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Jae-Young Oh, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Bai Wei, Hyung-Kwan Jang, Suk-Kyung Lim, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Suk-Chan Jung, Min-Su Kang
Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Rachel A Miller, Martin Wiedmann
: Select nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serotypes were recently found to encode the Salmonella cytolethal distending toxin (S-CDT), an important virulence factor for serotype Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever. Using a PCR-based assay, we determined that among 21 NTS serotypes causing the majority of food-borne salmonellosis cases in the United States, genes encoding S-CDT are conserved in isolates representing serotypes Javiana, Montevideo, and Oranienburg but that among serotype Mississippi isolates, the presence of S-CDT-encoding genes is clade associated...
December 20, 2016: MBio
Monika D Scuron, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Mensur Dlakić, Bruce J Shenker
This review summarizes the current status and recent advances in our understanding of the role that the cytolethal distending toxin (Cdt) plays as a virulence factor in promoting disease by toxin-producing pathogens. A major focus of this review is on the relationship between structure and function of the individual subunits that comprise the AB2 Cdt holotoxin. In particular, we concentrate on the molecular mechanisms that characterize this toxin and which account for the ability of Cdt to intoxicate multiple cell types by utilizing a ubiquitous binding partner on the cell membrane...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Estela T Méndez-Olvera, Jaime A Bustos-Martínez, Yolanda López-Vidal, Antonio Verdugo-Rodríguez, Daniel Martínez-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea worldwide. The distending cytolethal toxin (CDT) of Campylobacter spp. interferes with normal cell cycle progression. This toxic effect is considered a result of DNase activity that produces chromosomal DNA damage. To perform this event, the toxin must be endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cytoskeleton in the translocation of CDT to the nucleus...
October 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Noritoshi Hatanaka, Kazumasa Kamei, Srinuan Somroop, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Masahiro Asakura, Naoaki Misawa, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji Yamasaki
Campylobacter hyointestinalis is considered as an emerging zoonotic pathogen. We have recently identified two types of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene in C. hyointestinalis and designated them as Chcdt-I and Chcdt-II. In this study, we developed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay that can differentiate Chcdt-I from Chcdt-II. When the PCR-RFLP assay was applied to 17 other Campylobacter strains and 25 non-Campylobacter strains, PCR products were not obtained irrespective of their cdt gene-possession, indicating that the specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay was 100%...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Salma Bessalah, John Morris Fairbrother, Imed Salhi, Ghyslaine Vanier, Touhami Khorchani, Mouldi Mabrouk Seddik, Mohamed Hammadi
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of virulence genes, serogroups, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel calves in Tunisia. From 120 fecal samples (62 healthy and 58 diarrheic camel calves aged less than 3 months), 70 E. coli isolates (53 from diarrheic herds and 17 from healthy herds) were examined by PCR for detection of the virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli in animals. A significantly greater frequency of the f17 gene was observed in individual camels and in herds with diarrhea, this gene being found in 44...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Yuan-Pin Hung, I-Hsiu Huang, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Bo-Yang Tsai, Hsiao-Chieh Liu, Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Jen-Chieh Lee, Yi-Hui Wu, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
Ribotypes and toxin genotypes of clinical C. difficile isolates in Taiwan are rarely reported. A prospective surveillance study from January 2011 to January 2013 was conducted at the medical wards of a district hospital in southern Taiwan. Of the first toxigenic isolates from 120 patients, 68 (56.7%) of 120 isolates possessed both tcdA and tcdB. Of 52 (43.3%) with tcdB and truncated tcdA (tcdA-/tcdB+), all were ribotype 017 and none had binary toxin or tcdC deletion. Eighteen (15%) toxigenic isolates harbored binary toxins (cdtA and cdtB) and all had tcdC deletion, including Δ39 (C184T) deletion (14 isolates), Δ18 in-frame deletion (3 isolates), and Δ18 (Δ117A) deletion (1 isolate)...
2016: PloS One
M Schmulson, R Balbuena, C Corona de Law
INTRODUCTION: Circulating anti-CdtB/anti-vinculin antibodies have been validated as biomarkers to distinguish IBS-D from IBD, but there is no experience with them in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analysis was carried out on patients seen at a FGIDs/motility clinic over the last 7 months for diarrhea with abdominal pain and/or bloating who were tested for these antibodies. The patients were diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria or with organic disorders, and those presenting with IBS were further classified as post-infectious (PI) or non-PI-IBS...
October 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología de México
Isfaqul Hussain, P Borah, R K Sharma, S Rajkhowa, M Rupnik, D P Saikia, D Hasin, Iftikar Hussain, N K Deka, L M Barkalita, Y Nishikawa, T Ramamurthy
A total of 1034 samples were collected from different sources and C. difficile was isolated from 18 (9.04%) of 199 human, 9 (4.89%) of 184 cattle, 29 (12.44%) of 233 pig, and from 23 (13.94%) of 165 poultry samples. Variations were observed on the rate of isolation according to age and clinical conditions (diarrhoea). None of the samples from cow, sheep, goat, local chicken, and wild animals yielded any C. difficile. Out of those isolates, 8, 2, 19 and 6 isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry, respectively were toxigenic...
August 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Desiree Alexander, Mensur Dlakić, Bruce J Shenker
The multifunctional role of lipids as structural components of membranes, signaling molecules, and metabolic substrates makes them an ideal partner for pathogens to hijack host cell processes for their own survival. The properties and composition of unique membrane micro-domains such as membrane rafts make these regions a natural target for pathogens as it affords them an opportunity to hijack cell signaling and intracellular trafficking pathways. Cytolethal distending toxins (Cdts), members of the AB2 family of toxins are comprised of three subunits, the active, CdtB unit, and the binding, CdtA-CdtC unit...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
M Krutova, O Nyc, J Matejkova, F Allerberger, M H Wilcox, E J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is a leading nosocomial pathogen and molecular typing is a crucial part of monitoring its occurrence and spread. Over a three-year period (2013-2015), clinical C. difficile isolates from 32 Czech hospitals were collected for molecular characterisation. Of 2201 C. difficile isolates, 177 (8%) were non-toxigenic, 2024 (92%) were toxigenic (tcdA and tcdB) and of these, 677 (33.5%) carried genes for binary toxin production (cdtA, cdtB). Capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping of the 2201 isolates yielded 166 different CE-ribotyping profiles, of which 53 were represented by at least two isolates for each profile...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Davor Obradović, Rok Gašperšič, Simon Caserman, Adrijana Leonardi, Maja Jamnik, Zdravko Podlesek, Katja Seme, Gregor Anderluh, Igor Križaj, Peter Maček, Matej Butala
The periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans synthesizes several virulence factors, including cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). The active CDT holoenzyme is an AB-type tripartite genotoxin that affects eukaryotic cells. Subunits CdtA and CdtC (B-components) allow binding and intracellular translocation of the active CdtB (A-component), which elicits nuclear DNA damage. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans have diverse virulence genotypes, which results in varied pathogenic potential and disease progression...
2016: PloS One
Braden M Roth, Kristen M Varney, Richard R Rustandi, David J Weber
Once considered a relatively harmless bacterium, Clostridium difficile has become a major concern for healthcare facilities, now the most commonly reported hospital-acquired pathogen. C. difficile infection (CDI) is usually contracted when the normal gut microbiome is compromised by antibiotic therapy, allowing the opportunistic pathogen to grow and produce its toxins. The severity of infection ranges from watery diarrhea and abdominal cramping to pseudomembranous colitis, sepsis, or death. The past decade has seen a marked increase in the frequency and severity of CDI among industrialized nations owing directly to the emergence of a highly virulent C...
October 2016: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Marawan Abu-Madi, Jerzy M Behnke, Aarti Sharma, Rebecca Bearden, Nadia Al-Banna
Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey...
2016: PloS One
J S Kim, M Y Lee, S J Kim, S-E Jeon, I Cha, S Hong, G T Chung, M-J Huh, Y-H Kang, C-K Yoo, J Kim
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causative pathogens of outbreaks or sporadic cases of diarrhoeal diseases worldwide. In this study, we compared the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of C. jejuni isolates of human and food-producing animal origins in Korea and examined the genetic relatedness between these two groups of isolates. Regardless of isolation source, all C. jejuni isolates harboured four virulence genes, cadF, cdtB, ciaB and racR, whereas the wlaN and virB11 genes were more frequently observed in human isolates...
May 28, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
N R Efimochkina, I B Bykova, Yu M Markova, Yu V Korotkevich, S A Sheveleva
The study of the responses to cold exposure in Campylobacterjejuni (C. jejuni)--one of the most common foodborne pathogens is important for elucidating the mechanisms of acquisition of products contaminated with campylobacter, hazardous properties. These data are also necessary to create effective systems of microbiological controls at all stages of production and storage of food. 5 pairs of oligonucleotide primers were selected for detecting of genes cadF, cdtB, ciaB, flaA, iamA, encoding the main factors of pathogenicity of foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni--adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells, production of CDT-toxin and mobility...
2016: Voprosy Pitaniia
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Helmut Hotzel, Hosny El-Adawy, Hanh Thi Tran, Minh Thi Hong Le, Herbert Tomaso, Heinrich Neubauer, Hafez Mohamed Hafez
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are recognized as the most common cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. In this study nine Campylobacter strains isolated from chicken meat and pork in Hanoi, Vietnam, were characterized using molecular methods and tested for antibiotic resistance. RESULTS: The nine isolates (eight C. jejuni and one C. coli) were identified by multiplex PCR, and tested for the presence or absence of 29 gene loci associated with virulence, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis and further functions...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Hajar Yaghoobi, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a secreted tripartite genotoxin produced by many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. It is composed of three subunits, CdtA, CdtB and CdtC, and CdtB-associated deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity is essential for the CDT toxicity. In the present study, to design a novel potentially antitumor drug against lung cancer, the possible mechanisms of cdtB anticancer properties were explored in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. A recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/cdtB was constructed expressing CdtB of human periodontal bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and investigated for toxic properties in A549 cells and possible mechanisms...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Natacha Laprade, Michel Cloutier, David R Lapen, Edward Topp, Graham Wilkes, Richard Villemur, Izhar U H Khan
Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. This twofold study was sought to: i) develop and optimize four single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays for the detection of six virulence (ciaB, dnaJ, flaA, flaB, pldA and racR), three toxin (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and one antibiotic resistance tet(O) genes in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and ii) apply and evaluate the developed mPCR assays by testing 470 previously identified C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolates from agricultural water...
May 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Matthew DeMaere, Toni Chapman, Paul Worden, Ian G Charles, Aaron E Darling, Steven P Djordjevic
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a significant health problem to humans and food animals. Clostridial toxins ToxA and ToxB encoded by genes tcdA and tcdB are located on a pathogenicity locus known as the PaLoc and are the major virulence factors of C. difficile. While toxin-negative strains of C. difficile are often isolated from faeces of animals and patients suffering from CDI, they are not considered to play a role in disease. Toxin-negative strains of C. difficile have been used successfully to treat recurring CDI but their propensity to acquire the PaLoc via lateral gene transfer and express clinically relevant levels of toxins has reinforced the need to characterise them genetically...
March 12, 2016: BMC Microbiology
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