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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209926/characterization-of-the-influence-of-age-on-gabaa-and-glutamatergic-mediated-functions-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-using-paired-pulse-tms-eeg
#1
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Mera S Barr, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions in the prefrontal cortex decreases with age. Further, cognitive function mediated through the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) also declines with age. Although neuroimaging studies have demonstrated decreased levels of these substances, direct neurophysiological data investigating the effect of aging in the DLPFC in human subjects is lacking. The advent of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) has allowed for the assessment of functional neurotransmission in vivo...
February 16, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109666/diminished-auditory-sensory-gating-during-active-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#2
Robert J Thoma, Andrew Meier, Jon Houck, Vincent P Clark, Jeffrey D Lewine, Jessica Turner, Vince Calhoun, Julia Stephen
Auditory sensory gating, assessed in a paired-click paradigm, indicates the extent to which incoming stimuli are filtered, or "gated", in auditory cortex. Gating is typically computed as the ratio of the peak amplitude of the event related potential (ERP) to a second click (S2) divided by the peak amplitude of the ERP to a first click (S1). Higher gating ratios are purportedly indicative of incomplete suppression of S2 and considered to represent sensory processing dysfunction. In schizophrenia, hallucination severity is positively correlated with gating ratios, and it was hypothesized that a failure of sensory control processes early in auditory sensation (gating) may represent a larger system failure within the auditory data stream; resulting in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH)...
January 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091442/fluoride-release-recharging-ability-and-bond-strength-of-glass-ionomer-cements-to-sound-and-caries-affected-dentin
#3
E Kucukyilmaz, S Savas, F Kavrik, B Yasa, M S Botsali
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of different glass ionomer cements (GICs) on sound/caries-affected dentin and to assess the fluoride release/recharging ability. METHODS: After creating artificial caries lesions, teeth with sound and caries-affected dentin were assigned to be restored with one of the GICs: Ketac N100; GC Equia; GCP Glass Fill, and tested using a microtensile test. Ten of each material were prepared, and fluoride ion-release was measured at 10 different intervals...
February 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081139/long-latency-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Carlos Trenado, Saskia Elben, Lena Friggemann, Sonja Gruhn, Stefan Jun Groiss, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Wojtecki
Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) are a viable way to measure processing of somatosensory information. SSEPs have been described at the scalp and the cortical level by electroencephalographic, magnetoencephalographic and intracranial cortical recordings focusing on short-latency (SL; latency<40 ms) and long-latency (LL; latency>40 ms) SSEPs as well as by deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode studies targeting SL-SSEPs. Unfortunately, LL-SSEPs have not been addressed at the subcortical level aside from the fact that studies targeting the characteristics and generators of SSEPs have been neglected for the last ten years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008690/heavy-alcohol-use-in-adolescence-is-associated-with-altered-cortical-activity-a-combined-tms-eeg-study
#5
Outi Kaarre, Elisa Kallioniemi, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Noora Heikkinen, Florinda Ferreri, Eila Laukkanen, Sara Määttä
Long-term alcohol use affects cognitive and neurophysiological functioning as well as structural brain development. Combining simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enables direct, in vivo exploration of cortical excitability and assessment of effective and functional connectivity. In the central nervous system, the effects of alcohol are particularly mediated by alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission, and TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) N45 and N100 in EEG are known to reflect GABAergic function...
December 23, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003962/cortical-arousal-in-children-and-adolescents-with-functional-neurological-symptoms-during-the-auditory-oddball-task
#6
Kasia Kozlowska, Dmitriy Melkonian, Chris J Spooner, Stephen Scher, Russell Meares
OBJECTIVE: Stress, pain, injury, and psychological trauma all induce arousal-mediated changes in brain network organization. The associated, high level of arousal may disrupt motor-sensory processing and result in aberrant patterns of motor function, including functional neurological symptoms. We used the auditory oddball paradigm to assess cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder. METHOD: Electroencephalogram (EEG) data was collected in fifty-seven children and adolescents (41 girls; 16 boys, aged 8...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935689/dna-catalyzed-dna-cleavage-by-a-radical-pathway-with-well-defined-products
#7
Yujeong Lee, Paul C Klauser, Benjamin M Brandsen, Cong Zhou, Xinyi Li, Scott K Silverman
We describe an unprecedented DNA-catalyzed DNA cleavage process in which a radical-based reaction pathway cleanly results in excision of most atoms of a specific guanosine nucleoside. Two new deoxyribozymes (DNA enzymes) were identified by in vitro selection from N40 or N100 random pools initially seeking amide bond hydrolysis, although they both cleave simple single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. Each deoxyribozyme generates both superoxide (O2(-•) or HOO(•)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and leads to the same set of products (3'-phosphoglycolate, 5'-phosphate, and base propenal) as formed by the natural product bleomycin, with product assignments by mass spectrometry and colorimetric assay...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843251/sealing-ability-of-nano-ionomer-in-primary-teeth-an-ex-vivo-study
#8
REVIEW
Fawaz Siddiqui, Swati Karkare
INTRODUCTION: Microleakage is an important consideration in primary dentition because the floor of the cavity preparation may be close to the pulp. The added insult to the pulp caused by seepage of irritants around the restoration and through the thin dentin may produce irreversible pulp damage. AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the sealing ability of three light cured (LC) resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) in primary anterior teeth...
July 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799703/effects-of-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-on-event-related-potentials
#9
Jeong-Woo Lee, Woong-Sik Park, Se-Won Yoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation on event-related potentials. [Subjects and Methods] Forty normal female adult subjects were randomly distributed to a galvanic vestibular stimulation application group (20 subjects) and sham group (20 subjects). For galvanic vestibular stimulation application, a positive electrode was applied to the right mastoid process, and a negative electrode was applied to the left mastoid process; simulation was applied for 10 minutes...
September 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725178/top-down-and-bottom-up-neurodynamic-evidence-in-patients-with-tinnitus
#10
Sung Kwang Hong, Sejik Park, Min-Hee Ahn, Byoung-Kyong Min
Although a peripheral auditory (bottom-up) deficit is an essential prerequisite for the generation of tinnitus, central cognitive (top-down) impairment has also been shown to be an inherent neuropathological mechanism. Using an auditory oddball paradigm (for top-down analyses) and a passive listening paradigm (for bottom-up analyses) while recording electroencephalograms (EEGs), we investigated whether top-down or bottom-up components were more critical in the neuropathology of tinnitus, independent of peripheral hearing loss...
October 8, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664457/disgust-evoked-by-strong-wormwood-bitterness-influences-the-processing-of-visual-food-cues-in-women-an-erp-study
#11
Daniela Schwab, Matteo Giraldo, Benjamin Spiegl, Anne Schienle
The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s...
January 1, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628235/n100-as-a-generic-cortical-electrophysiological-marker-based-on-decomposition-of-tms-evoked-potentials-across-five-anatomic-locations
#12
Xiaoming Du, Fow-Sen Choa, Ann Summerfelt, Laura M Rowland, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
N100, the negative peak of electrical response occurring around 100 ms, is present in diverse functional paradigms including auditory, visual, somatic, behavioral and cognitive tasks. We hypothesized that the presence of the N100 across different paradigms may be indicative of a more general property of the cerebral cortex regardless of functional or anatomic specificity. To test this hypothesis, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical excitability by TMS across cortical regions without relying on specific sensory, cognitive or behavioral modalities...
January 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622140/using-concurrent-eeg-and-fmri-to-probe-the-state-of-the-brain-in-schizophrenia
#13
Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Vanessa A Palzes, Daniel H Mathalon
Perceptional abnormalities in schizophrenia are associated with hallucinations and delusions, but also with negative symptoms and poor functional outcome. Perception can be studied using EEG-derived event related potentials (ERPs). Because of their excellent temporal resolution, ERPs have been used to ask when perception is affected by schizophrenia. Because of its excellent spatial resolution, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to ask where in the brain these effects are seen. We acquired EEG and fMRI data simultaneously to explore when and where auditory perception is affected by schizophrenia...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611929/early-auditory-processing-in-musicians-and-dancers-during-a-contemporary-dance-piece
#14
Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi
The neural responses to simple tones and short sound sequences have been studied extensively. However, in reality the sounds surrounding us are spectrally and temporally complex, dynamic and overlapping. Thus, research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation which, in addition to sensory responses, elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Here we show that the preattentive P50 response evoked by rapid increases in timbral brightness during continuous music is enhanced in dancers when compared to musicians and laymen...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600697/early-selectivity-for-vocal-and-musical-sounds-electrophysiological-evidence-from-an-adaptation-paradigm
#15
Simon Rigoulot, Jorge L Armony
There is growing interest in characterizing the neural basis of music perception and, in particular, assessing how similar, or not, it is to that of speech. To further explore this question, we employed an EEG adaptation paradigm in which we compared responses to short sounds belonging to the same category, either speech (pseudo-sentences) or music (piano or violin), depending on whether they were immediately preceded by a same- or different-category sound. We observed a larger reduction in the N100 component magnitude in response to musical sounds when they were preceded by music (either the same or different instrument) than by speech...
November 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570187/investigating-tms-eeg-indices-of-long-interval-intracortical-inhibition-at-different-interstimulus-intervals
#16
George M Opie, Nigel C Rogasch, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Michael C Ridding, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that uses paired magnetic stimuli separated by 100-200 ms to investigate the activity of cortical GABAergic interneurons. While commonly applied, the mechanisms contributing to LICI are not well understood, and growing evidence suggests that inhibition observed at different interstimulus intervals (ISI) may involve non-identical processes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to utilise combined TMS-EEG to more thoroughly characterise LICI at different ISIs, as the TMS-evoked EEG potential (TEP) can provide more direct insight into the cortical response to stimulation that is not subject to variations in spinal cord excitability that can confound the motor evoked potential (MEP)...
August 8, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498539/vine-nitrogen-status-and-volatile-thiols-and-their-precursors-from-plot-to-transcriptome-level
#17
Pierre Helwi, Sabine Guillaumie, Cécile Thibon, Céline Keime, Aude Habran, Ghislaine Hilbert, Eric Gomes, Philippe Darriet, Serge Delrot, Cornelis van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: Volatile thiols largely contribute to the organoleptic characteristics and typicity of Sauvignon blanc wines. Among this family of odorous compounds, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) have a major impact on wine flavor. These thiols are formed during alcoholic fermentation by the yeast from odorless, non-volatile precursors found in the berries and the must. The present study investigates the effects of vine nitrogen (N) status on 3SH and 4MSP content in Sauvignon blanc wine and on the glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3SH (Glut-3SH and Cys-3SH) in the berries and the must...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486748/hypnotizability-and-placebo-analgesia-in-waking-and-hypnosis-as-modulators-of-auditory-startle-responses-in-healthy-women-an-erp-study
#18
Vilfredo De Pascalis, Paolo Scacchia
We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478015/cd29-cd184-expression-analysis-provides-a-signature-for-identification-of-neuronal-like-cells-differentiated-from-pbmscs
#19
Zahra Fazeli, Mir Davood Omrani, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian
In vitro study was used as a helpful model to investigate the role of different growth factors in differentiation of stem cells. The aim of this study was to find an easy and robust method for confirmation of Peripheral Blood-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (PB-MSCs) differentiation into neuronal cells. A set of CD markers as well as neural markers were used to elucidate their differentiation. In the present study, PB-MSCs were isolated by density centrifugation. Isolated cells were divided into four groups: (i) untreated PB-MSCs as control cells, (ii) cells treated with 50ng/ml Noggin [N50], (iii) cells treated with 75ng/ml Noggin [N75], (iv) cells treated with 100ng/ml Noggin [N100]...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472537/early-tms-evoked-potentials-in-epilepsy-a-pilot-study
#20
Esther M Ter Braack, Anne-Wil E Koopman, Michel J A M van Putten
OBJECTIVE: To explore if the TMS evoked potential is different in patients with epilepsy compared to healthy subjects. METHODS: Eighteen healthy subjects and thirteen epilepsy patients participated in this study. Single TMS pulses were applied to the left and right motor cortex. For each target we applied 75 pulses at 110% of the resting motor threshold (RMT), and continuously measured the EEG. Resting motor threshold and the TMS evoked potential (TEP) were compared between patients and healthy subjects...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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