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Yunli Zhang, Yanming Li, Hongling Li, Wei Chen, Wenen Liu
Clostridium difficile toxin B (cdtB) is a critical virulence factor characterized with potential cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory activity. This study aims to investigate anti-tumor effects of cdtB on breast cancer development. Clostridium difficile strain was cultured and cdtB recombinant protein (rcdtB) was synthesized. Breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, was divided into Normal control, rcdtB 50, 100, 200 and 400 ng/ml group in vitro. Mice were divided into Normal control and rcdtB treatment group (400 ng/ml) in vivo...
February 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Daniel Bravo, Sergio Pardo-Díaz, Javier Benavides-Erazo, Gersain Rengifo-Estrada, Olivier Braissant, Clara Leon-Moreno
AIMS: This research aims to assess total-cadmium soil content and microbiological aspects to understand the dynamics of culturable cadmium-tolerant bacteria (CdtB) in cacao soils from northeastern Colombia. METHODS AND RESULTS: An integration of inverted dish plating, Cd determination and a microcalorimetry assay (IMC) was carried out. A farm in Boyacá showed the highest level of total soil Cd (3.74 mg kg-1 ) followed by farms in Santander and Arauca (2.76 and 1...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with isolates from other parts of Washington, and from a different crow spp., 7000 miles away, in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter was isolated from 61% and 69 % of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of about 1400 bp...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado, Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Palau-Davila, Simon D Baines, Héctor Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fecal donor-unrelated donor mix (FMT-FURM) transplantation as first-line therapy for C. difficile infection (CDI) in intestinal microbiome. METHODS: We designed an open, two-arm pilot study with oral vancomycin (250mg every 6 h for 10-14 days) or FMT-FURM as treatments for the first CDI episode in hospitalized adult patients in Hospital Universitario "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Patients were randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1: 1 ratio to either oral vancomycin or FMT-FURM...
2017: PloS One
Keiko Tsuruda, Oranart Matangkasombut, Masaru Ohara, Motoyuki Sugai
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral pathogen causing periodontal disease and bacterial endocarditis. It produces cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) that could damage mammalian cells and tissues. CDT is a tripartite protein toxin composed of CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. We have previously indicated that CdtA is a lipoprotein and that the proteolytic processing of CdtA is important for biogenesis and secretion of CDT holotoxin. Here, we established an in vitro processing assay of CdtA and investigated the interactions of CdtA with other Cdt subunits...
March 2018: Infection and Immunity
Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Lisa P Walker, Anuradha Dhingra, Konstantin Kandror, Hsin-Yao Tang, Bruce J Shenker
The Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) is a heterotrimeric AB2 toxin capable of inducing lymphocytes, and other cell types, to undergo cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Exposure to Cdt results in binding to the cell surface followed by internalization and translocation of the active subunit, CdtB, to intracellular compartments. These events are dependent upon toxin binding to cholesterol in the context of lipid rich membrane microdomains often referred to as lipid rafts. We now demonstrate that, in addition to binding to the plasma membrane of lymphocytes, another early and critical event initiated by Cdt is the translocation of the host cell protein, cellugyrin (synaptogyrin-2) to the same cholesterol-rich microdomains...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
Jeeyeon Lee, Jiyeon Jeong, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Sejeong Kim, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Kunho Seo, Yohan Yoon, Soomin Lee
This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken ( n = 152) and duck ( n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLabTM system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin ( cdt ) genes...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
N R Efimochkina, V V Stetsenko, I B Bykova, A S Polyanina, A S Aleshkina, S A Sheveleva
Experimental model for in vitro evaluation of Campylobacter genus bacteria growth kinetics, inhibition, or inactivation is proposed. The model allows quantitative evaluation of the sensitivity to various types of stress exposure and promotes detection of the regularities of their transformation into uncultivable forms. The model implies the use of 96-well plates for parallel culturing of several subpopulations of the test strain in media with various parameters. The proposed algorithm includes evaluation of the proportion of viable CFU to total level of planktonic and uncultivable cells in the population, which is estimated by the content of genomic DNA in the samples by quantitative PCR (or real-time PCR) with ciaB, cdtB, or 16S rRNA primers...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Hanjiang Lai, Chen Huang, Jian Cai, Julian Ye, Jun She, Yi Zheng, Liqian Wang, Yelin Wei, Weijia Fang, Xianjun Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Yun Luo, Dazhi Jin
We employed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (mPCR-CE) targeting six Clostridium difficile genes, including tpi, tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, cdtB, and a deletion in tcdC for simultaneous detection and characterization of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens. The mPCR-CE had a limit of detection of 10 colony-forming units per reaction with no cross-reactions with other related bacterial genes. Clinical validation was performed on 354 consecutively collected stool specimens from patients with suspected C...
October 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
Cíntia Matos Lima, Ingrid Evelyn Gomes Lima Souza, Taila Dos Santos Alves, Clícia Capibaribe Leite, Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto, Rogeria Comastri de Castro Almeida
Certain subgroups of Escherichia coli have congenital or acquired virulence properties that allow them to cause a wide spectrum of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods produced in institutional, commercial and hotel restaurants in Salvador, Brazil. The presence of virulent isolates and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated. Four hundred forty-six samples were collected and grouped into cereals and vegetables, meat-based preparations, cooked salads, raw salads, garnishes, soups and sauces, desserts and juices...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Xiang Gao, Lingquan Deng, Gabrielle Stack, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Yuko Naito-Matsui, Ajit Varki, Jorge E Galán
The evolution of virulence traits is central for the emergence or re-emergence of microbial pathogens and for their adaptation to a specific host1-5 . Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor of the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhi6,7 , the cause of typhoid fever in humans8-12 . Typhoid toxin has a unique A2 B5 architecture with two covalently linked enzymatic 'A' subunits, PltA and CdtB, associated with a homopentameric 'B' subunit made up of PltB, which has binding specificity for the N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) sialoglycans6,13 prominently present in humans14 ...
December 2017: Nature Microbiology
Marta Krawiec, Anna Woźniak-Biel, Michał Bednarski, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Abigail H Davies, Joanna McGlashan, Mareike G Posner, April K Roberts, Clifford C Shone, K Ravi Acharya
Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT) is an ADP-ribosyltransferase which is linked to enhanced pathogenesis of C. difficile strains. CDT has dual function: domain a (CDTa) catalyses the ADP-ribosylation of actin (enzymatic component), whereas domain b (CDTb) transports CDTa into the cytosol (transport component). Understanding the molecular mechanism of CDT is necessary to assess its role in C. difficile infection. Identifying amino acids that are essential to CDTa function may aid drug inhibitor design to control the severity of C...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Hela Jribi, Hanen Sellami, Amal Ben Hassena, Radhouane Gdoura
Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C...
October 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita María Correa, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Emma Best, Warren N Fawley, Mark Wilcox, Ángel González
In Colombia, the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of Clostridium difficile have not yet been described. Therefore, we molecularly characterized clinical isolates of C.difficile from patients with suspicion of C.difficile infection (CDI) in three tertiary care hospitals. C.difficile was isolated from stool samples by culture, the presence of A/B toxins were detected by enzyme immunoassay, cytotoxicity was tested by cell culture and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined. After DNA extraction, tcdA, tcdB and binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb) genes were detected by PCR, and PCR-ribotyping performed...
2017: PloS One
Maryam Razaghi, Elahe Tajeddin, Leila Ganji, Masoud Alebouyeh, Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza Zali
Escherichia coli is the species that is most frequently isolated from bile of patients with biliary tract diseases. This study was aimed to investigate any association between resistance and virulence properties of these isolates with occurrence of the diseases. A total of 102 bile samples were obtained from patients subjected to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for different biliary diseases. Clinical data were collected and culture of the bile samples was done on selective media. Resistance of characterized Escherichia coli isolates to deoxycholate sodium (0-7%) and nineteen antibiotics was determined and PCR using 16 pairs of primers targeting stx1, stx2, exhA, eae, bfp, agg, pcvd432, lt, st, ipaH, pic, pet, ast, set, sen, and cdtB genes was done...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
C E Berry, K A Davies, D W Owens, M H Wilcox
Some strains of Clostridium difficile produce a binary toxin, in addition to the main C. difficile virulence factors (toxins A and B). There have been conflicting reports regarding the role of binary toxin and its relationship to the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). Samples, isolates and clinical data were collected as part of a prospective multicentre diagnostic study. Clostridium difficile isolates (n = 1259) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect binary toxin genes cdtA and cdtB...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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