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Johannes Rentzsch, Golo Kronenberg, Ada Stadtmann, Andres Neuhaus, Christiane Montag, Rainer Hellweg, Maria Christiane Jockers-Scherübl
BACKGROUND: Chronic cannabis use may cause neurocognitive deficits and increase the risk of psychosis. Nevertheless, the effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia have remained largely unspecified. METHODS: Here, we studied repetition suppression of auditory event-related responses in a paired-stimulus design in a mixed sample of schizophrenia patients (n = 34) and healthy control subjects (n = 45) with chronic heavy cannabis use and schizophrenia patients (n = 33) and healthy control subjects (n = 61) without cannabis use...
April 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Genane Loheswaran, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger, Bernard Le Foll, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Alcohol is thought to exert its effect by acting on gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) inhibitory neurotransmission. The N100, the negative peak on electroencephalography (EEG) that occurs approximately 100 ms following the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse, is believed to represent GABAB receptor mediated neurotransmission. However, no studies have examined the effect of alcohol on the N100 response to TMS stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of alcohol on the DLPFC TMS-evoked N100 response...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Li Yang, Jinjing Wu, Tao Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic effect and safety of the application of different doses of nalbuphine in patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) for patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy. A total of 120 patients, who underwent subtotal gastrectomy at our hospital between May, 2015 and January, 2017 under combined spinal epidural combined anesthesia, were selected. The patients received PCIA after surgery. The patients were randomly divided into four groups, including the morphine (MOP group), nalbuphine 60 mg (N60 group), nalbuphine 80 mg (N80 group) and nalbuphine 100 mg (N100 group)...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Outi Kaarre, Marja Äikiä, Elisa Kallioniemi, Mervi Könönen, Virve Kekkonen, Noora Heikkinen, Petri Kivimäki, Tommi Tolmunen, Sara Määttä, Eila Laukkanen
The most thoroughly studied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked electroencephalogram (EEG) potential (TEP), N100, is often defined as a measure of cortical inhibition. We explored the association of the N100 amplitude with attention in 51 young healthy adults. Navigated TMS with simultaneous EEG registering was applied over the left primary motor cortex at the intensity of 110% of the resting motor threshold. Attention was assessed with the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). We found a negative Pearson correlation (p = ...
January 30, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Jennifer R Lepock, Romina Mizrahi, Michele Korostil, R Michael Bagby, Elizabeth W Pang, Michael Kiang
There is emerging evidence that identification and treatment of individuals in the prodromal or clinical high-risk (CHR) state for psychosis can reduce the probability that they will develop a psychotic disorder. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) are a noninvasive neurophysiological technique that holds promise for improving our understanding of neurocognitive processes underlying the CHR state. We aimed to systematically review the current literature on cognitive ERP studies of the CHR population, in order to summarize and synthesize the results, and their implications for our understanding of the CHR state...
January 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Paul B Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: With an increasing interest in the use of theta burst stimulation (TBS) as a cognitive enhancer and a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders, there is a need to identify optimal parameters of TBS in the prefrontal cortex. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This study examined the effect of two blocks of prefrontal intermittent TBS (iTBS) on cortical reactivity and working memory performance, compared to one block of iTBS and sham stimulation. We hypothesized that greater cortical effects would be obtained with two blocks of iTBS...
January 8, 2018: Brain Stimulation
George M Opie, Simranjit K Sidhu, Nigel C Rogasch, Michael C Ridding, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Alterations in inhibitory processes mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors may contribute to age-related functional impairments. However, investigation of these circuits using conventional paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at long interstimulus intervals (∼100-200ms) have produced conflicting results in older adults, possibly due to the indirect nature of the TMS motor evoked potential (MEP). OBJECTIVE: To utilise electroencephalography and TMS coregistration (TMS-EEG) to more directly assess age-related changes in GABAB-mediated long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI)...
December 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
Anna Bravermanová, Michaela Viktorinová, Filip Tylš, Tomáš Novák, Renáta Androvičová, Jakub Korčák, Jiří Horáček, Marie Balíková, Inga Griškova-Bulanova, Dominika Danielová, Přemysl Vlček, Pavel Mohr, Martin Brunovský, Vlastimil Koudelka, Tomáš Páleníček
RATIONALE: Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors in information processing is less clear. OBJECTIVES: We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers...
February 2018: Psychopharmacology
Elizabeth S Stevens, Anna Weinberg, Brady D Nelson, Emily E E Meissel, Stewart A Shankman
Attention-related abnormalities are key components of the abnormal defensive responding observed in panic disorder (PD). Although behavioral studies have found aberrant attentional biases towards threat in PD, psychophysiological studies have been mixed. Predictability of threat, an important feature of threat processing, may have contributed to these mixed findings. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, a dimensional trait associated with PD, may yield stronger associations with cognitive processes than categorical diagnoses of PD...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Bollu Indira Priyadarshini, Thumu Jayaprakash, Bolla Nagesh, Chukka Ram Sunil, Varri Sujana, Velagala L Deepa
Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of Ketac Nano (Ketac™ N100), RMGIC (Fuji Filling™ LC), and Giomer (Beautifil® II) in noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Materials and Methods: One operator restored 120 NCCLs in 20 subjects, with at least two lesions restored with one of the restorative materials: RMGIC (control group), Giomer and Ketac Nano (experimental groups). Two observers evaluated retention, marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, color match, surface roughness, and postoperative sensitivity using modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 6, and 12 months...
May 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Yoshihiro Noda, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
GABAergic and glutamatergic dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are thought to be the core pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Recently, we have established a method to index these functions from the DLPFC using the paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms of short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF) combined with electroencephalography (EEG). In this study, we aimed to evaluate neurophysiological indicators related to GABAA and glutamate receptor-mediated functions respectively from the DLPFC in patients with schizophrenia using these paradigms, compared to healthy controls...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carlos Trenado, Saskia Elben, Lena Friggemann, Stefan Jun Groiss, Jan Vesper, Alfons Schnitzler, Lars Wojtecki
BACKGROUND: Target localization for deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a challenging step that determines not only the correct placement of stimulation electrodes, but also influences the success of the DBS procedure as reflected in the desired clinical outcome of a patient. OBJECTIVE: We report on the feasibility of DBS target localization in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) by long-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (LL-SSEPs) (>40 msec) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients...
November 22, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Arno Villringer, Sonja A Kotz
Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Pin Li, Alessandra De Marco, Zhaozhong Feng, Alessandro Anav, Daojing Zhou, Elena Paoletti
We processed hourly ozone (O3) concentrations collected in 2015 and in 2016 by a network of 1497 stations across China, with the main aim of assessing the risk that present ambient O3 exposure is posing to Chinese forests. Our results indicate that the values of the metrics AOT40 (the accumulated hourly O3 concentrations above 40 ppb during daylight hours) recommended as European Union standard, and W126 (the sum of weighted hourly concentrations from 8:00 to 20:00) recommended as USA standard for forest protection, exceeded the critical levels (5 ppm h across 6 months for AOT40 and 7-21 ppm h over 3 months for W126) on average by 5...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Judith M Ford
It has been surprisingly difficult to find associations between neural signatures of schizophrenia and the symptoms that define it. That is, many of the legacy components of the event-related potential (ERP)- P50, N100, P200, P300-are reduced in patients with schizophrenia, in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, in schizophrenia patients early in their illness, and even in people at clinical high risk for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, these ERP components tend to be relatively insensitive to symptoms...
October 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Faraj Al-Marri, Faruque Reza, Tahamina Begum, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam, Goh Khean Jin, Jing Xiang
Visual cognitive function is important to build up executive function in daily life. Perception of visual Number form (e.g., Arabic digit) and numerosity (magnitude of the Number) is of interest to cognitive neuroscientists. Neural correlates and the functional measurement of Number representations are complex occurrences when their semantic categories are assimilated with other concepts of shape and colour. Colour perception can be processed further to modulate visual cognition. The Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates are one of the best and most common screening tools for basic red-green colour vision testing...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Bin Hu, Juan Rao, Xiaowei Li, Tong Cao, Jianxiu Li, Dennis Majoe, Jürg Gutknecht
Major depressive disorders (MDD) exhibit cognitive dysfunction with respect to attention. The deficiencies in cognitive control of emotional information are associated with MDD as compared to healthy controls (HC). However, the brain mechanism underlying emotion that influences the attentional control in MDD necessitates further research. The present study explores the emotion-regulated cognitive competence in MDD at a dynamic attentional stage. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 35 clinical MDD outpatients and matched HCs by applying a modified affective priming dot-probe paradigm, which consisted of various emotional facial expression pairs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alexandra Ladouceur, Nabi Rustamov, Jean-Daniel Dubois, Jessica Tessier, Alexandre Lehmann, Martin Descarreaux, Pierre Rainville, Mathieu Piché
The aim of the present study was to assess inhibition of pain and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) by heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS) and by selective attention in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Seventeen patients and age/sex-matched controls were recruited (10 men, 7 women; mean age ± SD: 43.3 ± 10.4 and 42.7 ± 11.1, respectively). On average, patients with LBP reported pain duration of 7.6 ± 6.5 years, light to moderate disability (19.3 ± 5.7/100) and low clinical pain intensity (21...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience
Ngee Kiat Chua, Vicky Howe, Nidhi Jatana, Lipi Thukral, Andrew J Brown
Cholesterol biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is tightly controlled by multiple mechanisms to regulate cellular cholesterol levels. Squalene monooxygenase (SM) is the second rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis and is regulated both transcriptionally and post-translationally. SM undergoes cholesterol-dependent proteasomal degradation when cholesterol is in excess. The first 100 amino acids of SM (designated SM N100) are necessary for this degradative process and represent the shortest cholesterol-regulated degron identified to date...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Duha G Ahmed, Sebastian Paquette, Anthony Zeitouni, Alexandre Lehmann
Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore the sense of hearing in the deaf. However, the ability to recognize emotions in speech and music is reduced due to the implant's electrical signal limitations and the patient's altered neural pathways. Electrophysiological correlations of these limitations are not yet well established. Here we aimed to characterize the effect of CIs on auditory emotion processing and, for the first time, directly compare vocal and musical emotion processing through a CI-simulator. We recorded 16 normal hearing participants' electroencephalographic activity while listening to vocal and musical emotional bursts in their original form and in a degraded (CI-simulated) condition...
September 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
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