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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151897/community-acquired-infection-with-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-isolates-that-carry-different-toxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-loci-a-case-report
#1
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149023/antibiotic-susceptibility-genetic-diversity-and-the-presence-of-toxin-producing-genes-in-campylobacter-isolates-from-poultry
#2
Jeeyeon Lee, Jiyeon Jeong, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Sejeong Kim, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Kunho Seo, Yohan Yoon, Soomin Lee
This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken (n = 152) and duck (n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLab(TM) system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) genes...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119393/in-vitro-culturing-and-storage-of-campylobacter-genus-bacteria
#3
N R Efimochkina, V V Stetsenko, I B Bykova, A S Polyanina, A S Aleshkina, S A Sheveleva
Experimental model for in vitro evaluation of Campylobacter genus bacteria growth kinetics, inhibition, or inactivation is proposed. The model allows quantitative evaluation of the sensitivity to various types of stress exposure and promotes detection of the regularities of their transformation into uncultivable forms. The model implies the use of 96-well plates for parallel culturing of several subpopulations of the test strain in media with various parameters. The proposed algorithm includes evaluation of the proportion of viable CFU to total level of planktonic and uncultivable cells in the population, which is estimated by the content of genomic DNA in the samples by quantitative PCR (or real-time PCR) with ciaB, cdtB, or 16S rRNA primers...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#4
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058256/simultaneous-detection-and-characterization-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-directly-from-clinical-stool-specimens
#5
Hanjiang Lai, Chen Huang, Jian Cai, Julian Ye, Jun She, Yi Zheng, Liqian Wang, Yelin Wei, Weijia Fang, Xianjun Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Yun Luo, Dazhi Jin
We employed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (mPCR-CE) targeting six Clostridium difficile genes, including tpi, tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, cdtB, and a deletion in tcdC for simultaneous detection and characterization of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens. The mPCR-CE had a limit of detection of 10 colony-forming units per reaction with no cross-reactions with other related bacterial genes. Clinical validation was performed on 354 consecutively collected stool specimens from patients with suspected C...
October 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051656/antimicrobial-resistance-in-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-from-ready-to-eat-foods
#6
Cíntia Matos Lima, Ingrid Evelyn Gomes Lima Souza, Taila Dos Santos Alves, Clícia Capibaribe Leite, Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto, Rogeria Comastri de Castro Almeida
Certain subgroups of Escherichia coli have congenital or acquired virulence properties that allow them to cause a wide spectrum of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods produced in institutional, commercial and hotel restaurants in Salvador, Brazil. The presence of virulent isolates and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated. Four hundred forty-six samples were collected and grouped into cereals and vegetables, meat-based preparations, cooked salads, raw salads, garnishes, soups and sauces, desserts and juices...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993610/evolution-of-host-adaptation-in-the-salmonella-typhoid-toxin
#7
Xiang Gao, Lingquan Deng, Gabrielle Stack, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Yuko Naito-Matsui, Ajit Varki, Jorge E Galán
The evolution of virulence traits is central for the emergence or re-emergence of microbial pathogens and for their adaptation to a specific host (1-5) . Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor of the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhi (6,7) , the cause of typhoid fever in humans (8-12) . Typhoid toxin has a unique A2B5 architecture with two covalently linked enzymatic 'A' subunits, PltA and CdtB, associated with a homopentameric 'B' subunit made up of PltB, which has binding specificity for the N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) sialoglycans (6,13) prominently present in humans (14) ...
October 9, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968179/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotypic-characteristic-of-campylobacter-spp-isolates-from-free-living-birds-in-poland
#8
Marta Krawiec, Anna Woźniak-Biel, Michał Bednarski, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955942/functional-significance-of-active-site-residues-in-the-enzymatic-component-of-the-clostridium-difficile-binary-toxin
#9
Abigail H Davies, Joanna McGlashan, Mareike G Posner, April K Roberts, Clifford C Shone, K Ravi Acharya
Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT) is an ADP-ribosyltransferase which is linked to enhanced pathogenesis of C. difficile strains. CDT has dual function: domain a (CDTa) catalyses the ADP-ribosylation of actin (enzymatic component), whereas domain b (CDTb) transports CDTa into the cytosol (transport component). Understanding the molecular mechanism of CDT is necessary to assess its role in C. difficile infection. Identifying amino acids that are essential to CDTa function may aid drug inhibitor design to control the severity of C...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929960/-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-isolates-the-first-report-on-the-presence-of-hypervirulent-strains-from-turkey
#10
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906158/prevalence-of-putative-virulence-genes-in-campylobacter-and-arcobacter-species-isolated-from-poultry-and-poultry-by-products-in-tunisia
#11
Hela Jribi, Hanen Sellami, Amal Ben Hassena, Radhouane Gdoura
Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C...
October 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902923/molecular-microbiological-and-clinical-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-colombia
#12
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita María Correa, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Emma Best, Warren N Fawley, Mark Wilcox, Ángel González
In Colombia, the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of Clostridium difficile have not yet been described. Therefore, we molecularly characterized clinical isolates of C.difficile from patients with suspicion of C.difficile infection (CDI) in three tertiary care hospitals. C.difficile was isolated from stool samples by culture, the presence of A/B toxins were detected by enzyme immunoassay, cytotoxicity was tested by cell culture and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined. After DNA extraction, tcdA, tcdB and binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb) genes were detected by PCR, and PCR-ribotyping performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867623/colonization-resistance-to-bile-and-virulence-properties-of-escherichia-coli-strains-unusual-characteristics-associated-with-biliary-tract-diseases
#13
Maryam Razaghi, Elahe Tajeddin, Leila Ganji, Masoud Alebouyeh, Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza Zali
Escherichia coli is the species that is most frequently isolated from bile of patients with biliary tract diseases. This study was aimed to investigate any association between resistance and virulence properties of these isolates with occurrence of the diseases. A total of 102 bile samples were obtained from patients subjected to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for different biliary diseases. Clinical data were collected and culture of the bile samples was done on selective media. Resistance of characterized Escherichia coli isolates to deoxycholate sodium (0-7%) and nineteen antibiotics was determined and PCR using 16 pairs of primers targeting stx1, stx2, exhA, eae, bfp, agg, pcvd432, lt, st, ipaH, pic, pet, ast, set, sen, and cdtB genes was done...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780742/is-there-a-relationship-between-the-presence-of-the-binary-toxin-genes-in-clostridium-difficile-strains-and-the-severity-of-c-difficile-infection-cdi
#14
C E Berry, K A Davies, D W Owens, M H Wilcox
Some strains of Clostridium difficile produce a binary toxin, in addition to the main C. difficile virulence factors (toxins A and B). There have been conflicting reports regarding the role of binary toxin and its relationship to the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). Samples, isolates and clinical data were collected as part of a prospective multicentre diagnostic study. Clostridium difficile isolates (n = 1259) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect binary toxin genes cdtA and cdtB...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736259/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-the-chinese-people-s-liberation-army-general-hospital-in-china
#15
Rui Wang, Hui Xia Chen, Lin Jian Song, Yue Yun Shen, Yan Ping Luo
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Its virulence is associated with the production of endotoxins A and B and endospores, which can cause symptoms, such as diarrhea, toxic megacolon and pseudomembranous colitis. Given the increasing elderly population and the well-recognized problem of over-prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics, it is critical to understand molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in China...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713773/the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-subunit-cdtb-of-helicobacter-hepaticus-promotes-senescence-and-endoreplication-in-xenograft-mouse-models-of-hepatic-and-intestinal-cell-lines
#16
Christelle Péré-Védrenne, Martina Prochazkova-Carlotti, Benoit Rousseau, Wencan He, Lucie Chambonnier, Elodie Sifré, Alice Buissonnière, Pierre Dubus, Francis Mégraud, Christine Varon, Armelle Ménard
Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) are common among pathogenic bacteria of the human and animal microbiota. CDTs exert cytopathic effets, via their active CdtB subunit. No clear description of those cytopathic effects has been reported at the cellular level in the target organs in vivo. In the present study, xenograft mouse models of colon and liver cell lines were set up to study the effects of the CdtB subunit of Helicobacter hepaticus. Conditional transgenic cell lines were established, validated in vitro and then engrafted into immunodeficient mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691828/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-campylobacter-spp-in-the-czech-republic
#17
J Bardoň, V Pudová, I Koláčková, R Karpíšková, M Röderová, M Kolář
OBJECTIVE: Thermotolerant species of the genus Campy-lobacter are the important agents causing human foodborne infections throughout the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of nine putative virulence genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients and from foods (poultry meat, pork liver), to determine the resistance of Campylobacter isolates to eight antibiotic agents and to detect four resistance genes.Matherial and methods: The presence of the virulence genes cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, virB11, ciaB, wlaN, iam, dnaJ and racR was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 94 Campylobacter spp...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669616/clostridium-difficile-chimeric-toxin-receptor-binding-domain-vaccine-induced-protection-against-different-strains-in-active-and-passive-challenge-models
#18
Jing-Hui Tian, Gregory Glenn, David Flyer, Bin Zhou, Ye Liu, Eddie Sullivan, Hua Wu, James F Cummings, Larry Elllingsworth, Gale Smith
Clostridium difficile is the number one cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. Historically, pathogenesis was attributed two homologous glucosylating toxins, toxin-A (TcdA) and toxin-B (TcdB). Over the past decade, however, highly virulent epidemic strains of C. difficile (B1/NAP1/027) have emerged and are linked to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Increased virulence is attributed to multiple factors including: increased production of A- and B-toxins; production of binary toxin (CDT); and the emergence of more toxic TcdB variants (TcdB(027))...
July 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642840/cytolethal-distending-toxin-enhances-radiosensitivity-in-prostate-cancer-cells-by-regulating-autophagy
#19
Hwai-Jeng Lin, Hsin-Ho Liu, Chia-Der Lin, Min-Chuan Kao, Yu-An Chen, Chuan Chiang-Ni, Zhi-Pei Jiang, Mei-Zi Huang, Chun-Jung Lin, U-Ging Lo, Li-Chiung Lin, Cheng-Kuo Lai, Ho Lin, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Chih-Ho Lai
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) produced by Campylobacter jejuni contains three subunits: CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. Among these three toxin subunits, CdtB is the toxic moiety of CDT with DNase I activity, resulting in DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and, consequently, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M stage and apoptosis. Radiation therapy is an effective modality for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, patients often develop radioresistance. Owing to its particular biochemical properties, we previously employed CdtB as a therapeutic agent for sensitizing radioresistant PCa cells to ionizing radiation (IR)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551371/an-evaluation-of-purified-salmonella-typhi-protein-antigens-for-the-serological-diagnosis-of-acute-typhoid-fever
#20
Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Anh Tran Tuan, Elizabeth J Klemm, Chau Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Phat Voong Vinh, Duy Pham Thanh, Thanh Ho Ngoc Dan, Trung Pham Duc, Pinky Langat, Laura B Martin, Jorge Galan, Li Liang, Philip L Felgner, D Huw Davies, Hanna K de Jong, Rapeephan R Maude, Masako Fukushima, Lalith Wijedoru, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Arjen M Dondorp, Abul Faiz, Thomas C Darton, Andrew J Pollard, Guy E Thwaites, Gordon Dougan, Christopher M Parry, Stephen Baker
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of typhoid fever is a challenge. Aiming to develop a typhoid diagnostic we measured antibody responses against Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) protein antigens and the Vi polysaccharide in a cohort of Bangladeshi febrile patients. METHODS: IgM against 12 purified antigens and the Vi polysaccharide was measured by ELISA in plasma from patients with confirmed typhoid fever (n = 32), other confirmed infections (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 40)...
August 2017: Journal of Infection
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