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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727776/language-related-differences-of-the-sustained-response-evoked-by-natural-speech-sounds
#1
Christina Siu-Dschu Fan, Xingyu Zhu, Hans Günter Dosch, Christiane von Stutterheim, André Rupp
In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711476/treatment-in-early-psychosis-with-n-acetyl-cysteine-for-6months-improves-low-level-auditory-processing-pilot-study
#2
Chrysa Retsa, Jean-François Knebel, Eveline Geiser, Carina Ferrari, Raoul Jenni, Margot Fournier, Luis Alameda, Philipp S Baumann, Stephanie Clarke, Philippe Conus, Kim Q Do, Micah M Murray
Sensory impairments constitute core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. In the auditory modality, impaired mismatch negativity (MMN) has been observed in chronic schizophrenia and may reflect N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) hypo-function, consistent with models of schizophrenia based on oxidative stress. Moreover, a recent study demonstrated deficits in the N100 component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) in early psychosis patients. Previous work has shown that add-on administration of the glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) improves the MMN and clinical symptoms in chronic schizophrenia...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710524/altered-n100-potential-associates-with-working-memory-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Tua Annanmaki, Kirsi Palmu, Kari Murros, Juhani Partanen
The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia often occurring with Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on the clinical picture and neuropsychological examination. Ancillary methods to detect cognitive decline in these patients are, therefore, needed. Alterations in the latencies and amplitudes of evoked response potential (ERP) components N100 and P200 have been described in PD. Due to limited number of studies their relation to cognitive deficits in PD remains obscure. The present study was designed to examine if alterations in the N100- and P200-potentials associate with neuropsychological impairment in PD...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697475/light-response-of-sunflower-and-canola-as-affected-by-plant-density-plant-genotype-and-n-fertilization
#4
A Soleymani
Crop response to light is an important parameter determining crop growth. Three field (split plots) experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization on the light absorption and light extinction of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.). A detailed set of plant growth, light absorption and crop yield and oil related parameters were determined. Light was measured at noon during the sunny days with clear sky. In experiment I, although the plant density (PD) of 14 resulted in the highest rate of sunflower light absorption (31...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658051/the-relationship-between-cognitive-style-and-event-related-potentials-during-auditory-and-somatosensory-go-no-go-paradigms
#5
Minori Imanaka, Ryusuke Kakigi, Hiroki Nakata
Cognitive style including field dependence/independence (FDI) is an important factor affecting individual personalities. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between cognitive styles and the characteristics of cognitive processing using event-related potentials. We used the Embedded-Figures Test to assess the cognitive styles [field dependence (FD), field independence (FI)] of the individuals, and individuals performed auditory and somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms. Participants were divided into two groups (FD and FI) on the basis of EFT scores...
June 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604088/effect-of-topical-anesthesia-using-an-adhesive-patch-and-anesthetic-solution
#6
Toshiyuki Kishimoto, Nobuyuki Matsuura, Masataka Kasahara, Tatsuya Ichinohe
We analyzed trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials (TSEP) to the alveolar mucosa to investigate the efficacy of an amide local anesthetic, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 12.5 μg/mL epinephrine (Lido treatment) as a topical anesthetic. Eighteen consenting healthy adult volunteers were enrolled. A volume of 0.06 mL of Lido, 0.06 g of 20% benzocaine, or 0.06 mL of physiological saline (control) was instilled onto a hemostatic adhesive patch, which was then applied to the alveolar mucosa at the maxillary right canine for 5 minutes...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574442/electrophysiological-indices-of-audiovisual-speech-perception-in-the-broader-autism-phenotype
#7
Julia Irwin, Trey Avery, Jacqueline Turcios, Lawrence Brancazio, Barbara Cook, Nicole Landi
When a speaker talks, the consequences of this can both be heard (audio) and seen (visual). A novel visual phonemic restoration task was used to assess behavioral discrimination and neural signatures (event-related potentials, or ERP) of audiovisual processing in typically developing children with a range of social and communicative skills assessed using the social responsiveness scale, a measure of traits associated with autism. An auditory oddball design presented two types of stimuli to the listener, a clear exemplar of an auditory consonant-vowel syllable /ba/ (the more frequently occurring standard stimulus), and a syllable in which the auditory cues for the consonant were substantially weakened, creating a stimulus which is more like /a/ (the infrequently presented deviant stimulus)...
June 2, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572785/age-of-acquisition-effects-on-word-processing-for-chinese-native-learners-english-erp-evidence-for-the-arbitrary-mapping-hypothesis
#8
Jin Xue, Tongtong Liu, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos, Xuna Pei
The present study aimed at distinguishing processing of early learned L2 words from late ones for Chinese natives who learn English as a foreign language. Specifically, we examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) effect arose during the arbitrary mapping from conceptual knowledge onto linguistic units. The behavior and ERP data were collected when 28 Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to perform semantic relatedness judgment on word pairs, which represented three stages of word learning (i.e., primary school, junior and senior high schools)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554113/no-significant-interactions-between-nitrogen-stimulation-and-ozone-inhibition-of-isoprene-emission-in-cathay-poplar
#9
Xiangyang Yuan, Bo Shang, Yansen Xu, Yue Xin, Yuan Tian, Zhaozhong Feng, Elena Paoletti
Isoprene emission from plants subject to a combination of ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) has never been investigated. Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana) saplings were exposed to O3 (CF, charcoal-filtered air, NF, non-filtered ambient air and E-O3, non-filtered air +40ppb) and N treatments (N0, 0kgNha(-1)year(-1), N50, 50kgNha(-1)year(-1) and N100, 100kgNha(-1)year(-1)) for 96days. Increasing O3 exposure decreased isoprene emission (11.5% in NF and 57.9% in E-O3), as well as light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) and chlorophyll content, while N load increased isoprene emission (19...
May 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542618/early-and-late-stage-processing-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-an-erp-study
#10
Shanshan Wang, Chunjuan Yang, Yijun Liu, Zhi Shao, Todd Jackson
This research assessed event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during the processing of different kinds of visual stimuli among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (n = 15) and typically developing (TD) children (n = 19). Within a simple visual oddball paradigm, participating children passively viewed fruit and vegetable images that were used as standard stimuli in addition to images of these foods with their usual colors modified to create novel stimuli and cartoon depictions of these images (i.e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516807/neurofeedback-based-enhancement-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-feasibility-in-healthy-subjects
#11
Kathryn Rieger, Marie-Helene Rarra, Nicolas Moor, Laura Diaz Hernandez, Anja Baenninger, Nadja Razavi, Thomas Dierks, Daniela Hubl, Thomas Koenig
Previous studies showed a global reduction of the event-related potential component N100 in patients with schizophrenia, a phenomenon that is even more pronounced during auditory verbal hallucinations. This reduction assumingly results from dysfunctional activation of the primary auditory cortex by inner speech, which reduces its responsiveness to external stimuli. With this study, we tested the feasibility of enhancing the responsiveness of the primary auditory cortex to external stimuli with an upregulation of the event-related potential component N100 in healthy control subjects...
May 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516227/impairment-in-mismatch-negativity-but-not-repetition-suppression-in-schizophrenia
#12
Brian A Coffman, Sarah M Haigh, Tim K Murphy, Dean F Salisbury
Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), mismatch negativity (MMN), and sensory gating of AEPs to repeated stimuli (repetition suppression, RS). In the predictive modeling framework, MMN and RS reflect encoding of prediction error and model sharpening, respectively. We compared P50, N100, P200 RS, and pitch and duration MMN in 26 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) and 26 matched healthy controls (HC), and assessed relationships between MMN, RS, and SZ diagnosis...
May 17, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512429/reduced-prefrontal-short-latency-afferent-inhibition-in-older-adults-and-its-relation-to-executive-function-a-tms-eeg-study
#13
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Felicity Backhouse, Robin F H Cash, Mera S Barr, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG) allows for the assessment of various neurophysiological processes in the human cortex. One of these paradigms, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), is thought to be a sensitive measure of cholinergic activity. In a previous study, we demonstrated the temporal pattern of this paradigm from both the motor (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using simultaneous TMS-EEG recording. The SAI paradigm led to marked modulations at N100...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511977/role-of-acetylcholine-and-serotonin-in-novelty-processing-using-an-oddball-paradigm
#14
S Caldenhove, L G J M Borghans, A Blokland, A Sambeth
The processing of novel stimuli is known to take place in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and is influenced by the cholinergic system. This ability is crucial to help detect changes in the environment and adapt behaviour accordingly. Previous research has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) can interact with serotonin (5-HT) at the hippocampal level, which may have consequences for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about the exact nature of this ACh and 5-HT interaction as well their possible interactive effects on novelty processing...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511893/assessment-of-the-effectiveness-of-attenuation-of-pb-aprons-by-using-tld-dosimetry-and-monte-carlo-calculations
#15
H Olaya Dávila, J A Díaz Merchán, H R Vega Carrillo, S A Martínez Ovalle
We developed an experimental set-up by using a continuous emission X-ray (Pantak DXT-3000) and three types of Pb aprons, with thicknesses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75mm, coated with Mylar fiber on their surface. Aprons were placed at a distance of 2.5m from the focus. Aluminum filtration was performed at the beam output to reproduce the qualities of narrow beams, N40 (Eeffective =33keV), N80 (Eeffective =65keV), and N100 (Eeffective =83keV), according to the ISO standard 4037 (1-3). Each apron was fixed with 10 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) over its surface, five dosimeters before and five dosimeters after irradiation with X-rays...
May 10, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443529/selective-attention-and-mismatch-negativity-in-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-before-and-after-6-months-of-antipsychotic-monotherapy
#16
B Oranje, B Aggernaes, H Rasmussen, B H Ebdrup, B Y Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Attention deficits have been frequently reported in schizophrenia. It has been suggested that treatment with second-generation antipsychotics can ameliorate these deficits. In this study, the influence of 6 months treatment with quetiapine, a compound with less affinity for dopamine D2 receptors than for serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors, on electrophysiological parameters of attention was investigated in a group of antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia patients compared with a group of age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411335/development-of-a-puff-and-suction-type-pressure-stimulator-for-human-tactile-studies
#17
Hyung-Sik Kim, Mi-Hyun Choi, Soon-Cheol Chung
In this study, we developed a tactile stimulator capable of administering either puff- or suction-type stimuli. The system is composed of three parts: a control unit, an air-handling unit, and a stimulation unit. The control unit controls the type, intensity, and time of stimulation. The air-handling unit delivers the stimulation power quantitatively to the stimulation unit, as commanded by the control unit. The stimulation unit stably administers either type of pressure to the skin, without any change of the tactor...
April 14, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401986/auditory-processing-following-infantile-spasms-an-event-related-potential-study
#18
Tangunu Fosi, Klaus Werner, Stewart G Boyd, Michelle De Haan, Rod C Scott, Brian G Neville
OBJECTIVES: To investigate acoustic auditory processing in patients with recent infantile spasms (IS). METHODS: Patients (n = 22; 12 female; median age 8 months; range 5-11 months) had normal preceding development, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neurometabolic testing (West syndrome of unknown cause, uWS). Controls were healthy babies (n = 22; 11 female; median age 6 months; range 3-12 months). Event-related potentials (ERPs) and psychometry (Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, BSID-II) took place at a month following IS remission...
May 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379529/reduced-short-latency-afferent-inhibition-in-prefrontal-but-not-motor-cortex-and-its-association-with-executive-function-in-schizophrenia-a-combined-tms-eeg-study
#19
Yoshihiro Noda, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Tarek K Rajji, Faranak Farzan, Robert Chen, Tony P George, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic dysfunction is increasingly assumed to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that has been shown to assay central cholinergic activity from the motor cortex (M1). Recently, we established a method to index SAI from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), an area implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated SAI in M1 and DLPFC in schizophrenia...
April 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370078/defensive-motivation-and-attention-in-anticipation-of-different-types-of-predictable-and-unpredictable-threat-a-startle-and-event-related-potential-investigation
#20
Brady D Nelson, Greg Hajcak
Predictability is an important characteristic of threat that impacts defensive motivation and attentional engagement. Supporting research has primarily focused on actual threat (e.g., shocks), and it is unclear whether the predictability of less intense threat (e.g., unpleasant pictures) similarly affects motivation and attention. The present study utilized a within-subject design and examined defensive motivation (startle reflex and self-reported anxiety) and attention (probe N100 and P300) in anticipation of shocks and unpleasant pictures during a no, predictable, and unpredictable threat task...
August 2017: Psychophysiology
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