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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781670/genetic-characterisation-of-virulence-genes-associated-with-adherence-invasion-and-cytotoxicity-in-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-commercial-chickens-and-human-clinical-cases
#1
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Virulence-associated genes have been recognised and detected in Campylobacter species. The majority of them have been proven to be associated with pathogenicity. This study aimed to detect the presence of virulence genes associated with pathogenicity and responsible for invasion, expression of adherence, colonisation and production of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Commercial chicken faecal samples were randomly sampled from chicken farms within the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
February 15, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740244/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-in-raw-cow-sheep-and-goat-meat-in-jazan-saudi-arabia
#2
Marwah Bakri
Background:Clostridium difficile has been shown to be a nosocomial infection associated with diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospitalized patients especially old patients. In my previous studies, it was shown the occurrence of C. difficile in animals feces and vegetables which may act as a source of infection to humans. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in retail raw cow, sheep, and goat, meat in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. Method: A total of 600 raw meat samples from cow, sheep, and goat were collected during June-December 2015, and tested for the presence of C...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734778/antibiotic-sensitivity-profiling-and-virulence-potential-of-campylobacter-jejuni-isolates-from-estuarine-water-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#3
Anthony C Otigbu, Anna M Clarke, Justine Fri, Emmanuel O Akanbi, Henry A Njom
Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) is a zoonotic microbe and a major causative organism of diarrheal infection in humans that often has its functional characteristics inactivated in stressed conditions. The current study assessed the correlation between recovered CJ and water quality parameters and the drug sensitivity patterns of the pathogen to frontline antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine. Water samples ( n = 244) from rivers/estuarines were collected from April⁻September 2016, and physicochemical conditions were recorded on-site...
May 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718329/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-ribotypes-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-a-phase-2-clinical-trial-of-ridinilazole-smt19969-and-vancomycin
#4
David R Snydman, Laura A McDermott, Cheleste M Thorpe, Justin Chang, Jenna Wick, Seth T Walk, Richard J Vickers
Objectives: We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility and ribotypes of Clostridium difficile isolates from participants in a Phase 2 study of ridinilazole, a novel targeted-spectrum agent for treatment of C. difficile infection. Methods: Participants received ridinilazole (200 mg twice daily) or vancomycin (125 mg four times daily) for 10 days (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02092935). The MICs of ridinilazole and comparators for C. difficile isolates from stool samples were determined by agar dilution...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604338/high-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-078-in-pigs-in-korea
#5
Ha-Young Kim, Ara Cho, Jong Wan Kim, Heejung Kim, Bumseok Kim
Clostridium difficile can cause neonatal enteritis, but has been isolated from both diseased and healthy pigs. C. difficile shedding by pigs is a potential source of zoonotic transmission to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile with respect to age and health status in the pig industry for the first time in Korea. Fecal samples of 910 pigs were analyzed for the presence of C. difficile. In total, 176 (19.3%) C. difficile strains were isolated. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0...
March 28, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588404/the-typhoid-toxin-produced-by-the-nontyphoidal-salmonella-enterica-serotype-javiana-is-required-for-induction-of-a-dna-damage-response-in-vitro-and-systemic-spread-in-vivo
#6
Rachel A Miller, Michael I Betteken, Xiaodong Guo, Craig Altier, Gerald E Duhamel, Martin Wiedmann
The Salmonella cytolethal distending toxin (S-CDT), first described as the "typhoid toxin" in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi, induces DNA damage in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have shown that more than 40 nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serotypes carry genes that encode S-CDT, yet very little is known about the activity, function, and role of S-CDT in NTS. Here we show that deletion of genes encoding the binding subunit ( pltB ) and a bacteriophage muramidase predicted to play a role in toxin export ( ttsA ) does not abolish toxin activity in the S-CDT-positive NTS Salmonella enterica subsp...
March 27, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501042/clostridium-difficile-toxin-b-recombinant-protein-inhibits-tumor-growth-and-induces-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-bcl-2-expression-triggering-inflammatory-responses-and-activating-c-erbb-2-and-cox-2-expression-in-breast-cancer-mouse-model
#7
Yunli Zhang, Yanming Li, Hongling Li, Wei Chen, Wenen Liu
Clostridium difficile toxin B (cdtB) is a critical virulence factor characterized with potential cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory activity. This study aims to investigate anti-tumor effects of cdtB on breast cancer development. Clostridium difficile strain was cultured and cdtB recombinant protein (rcdtB) was synthesized. Breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was divided into Normal control, rcdtB 50, 100, 200 and 400 ng/ml group in vitro. Mice were divided into Normal control and rcdtB treatment group (400 ng/ml) in vivo...
May 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345852/cadmium-and-cadmium-tolerant-soil-bacteria-in-cacao-crops-from-northeastern-colombia
#8
Daniel Bravo, Sergio Pardo-Díaz, Javier Benavides-Erazo, Gersain Rengifo-Estrada, Olivier Braissant, Clara Leon-Moreno
AIMS: This research aims to assess total-cadmium soil content and microbiological aspects to understand the dynamics of culturable cadmium-tolerant bacteria (CdtB) in cacao soils from northeastern Colombia. METHODS AND RESULTS: An integration of inverted dish plating, Cd determination and a microcalorimetry assay (IMC) was carried out. A farm in Boyacá showed the highest level of total soil Cd (3.74 mg kg-1 ) followed by farms in Santander and Arauca (2.76 and 1...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330183/campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-the-crow-gut-involves-many-deletions-within-the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-gene-cluster
#9
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with that from isolates from other parts of Washington and from a different crow species 7,000 miles away in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter organisms were isolated from 61% and 69% of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively, and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of approximately 1,350 bp...
March 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261736/randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-initial-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-microbiome
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado, Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Palau-Davila, Simon D Baines, Héctor Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fecal donor-unrelated donor mix (FMT-FURM) transplantation as first-line therapy for C. difficile infection (CDI) in intestinal microbiome. METHODS: We designed an open, two-arm pilot study with oral vancomycin (250mg every 6 h for 10-14 days) or FMT-FURM as treatments for the first CDI episode in hospitalized adult patients in Hospital Universitario "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Patients were randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1: 1 ratio to either oral vancomycin or FMT-FURM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229729/cdtc-induced-processing-of-membrane-bound-cdta-is-a-crucial-step-in-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-cytolethal-distending-toxin-holotoxin-formation
#11
Keiko Tsuruda, Oranart Matangkasombut, Masaru Ohara, Motoyuki Sugai
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral pathogen causing periodontal disease and bacterial endocarditis. It produces cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) that could damage mammalian cells and tissues. CDT is a tripartite protein toxin composed of CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. We have previously indicated that CdtA is a lipoprotein and that the proteolytic processing of CdtA is important for biogenesis and secretion of CDT holotoxin. Here, we established an in vitro processing assay of CdtA and investigated the interactions of CdtA with other Cdt subunits...
March 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184850/internalization-of-the-active-subunit-of-the-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-cytolethal-distending-toxin-is-dependent-upon-cellugyrin-synaptogyrin-2-a-host-cell-non-neuronal-paralog-of-the-synaptic-vesicle-protein-synaptogyrin-1
#12
Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Lisa P Walker, Anuradha Dhingra, Konstantin Kandror, Hsin-Yao Tang, Bruce J Shenker
The Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) is a heterotrimeric AB2 toxin capable of inducing lymphocytes, and other cell types, to undergo cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Exposure to Cdt results in binding to the cell surface followed by internalization and translocation of the active subunit, CdtB, to intracellular compartments. These events are dependent upon toxin binding to cholesterol in the context of lipid rich membrane microdomains often referred to as lipid rafts. We now demonstrate that, in addition to binding to the plasma membrane of lymphocytes, another early and critical event initiated by Cdt is the translocation of the host cell protein, cellugyrin (synaptogyrin-2) to the same cholesterol-rich microdomains...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151897/community-acquired-infection-with-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-isolates-that-carry-different-toxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-loci-a-case-report
#13
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149023/antibiotic-susceptibility-genetic-diversity-and-the-presence-of-toxin-producing-genes-in-campylobacter-isolates-from-poultry
#14
Jeeyeon Lee, Jiyeon Jeong, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Sejeong Kim, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Kunho Seo, Yohan Yoon, Soomin Lee
This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken ( n = 152) and duck ( n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLabTM system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin ( cdt ) genes...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119393/in-vitro-culturing-and-storage-of-campylobacter-genus-bacteria
#15
N R Efimochkina, V V Stetsenko, I B Bykova, A S Polyanina, A S Aleshkina, S A Sheveleva
Experimental model for in vitro evaluation of Campylobacter genus bacteria growth kinetics, inhibition, or inactivation is proposed. The model allows quantitative evaluation of the sensitivity to various types of stress exposure and promotes detection of the regularities of their transformation into uncultivable forms. The model implies the use of 96-well plates for parallel culturing of several subpopulations of the test strain in media with various parameters. The proposed algorithm includes evaluation of the proportion of viable CFU to total level of planktonic and uncultivable cells in the population, which is estimated by the content of genomic DNA in the samples by quantitative PCR (or real-time PCR) with ciaB, cdtB, or 16S rRNA primers...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#16
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058256/simultaneous-detection-and-characterization-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-directly-from-clinical-stool-specimens
#17
Hanjiang Lai, Chen Huang, Jian Cai, Julian Ye, Jun She, Yi Zheng, Liqian Wang, Yelin Wei, Weijia Fang, Xianjun Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Yun Luo, Dazhi Jin
We employed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (mPCR-CE) targeting six Clostridium difficile genes, including tpi, tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, cdtB, and a deletion in tcdC for simultaneous detection and characterization of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens. The mPCR-CE had a limit of detection of 10 colony-forming units per reaction with no cross-reactions with other related bacterial genes. Clinical validation was performed on 354 consecutively collected stool specimens from patients with suspected C...
October 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051656/antimicrobial-resistance-in-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-from-ready-to-eat-foods
#18
Cíntia Matos Lima, Ingrid Evelyn Gomes Lima Souza, Taila Dos Santos Alves, Clícia Capibaribe Leite, Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto, Rogeria Comastri de Castro Almeida
Certain subgroups of Escherichia coli have congenital or acquired virulence properties that allow them to cause a wide spectrum of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods produced in institutional, commercial and hotel restaurants in Salvador, Brazil. The presence of virulent isolates and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated. Four hundred forty-six samples were collected and grouped into cereals and vegetables, meat-based preparations, cooked salads, raw salads, garnishes, soups and sauces, desserts and juices...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993610/evolution-of-host-adaptation-in-the-salmonella-typhoid-toxin
#19
Xiang Gao, Lingquan Deng, Gabrielle Stack, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Yuko Naito-Matsui, Ajit Varki, Jorge E Galán
The evolution of virulence traits is central for the emergence or re-emergence of microbial pathogens and for their adaptation to a specific host1-5 . Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor of the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhi6,7 , the cause of typhoid fever in humans8-12 . Typhoid toxin has a unique A2 B5 architecture with two covalently linked enzymatic 'A' subunits, PltA and CdtB, associated with a homopentameric 'B' subunit made up of PltB, which has binding specificity for the N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) sialoglycans6,13 prominently present in humans14 ...
December 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968179/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotypic-characteristic-of-campylobacter-spp-isolates-from-free-living-birds-in-poland
#20
Marta Krawiec, Anna Woźniak-Biel, Michał Bednarski, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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