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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317185/cortical-inhibition-assessed-using-paired-pulse-tms-eeg-is-increased-in-older-adults
#1
George M Opie, Simranjit K Sidhu, Nigel C Rogasch, Michael C Ridding, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Alterations in inhibitory processes mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors may contribute to age-related functional impairments. However, investigation of these circuits using conventional paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at long interstimulus intervals (∼100-200ms) have produced conflicting results in older adults, possibly due to the indirect nature of the TMS motor evoked potential (MEP). OBJECTIVE: To utilise electroencephalography and TMS coregistration (TMS-EEG) to more directly assess age-related changes in GABAB-mediated long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI)...
December 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302713/psilocybin-disrupts-sensory-and-higher-order-cognitive-processing-but-not-pre-attentive-cognitive-processing-study-on-p300-and-mismatch-negativity-in-healthy-volunteers
#2
Anna Bravermanová, Michaela Viktorinová, Filip Tylš, Tomáš Novák, Renáta Androvičová, Jakub Korčák, Jiří Horáček, Marie Balíková, Inga Griškova-Bulanova, Dominika Danielová, Přemysl Vlček, Pavel Mohr, Martin Brunovský, Vlastimil Koudelka, Tomáš Páleníček
RATIONALE: Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors in information processing is less clear. OBJECTIVES: We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers...
January 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291580/the-effect-of-panic-disorder-versus-anxiety-sensitivity-on-event-related-potentials-during-anticipation-of-threat
#3
Elizabeth S Stevens, Anna Weinberg, Brady D Nelson, Emily E E Meissel, Stewart A Shankman
Attention-related abnormalities are key components of the abnormal defensive responding observed in panic disorder (PD). Although behavioral studies have found aberrant attentional biases towards threat in PD, psychophysiological studies have been mixed. Predictability of threat, an important feature of threat processing, may have contributed to these mixed findings. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, a dimensional trait associated with PD, may yield stronger associations with cognitive processes than categorical diagnoses of PD...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279627/one-year-comparative-evaluation-of-ketac-nano-with-resin-modified-glass-ionomer-cement-and-giomer-in-noncarious-cervical-lesions-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Bollu Indira Priyadarshini, Thumu Jayaprakash, Bolla Nagesh, Chukka Ram Sunil, Varri Sujana, Velagala L Deepa
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of Ketac Nano (Ketac™ N100), RMGIC (Fuji Filling™ LC), and Giomer (Beautifil® II) in noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Materials and Methods: One operator restored 120 NCCLs in 20 subjects, with at least two lesions restored with one of the restorative materials: RMGIC (control group), Giomer and Ketac Nano (experimental groups). Two observers evaluated retention, marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, color match, surface roughness, and postoperative sensitivity using modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 6, and 12 months...
May 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213090/evaluation-of-short-interval-cortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-from-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#5
Yoshihiro Noda, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
GABAergic and glutamatergic dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are thought to be the core pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Recently, we have established a method to index these functions from the DLPFC using the paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms of short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF) combined with electroencephalography (EEG). In this study, we aimed to evaluate neurophysiological indicators related to GABAA and glutamate receptor-mediated functions respectively from the DLPFC in patients with schizophrenia using these paradigms, compared to healthy controls...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164724/intraoperative-localization-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-using-long-latency-somatosensory-evoked-potentials
#6
Carlos Trenado, Saskia Elben, Lena Friggemann, Stefan Jun Groiss, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Wojtecki
BACKGROUND: Target localization for deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a challenging step that determines not only the correct placement of stimulation electrodes, but also influences the success of the DBS procedure as reflected in the desired clinical outcome of a patient. OBJECTIVE: We report on the feasibility of DBS target localization in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) by long-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (LL-SSEPs) (>40 msec) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients...
November 22, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163132/the-influence-of-negative-emotion-on-cognitive-and-emotional-control-remains-intact-in-aging
#7
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Arno Villringer, Sonja A Kotz
Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128249/nationwide-ground-level-ozone-measurements-in-china-suggest-serious-risks-to-forests
#8
Pin Li, Alessandra De Marco, Zhaozhong Feng, Alessandro Anav, Daojing Zhou, Elena Paoletti
We processed hourly ozone (O3) concentrations collected in 2015 and in 2016 by a network of 1497 stations across China, with the main aim of assessing the risk that present ambient O3 exposure is posing to Chinese forests. Our results indicate that the values of the metrics AOT40 (the accumulated hourly O3 concentrations above 40 ppb during daylight hours) recommended as European Union standard, and W126 (the sum of weighted hourly concentrations from 8:00 to 20:00) recommended as USA standard for forest protection, exceeded the critical levels (5 ppm h across 6 months for AOT40 and 7-21 ppm h over 3 months for W126) on average by 5...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094613/the-difficulty-in-finding-relationships-between-erps-and-clinical-symptoms-of-schizophrenia
#9
Judith M Ford
It has been surprisingly difficult to find associations between neural signatures of schizophrenia and the symptoms that define it. That is, many of the legacy components of the event-related potential (ERP)- P50, N100, P200, P300-are reduced in patients with schizophrenia, in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, in schizophrenia patients early in their illness, and even in people at clinical high risk for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, these ERP components tend to be relatively insensitive to symptoms...
October 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081422/neural-activation-patterns-and-connectivity-in-visual-attention-during-number-and-non-number-processing-an-erp-study-using-the-ishihara-pseudoisochromatic-plates
#10
Faraj Al-Marri, Faruque Reza, Tahamina Begum, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam, Goh Khean Jin, Jing Xiang
Visual cognitive function is important to build up executive function in daily life. Perception of visual Number form (e.g., Arabic digit) and numerosity (magnitude of the Number) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of Number representations are complex occurrences when their semantic categories are assimilated with other concepts of shape and colour. Colour perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green colour vision testing...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051523/emotion-regulating-attentional-control-abnormalities-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-event-related-potential-study
#11
Bin Hu, Juan Rao, Xiaowei Li, Tong Cao, Jianxiu Li, Dennis Majoe, Jürg Gutknecht
Major depressive disorders (MDD) exhibit cognitive dysfunction with respect to attention. The deficiencies in cognitive control of emotional information are associated with MDD as compared to healthy controls (HC). However, the brain mechanism underlying emotion that influences the attentional control in MDD necessitates further research. The present study explores the emotion-regulated cognitive competence in MDD at a dynamic attentional stage. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 35 clinical MDD outpatients and matched HCs by applying a modified affective priming dot-probe paradigm, which consisted of various emotional facial expression pairs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030287/inhibition-of-pain-and-pain-related-brain-activity-by-heterotopic-noxious-counter-stimulation-and-selective-attention-in-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain
#12
Alexandra Ladouceur, Nabi Rustamov, Jean-Daniel Dubois, Jessica Tessier, Alexandre Lehmann, Martin Descarreaux, Pierre Rainville, Mathieu Piché
The aim of the present study was to assess inhibition of pain and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) by heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS) and by selective attention in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Seventeen patients and age/sex-matched controls were recruited (10 men, 7 women; mean age ± SD: 43.3 ± 10.4 and 42.7 ± 11.1, respectively). On average, patients with LBP reported pain duration of 7.6 ± 6.5 years, light to moderate disability (19.3 ± 5.7/100) and low clinical pain intensity (21...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972164/a-conserved-degron-containing-an-amphipathic-helix-regulates-the-cholesterol-mediated-turnover-of-human-squalene-monooxygenase-a-rate-limiting-enzyme-in-cholesterol-synthesis
#13
Ngee Kiat Chua, Vicky Howe, Nidhi Jatana, Lipi Thukral, Andrew J Brown
Cholesterol biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)1 is tightly controlled by multiple mechanisms to regulate cellular cholesterol levels. Squalene monooxygenase (SM) is the second rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis and is regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. SM undergoes cholesterol-dependent proteasomal degradation when cholesterol is in excess. The first 100 amino acids of SM (designated SM N100) are necessary for this degradative process, and represents the shortest cholesterol-regulated degron identified to date...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958161/neural-processing-of-musical-and-vocal-emotions-through-cochlear-implants-simulation
#14
Duha G Ahmed, Sebastian Paquette, Anthony Zeitouni, Alexandre Lehmann
Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore the sense of hearing in the deaf. However, the ability to recognize emotions in speech and music is reduced due to the implant's electrical signal limitations and the patient's altered neural pathways. Electrophysiological correlations of these limitations are not yet well established. Here we aimed to characterize the effect of CIs on auditory emotion processing and, for the first time, directly compare vocal and musical emotion processing through a CI-simulator. We recorded 16 normal hearing participants' electroencephalographic activity while listening to vocal and musical emotional bursts in their original form and in a degraded (CI-simulated) condition...
September 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914423/influences-of-nitrogen-fertilization-and-energy-supplementation-for-growth-perfomance-of-beef-cattle-on-alexander-grass
#15
Tiago Venturini, Luís Fernando Glasenapp de Menezes, Marcelo Marcos Montagner, Wagner Paris, Gean Rodrigo Schmitz, Marcos Luis Molinete
This study evaluated the influences of nitrogen fertilizer and energy supplementation cattle on the growth performance of beef cattle. This study was conducted at the Federal University of Technology of Paraná, Dois Vizinhos through continuous grazing on 6.3 ha, divided into nine paddocks. The treatments were: Alexander grass +100 kg ha(-1) of N (N100); Alexander grass + 100 kg ha(-1) of N + 0.5 kg per 100 kg of weight live supplementation of wheat bran (N100S); and Alexander grass +200 kg ha(-1) of N (N200), with an average herbage allowance of 10% for all treatments...
December 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887694/contribution-of-auditory-p300-test-to-the-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Fikriye Tüter Yilmaz, Sehür Siber Özkaynak, Ebru Barçin
Abnormalities in auditory P300 test have been observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to investigate whether or not additional electrophysiological tests assist in making the clinical diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI), and we evaluated P300 changes in patients with non-demented PD and analyzed the correlation between the cognitive features and P300 changes. Twenty patients with PD who had been diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI group) according to the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) 2012 PD-MCI level II criteria, 21 patients with PD without cognitive impairment (PD-Normal group), and 20 control subjects (control group) who were neurologically normal were examined by the standard auditory oddball paradigm...
September 8, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837359/young-females-attention-towards-road-safety-images-an-erp-study-of-the-revised-reinforcement-sensitivity-theory
#17
Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Melanie J White, Ioni Lewis
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether reward and punishment sensitivities, as conceptualised by Gray and McNaughton's revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), influenced young female drivers' attention towards a series of positive and negative anti-speeding advertisement images. Young females' increasing crash risk is associated with their engagement in risky behaviours which, in turn, has been associated with a stronger Behavioural Approach System (BAS; sensitive to rewards)...
August 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831146/differential-neurophysiological-correlates-of-information-processing-in-internet-gaming-disorder-and-alcohol-use-disorder-measured-by-event-related-potentials
#18
Minkyung Park, Yeon Jin Kim, Dai Jin Kim, Jung-Seok Choi
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) shares clinical and neuropsychological features with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but few studies have identified the neurophysiological characteristics of IGD. We investigated the N100 and P300 event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with IGD to compare them with those of patients with AUD and healthy controls (HCs). Twenty-six patients with IGD, 22 patients with AUD, and 29 HCs participated in this study. ERPs were acquired from young male adults during an auditory oddball task...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741172/glass-ionomer-cement-inhibits-secondary-caries-in-an-in-vitro-biofilm-model
#19
Norbert Krämer, Miriam Schmidt, Susanne Lücker, Eugen Domann, Roland Frankenberger
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different glass ionomer cements on secondary caries inhibition in a fully automated in vitro biofilm model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-four extracted third molars received class V cavities and were filled with one conventional (Ketac Molar/KM), and two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Photac Fil/PF, Ketac N100/KN, 3M Espe). A bonded resin composite (Single Bond Plus/Filtek Supreme XTE) served as control...
July 24, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727776/language-related-differences-of-the-sustained-response-evoked-by-natural-speech-sounds
#20
Christina Siu-Dschu Fan, Xingyu Zhu, Hans Günter Dosch, Christiane von Stutterheim, André Rupp
In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli...
2017: PloS One
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