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Sung Kwang Hong, Sejik Park, Min-Hee Ahn, Byoung-Kyong Min
Although a peripheral auditory (bottom-up) deficit is an essential prerequisite for the generation of tinnitus, central cognitive (top-down) impairment has also been shown to be an inherent neuropathological mechanism. Using an auditory oddball paradigm (for top-down analyses) and a passive listening paradigm (for bottom-up analyses) while recording electroencephalograms (EEGs), we investigated whether top-down or bottom-up components were more critical in the neuropathology of tinnitus, independent of peripheral hearing loss...
October 8, 2016: Hearing Research
Daniela Schwab, Matteo Giraldo, Benjamin Spiegl, Anne Schienle
The perception of intense bitterness is associated with disgust and food rejection. The present cross-modal event-related potential (ERP) study investigated whether a bitter aftertaste is able to influence affective ratings and the neuronal processing of visual food cues. We presented 39 healthy normal-weight women (mean age: 22.5 years) with images depicting high-caloric meat dishes, high-caloric sweets, and low-caloric vegetables after they had either rinsed their mouth with wormwood tea (bitter group; n = 20) or water (control group; n = 19) for 30s...
September 21, 2016: Appetite
Xiaoming Du, Fow-Sen Choa, Ann Summerfelt, Laura M Rowland, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
N100, the negative peak of electrical response occurring around 100 ms, is present in diverse functional paradigms including auditory, visual, somatic, behavioral and cognitive tasks. We hypothesized that the presence of the N100 across different paradigms may be indicative of a more general property of the cerebral cortex regardless of functional or anatomic specificity. To test this hypothesis, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to measure cortical excitability by TMS across cortical regions without relying on specific sensory, cognitive or behavioral modalities...
September 14, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Vanessa A Palzes, Daniel H Mathalon
Perceptional abnormalities in schizophrenia are associated with hallucinations and delusions, but also with negative symptoms and poor functional outcome. Perception can be studied using EEG-derived event related potentials (ERPs). Because of their excellent temporal resolution, ERPs have been used to ask when perception is affected by schizophrenia. Because of its excellent spatial resolution, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to ask where in the brain these effects are seen. We acquired EEG and fMRI data simultaneously to explore when and where auditory perception is affected by schizophrenia...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi
The neural responses to simple tones and short sound sequences have been studied extensively. However, in reality the sounds surrounding us are spectrally and temporally complex, dynamic and overlapping. Thus, research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation which, in addition to sensory responses, elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Here we show that the preattentive P50 response evoked by rapid increases in timbral brightness during continuous music is enhanced in dancers when compared to musicians and laymen...
2016: Scientific Reports
Simon Rigoulot, Jorge L Armony
There is growing interest in characterizing the neural basis of music perception and, in particular, assessing how similar, or not, it is to that of speech. To further explore this question, we employed an EEG adaptation paradigm in which we compared responses to short sounds belonging to the same category, either speech (pseudo-sentences) or music (piano or violin), depending on whether they were immediately preceded by a same- or different-category sound. We observed a larger reduction in the N100 component magnitude in response to musical sounds when they were preceded by music (either the same or different instrument) than by speech...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
George M Opie, Nigel C Rogasch, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Michael C Ridding, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that uses paired magnetic stimuli separated by 100-200 ms to investigate the activity of cortical GABAergic interneurons. While commonly applied, the mechanisms contributing to LICI are not well understood, and growing evidence suggests that inhibition observed at different interstimulus intervals (ISI) may involve non-identical processes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to utilise combined TMS-EEG to more thoroughly characterise LICI at different ISIs, as the TMS-evoked EEG potential (TEP) can provide more direct insight into the cortical response to stimulation that is not subject to variations in spinal cord excitability that can confound the motor evoked potential (MEP)...
August 8, 2016: Brain Stimulation
Pierre Helwi, Sabine Guillaumie, Cécile Thibon, Céline Keime, Aude Habran, Ghislaine Hilbert, Eric Gomes, Philippe Darriet, Serge Delrot, Cornelis van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: Volatile thiols largely contribute to the organoleptic characteristics and typicity of Sauvignon blanc wines. Among this family of odorous compounds, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) have a major impact on wine flavor. These thiols are formed during alcoholic fermentation by the yeast from odorless, non-volatile precursors found in the berries and the must. The present study investigates the effects of vine nitrogen (N) status on 3SH and 4MSP content in Sauvignon blanc wine and on the glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3SH (Glut-3SH and Cys-3SH) in the berries and the must...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Vilfredo De Pascalis, Paolo Scacchia
We evaluated the influence of hypnotizability, pain expectation, placebo analgesia in waking and hypnosis on tonic pain relief. We also investigated how placebo analgesia affects somatic responses (eye blink) and N100 and P200 waves of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by auditory startle probes. Although expectation plays an important role in placebo and hypnotic analgesia, the neural mechanisms underlying these treatments are still poorly understood. We used the cold cup test (CCT) to induce tonic pain in 53 healthy women...
2016: PloS One
Zahra Fazeli, Mir Davood Omrani, Sayyed Mohammad Hossein Ghaderian
In vitro study was used as a helpful model to investigate the role of different growth factors in differentiation of stem cells. The aim of this study was to find an easy and robust method for confirmation of Peripheral Blood-Mesenchymal Stem Cells (PB-MSCs) differentiation into neuronal cells. A set of CD markers as well as neural markers were used to elucidate their differentiation. In the present study, PB-MSCs were isolated by density centrifugation. Isolated cells were divided into four groups: (i) untreated PB-MSCs as control cells, (ii) cells treated with 50ng/ml Noggin [N50], (iii) cells treated with 75ng/ml Noggin [N75], (iv) cells treated with 100ng/ml Noggin [N100]...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Esther M Ter Braack, Anne-Wil E Koopman, Michel J A M van Putten
OBJECTIVE: To explore if the TMS evoked potential is different in patients with epilepsy compared to healthy subjects. METHODS: Eighteen healthy subjects and thirteen epilepsy patients participated in this study. Single TMS pulses were applied to the left and right motor cortex. For each target we applied 75 pulses at 110% of the resting motor threshold (RMT), and continuously measured the EEG. Resting motor threshold and the TMS evoked potential (TEP) were compared between patients and healthy subjects...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Sarolta Bakos, Thomas Töllner, Monika Trinkl, Iris Landes, Jürgen Bartling, Nicola Grossheinrich, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Ellen Greimel
To date, little is known about sex differences in the neurophysiological correlates underlying auditory information processing. In the present study, auditory evoked potentials were evoked in typically developing male (n = 15) and female (n = 14) adolescents (13-18 years) during an auditory oddball task. Girls compared to boys displayed lower N100 and P300 amplitudes to targets. Larger N100 amplitudes in adolescent boys might indicate higher neural sensitivity to changes of incoming auditory information...
April 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
Ayoub Daliri, Ludo Max
Previously, we showed that the N100 amplitude in long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEPs) elicited by pure tone probe stimuli is modulated when the stimuli are delivered during speech movement planning as compared with no-speaking control conditions. Given that we probed the auditory system only with pure tones, it remained unknown whether the nature and magnitude of this pre-speech auditory modulation depends on the type of auditory stimulus. Thus, here, we asked whether the effect of speech movement planning on auditory processing varies depending on the type of auditory stimulus...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sujoy Ghosh Hajra, Careesa C Liu, Xiaowei Song, Shaun Fickling, Luke E Liu, Gabriela Pawlowski, Janelle K Jorgensen, Aynsley M Smith, Michal Schnaider-Beeri, Rudi Van Den Broek, Rowena Rizzotti, Kirk Fisher, Ryan C N D'Arcy
Clinical assessment of brain function relies heavily on indirect behavior-based tests. Unfortunately, behavior-based assessments are subjective and therefore susceptible to several confounding factors. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalography (EEG), are often used to provide objective, physiological measures of brain function. Historically, ERPs have been characterized extensively within research settings, with limited but growing clinical applications. Over the past 20 years, we have developed clinical ERP applications for the evaluation of functional status following serious injury and/or disease...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yoshihiro Noda, Robin F H Cash, Reza Zomorrodi, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Mera S Barr, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) enables noninvasive neurophysiological investigation of the human cortex. A TMS paradigm of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is characterized by attenuation of the motor-evoked potential (MEP) and modulation of N100 of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP) when TMS is delivered to motor cortex (M1) following median nerve stimulation. SAI is a marker of cholinergic activity in the motor cortex; however, the SAI has not been tested from the prefrontal cortex...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Hui Huang, Jinrong Ya, Zhe Wu, Chunmei Wen, Suyue Zheng, Chaoyang Tian, Hui Ren, Synnöve Carlson, Hualin Yu, Feng Chen, Jianhong Wang
BACKGROUND Sensory gating, often described as the ability to filter out irrelevant information that is repeated in close temporal proximity, is essential for the selection, processing, and storage of more salient information. This study aimed to test the effect of sensory gating under anesthesia in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of monkeys following injection of bromocriptine, haloperidol, and phencyclidine (PCP). MATERIAL AND METHODS We used an auditory evoked potential that can be elicited by sound to examine sensory gating during treatment with haloperidol, bromocriptine, and PCP in the PFC in the cynomolgus monkey...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tim Bühler, Jochen Kindler, Rahel C Schneider, Werner Strik, Thomas Dierks, Daniela Hubl, Thomas Koenig
A 'sense of self' is essentially the ability to distinguish between self-generated and external stimuli. It consists of at least two very basic senses: a sense of agency and a sense of ownership. Disturbances seem to provide a basic deficit in many psychiatric diseases. The aim of our study was to manipulate those qualities separately in 28 patients with schizophrenia (14 auditory hallucinators and 14 non-hallucinators) and 28 healthy controls (HC) and to investigate the effects on the topographies and the power of the event-related potential (ERP)...
September 2016: Brain Topography
Yifei Guo, Yuzheng Wang, Yabin Sun, Jin-Yan Wang
The transition from acute pain to chronic pain entails considerable changes of patients at multiple levels of the nervous system and in psychological states. An accurate differentiation between acute and chronic pain is essential in pain management as it may help optimize analgesic treatments according to the pain state of patients. Given that acute and chronic pain could modulate brain states in different ways and that brain states could greatly shape the neural processing of external inputs, we hypothesized that acute and chronic pain would show differential effects on cortical responses to non-nociceptive sensory information...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Jinsoo Chun, Scott J Peltier, Daehyun Yoon, Theo C Manschreck, Patricia J Deldin
BACKGROUND: Recording EEG and fMRI data simultaneously inside a fully-operating scanner has been recognized as a novel approach in human brain research. Studies have demonstrated high concordance between the EEG signals and hemodynamic response. However, a few studies reported altered cognitive process inside the fMRI scanner such as delayed reaction time (RT) and reduced and/or delayed N100 and P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) components. NEW METHOD: The present study investigated the influence of electromagnetic field (static magnetic field, radio frequency (RF) pulse, and gradient switching) and experimental environment on posterior N100 and P300 ERP components in four different settings with six healthy subjects using a visual oddball task: (1) classic fMRI acquisition inside the scanner (e...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
W Choi, M Lim, J S Kim, C K Chung
BACKGROUND: Habituation refers to the brain's inhibitory mechanism against sensory overload and its brain correlate has been investigated in the form of a well-defined event-related potential, N100 (N1). Fibromyalgia is an extensively described chronic pain syndrome with concurrent manifestations of reduced tolerance and enhanced sensation of painful and non-painful stimulation, suggesting an association with central amplification of all sensory domains. Among diverse sensory modalities, we utilized repetitive auditory stimulation to explore the anomalous sensory information processing in fibromyalgia as evidenced by N1 habituation...
May 10, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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