytometry
#4
Dominique Marie, Florence Le Gall, Roseline Edern, Priscillia Gourvil, Daniel Vaulot
Flow cytometry provides a tool to physically sort single algal cells in order to obtain clonal cultures. During sorting, cells are submitted to physical stress factors such as high fluidic pressure, exposure to the laser beam, electrostatic charges, deflection through high voltage fields and collisions with container surfaces. All of these can damage the cells of interest and success rates for initiation of cultures from flow-sorted cells are generally very low. We found that the addition of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in the culture medium into which cells are sorted drastically improved the success of initiation of pico- and nano-eukaryotic phytoplankton strains...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872722/production-of-monoclonal-antibody-against-recombinant-ns3-protein-of-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-nadl-strain
#5
Masood Reza Seyfi Abad Shapouri, Maryam Ekhtelat, Masood Ghorbanpoor Najaf Abadi, Mohsen Lotfi, Mohamad Rashno
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. in ewes in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Molecular characterization of isolated Staphylococcus spp. from diseased ewes were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) gene. Also, antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates against different antibiotics was investigated...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872721/the-role-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-2-fgfr2-in-differentiation-of-bovine-spermatogonial-stem-cells-scc
#6
Rahem Khoshbakht, Mohammad Tabatabaei, Saeid Hoseinzadeh, Mojtaba Mojtaba, Hesamaddin Shirzad Aski, Enayat Berizi
Although poultry meat is considered as the main source for human Campylobacter infections, there is limited information about non-poultry sources. The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and the antibiotic resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fecal samples of the cattle and sheep in Shiraz, Iran. A total of 302 fecal samples were obtained from clinically healthy, slaughtered cattle and sheep from Shiraz slaughterhouse. The animals were clinically healthy before being slaughtered...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855522/melatonin-mitigates-neomycin-induced-hair-cell-injury-in-zebrafish
#7
Kyoung Ho Oh, Yoon Chan Rah, Kyu Ho Hwang, Seung Hoon Lee, Soon Young Kwon, Jae Hyung Cha, June Choi
CONTEXT: Ototoxicity due to medications, such as aminoglycosides, is irreversible, and free radicals in the inner ear are assumed to play a major role. Because melatonin has an antioxidant property, we hypothesize that it might mitigate hair cell injury by aminoglycosides. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether melatonin has an alleviative effect on neomycin-induced hair cell injury in zebrafish (Danio rerio). METHODS: Various concentrations of melatonin were administered to 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish treated with 125 μM neomycin for 1 h...
November 18, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852672/a-novel-selective-medium-for-isolation-of-bacteroides-fragilis-from-clinical-specimens
#8
Pak-Leung Ho, Lok-Yan Ho, Chong-Yee Yau, Man-Ki Tong, Kin-Hung Chow
A novel Bacteroides fragilis selective (BFS) medium, consisting of a brain-heart infusion agar base supplemented with yeast extract, cysteine hydrochloride, bile salts, Vitamin K, hemin, glucose, esculin, ferric ammonium citrate, bromothymol blue, gentamicin, kanamycin and novobiocin, was evaluated. When BFS agar was tested with a collection of 303 bacteria of different genera, it allowed the growth of B. fragilis as large yellow colonies with blackening of the medium after 48 h of anaerobic incubation while the growth of most other anaerobes, facultative anaerobes and aerobes were inhibited...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847309/an-optimized-method-to-assess-ototoxic-effects-in-the-lateral-line-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#9
Daniel Stengel, Florian Zindler, Thomas Braunbeck
In order to clarify the suitability of the lateral line of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model for the screening of ototoxic (neurotoxic) effects, existing neuromast assays were adapted, improved and validated with a series of chemicals known or unknown for their ototoxic potential (caffeine copper sulfate, dichlorvos, 2.4-dinitrotoluene, neomycin, 4-nonylphenol, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid). Present methods were improved by (1) the introduction of a 4-step scoring system, (2) the selection of neuromasts from both the anterior and posterior lateral line systems, (3) a combined DASPEI/DAPI staining applied after both a continuous and pulse exposure scenario, and (4) an additional screening for nuclear fragmentation...
November 12, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846039/activation-of-igf1-signaling-in-the-cochlea-induces-the-transcription-of-its-mediators-during-the-protection-of-cochlear-hair-cells-against-aminoglycoside
#10
Yushi Hayashi, Norio Yamamoto, Takayuki Nakagawa, Koichi Omori, Juichi Ito
HYPOTHESIS: Transcription of the Erk and Akt genes and phosphorylation of their products are promoted by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) during hair cell protection. BACKGROUND: IGF1 protects mammalian hair cells in animal models from various types of damage, including aminoglycoside. Moreover, clinical trials have revealed that IGF1 was effective for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. In this process, activation of the downstream of IGF1 signaling, including the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT proteins, is involved...
November 14, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832811/farm-characteristics-and-management-routines-related-to-neonatal-porcine-diarrhoea-a-survey-among-swedish-piglet-producers
#11
Jenny Larsson, Nils Fall, Maria Lindberg, Magdalena Jacobson
BACKGROUND: In recent years reports from a number of countries, including Sweden, describe problems with diarrhoea in newborn piglets despite the use of previously effective preventive measures. This seemingly altered disease pattern of neonatal porcine diarrhoea (NPD) warrants investigations on the magnitude and manifestation of the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the herd-level prevalence of NPD in Sweden and to describe disease characteristics and intervention strategies used in affected herds...
November 10, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828633/staphylococcus-aureus-resistance-to-topical-antimicrobials-in-atopic-dermatitis
#12
Giancarlo Rezende Bessa, Vanessa Petry Quinto, Daiane Corrêa Machado, Caroline Lipnharski, Magda Blessmann Weber, Renan Rangel Bonamigo, Pedro Alves D'Azevedo
Background: Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients...
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819748/topical-antibiotics-for-preventing-surgical-site-infection-in-wounds-healing-by-primary-intention
#13
REVIEW
Clare F Heal, Jennifer L Banks, Phoebe D Lepper, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSI) can delay wound healing, impair cosmetic outcome and increase healthcare costs. Topical antibiotics are sometimes used to reduce microbial contaminant exposure following surgical procedures, with the aim of reducing SSIs. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to determine whether the application of topical antibiotics to surgical wounds that are healing by primary intention reduces the incidence of SSI and whether it increases the incidence of adverse outcomes (allergic contact dermatitis, infections with patterns of antibiotic resistance and anaphylaxis)...
November 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806190/dendrimeric-guanidinoneomycin-for-cellular-delivery-of-bio-macromolecules
#14
Aurora Sganappa, Ezequiel Wexselblatt, Maria Cristina Bellucci, Jeffrey D Esko, Gabriella Tedeschi, Yitzhak Tor, Alessandro Volonterio
We present the synthesis of polymeric amino- and guanidinoglycosides prepared by tethering neomycin and guanidinoneomycin to PAMAM dendrimers of generations 2 and 4. The ability of these conjugates to promote cellular uptake of high-molecular-weight cargo is discussed, together with their cytotoxicity and mechanisms of entry. We demonstrate that the presence of multiple guanidinoneomycin carriers on the PAMAM surface plays an important role in promoting cellular uptake of the dendrimers, maintaining the heparan sulfate specificity and negligible cytotoxicity typical of monomeric guanidinoglycoside molecular transporters...
November 2, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794569/adaptive-cross-resistance-to-aminoglycoside-antibiotics-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induced-by-topical-dosage-of-neomycin
#15
Shuji Uemura, Shin-Ichi Yokota, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Manabu Kitagawa, Suguru Hirayama, Ryoko Kyan, Hirotoshi Mizuno, Keigo Sawamoto, Hiroyuki Inoue, Atsushi Miyamoto, Eichi Narimatsu
BACKGROUND: Topical antimicrobial formulations containing neomycin are commonly used to prevent and treat burn infections. However, Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows rapid acquisition of adaptive resistance to neomycin. This study aimed to evaluate the survival of P. aeruginosa during exposure to neomycin at high concentrations comparable to those used in topical formulations, and to investigate the effect of adaptive resistance to neomycin on the susceptibility to other aminoglycosides. METHODS: Strain IID1130 [neomycin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4 µg/ml] was incubated on an agar medium containing neomycin at high concentrations (8-4,096 µg/ml), and growing colonies were macroscopically observed...
October 29, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794202/simultaneous-delivery-of-antibiotics-neomycin-and-ampicillin-in-drinking-water-inhibits-fermentation-of-resistant-starch-in-rats
#16
Diana G Carvajal-Aldaz, Justin L Guice, Ryan C Page, Anne M Raggio, Roy J Martin, Claudia Husseneder, Holiday A Durham, James Geaghan, Marlene Janes, Ted Gauthier, Diana Coulon, Michael J Keenan
SCOPE: Antibiotics ampicillin 1g/L and neomycin 0.5g/L were added to drinking water before or during feeding of resistant starch (RS) to rats to inhibit fermentation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a preliminary study antibiotics and no RS were given prior to rats receiving a transplant of cecal contents via gavage from donor rats fed RS (without antibiotics) or a water gavage before feeding resistant starch to both groups. Antibiotics given prior to feeding RS did not prevent later fermentation of RS regardless of either type of gavage...
October 29, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780958/molecular-characterization-of-adenylyl-cyclase-complex-proteins-using-versatile-protein-tagging-plasmid-systems-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#17
Yee-Seul So, Dong-Hoon Yang, Kwang-Woo Jung, Won-Ki Huh, Yong-Sun Bahn
In this study, we aimed to generate a series of versatile tagging plasmids that can be used in diverse molecular biological studies of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. We constructed 12 plasmids that can be used to tag a protein of interest with a GFP, mCherry, 4×FLAG, or 6×HA along with nourseothricin, neomycin, or hygromycin-resistant selection markers. Using this tagging plasmid set, we explored the adenylyl cyclase complex (ACC), consisting of adenylyl cyclase (Cac1) and its associated protein Aca1, in the cAMP-signaling pathway, which is critical for the pathogenicity of C...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731830/detection-of-antibiotic-residues-in-poultry-meat
#18
Abdul Sajid, Natasha Kashif, Nasira Kifayat, Shabeer Ahmad
The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717895/quercetin-protects-against-hair-cell-loss-in-the-zebrafish-lateral-line-and-guinea-pig-cochlea
#19
Yoshinobu Hirose, Kazuma Sugahara, Eiju Kanagawa, Yousuke Takemoto, Makoto Hashimoto, Hiroshi Yamashita
Eighteen supplement drugs were screened using hair cells to determine a protective effect against the adverse effects of neomycin by using the zebrafish lateral line. The zebrafish were administered the supplement drugs 1 h before neomycin exposure. One hour later, animals were fixed in paraformaldehyde. Dose-response curves were generated to evaluate the protective effect on hair cells. The screen identified 3 supplements (quercetin, catechin and tannic acid). Three minutes after exposure to neomycin, increased antioxidant activity was found in the lateral line hair cells, as determined by the analysis of oxidative stress...
October 4, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698813/screening-glioma-stem-cells-in-u251-cells-based-on-the-p1-promoter-of-the-cd133-gene
#20
Xiaofeng Wang, Lu Chen, Zhongdi Xiao, Yali Wang, Tiemei Liu, Tianfu Zhang, Yucheng Zhang
Cluster of differentiation (CD)133 is an important cell surface marker of glioma stem cells (GSCs). The transcription of the CD133 gene is controlled by five alternative promoters (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5), which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In the present study, gene recombination technology was used to construct two types of gene expression vectors that contained the P1 promoter of the CD133 gene, which regulated either the neomycin-resistance gene or the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
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