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Hifsa Zahid, Benjamin Tsang, Hira Ahmed, Richard Chi Yeung Lee, Steven Tran, Robert Gerlai
The growing popularity of zebrafish in psychopharmacology and behavioral brain research is partly due to the practicality and simplicity of drug administration in this species. Several drugs may be administered to zebrafish by immersing the fish in the drug solution. Furthermore, numerous drugs developed for mammals, including humans, have been found to show a similar effect profile in the zebrafish. Thus, the zebrafish has been suggested as a potentially useful animal screening tool. Despite decades of drug development, anxiety still represents a major unmet medical need, and the search for anxiolytic compounds is continuing...
January 19, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Scott A Schelp, Zachary D Brodnik, Dylan R Rakowski, Katherine J Pultorak, Asha T Sambells, Rodrigo A Espana, Erik B Oleson
Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed anxiolytics that pose abuse liability in susceptible individuals. While it is well established that all drugs of abuse increase brain dopamine levels and benzodiazepines are allosteric modulators of the GABAAR, it remains unclear how they alter dopamine release. Using in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, we measured diazepam (trade name valium) induced changes in the frequency and amplitude of transient dopamine release events. We found that diazepam concurrently increase the frequency and decreases the amplitude of transient dopamine release events in the awake and freely-moving rat...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Mathew Wooster, Dana Reed, Adam Tanious, Karl Illig
BACKGROUND: Thoracic outlet decompression (TOD) is associated with significant postoperative pain often leading to hospital length of stay out of proportion to the risk profile of the operation. We seek to describe the improvement in hospital length of stay and patient pain control with an improved multiagent pain management regimen. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital length of stay, medication regimen/usage, operative details, and operative indications for all patients undergoing TOD from January 2012 through June 2015...
October 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Jake M Najman, Fairlie McIlwraith, Robert Kemp, Andrew Smirnov
: With recent increases in overdose deaths in Australia, there is renewed interest in understanding the factors that contribute to overdose. We examine the experiences of persons who report a nonfatal drug overdose. Fifty people who inject drugs (PWID) and who had accidently overdosed in the past 12 months were recruited and interviewed at 1 of 4 Needle and Syringe Program sites during September and October 2013.Participants were typically male, middle-aged, with long injecting histories. Half of the participants reported mainly injecting pharmaceutical opioids...
July 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Mariana L Meyers, David M Mirsky, Kimberly A Dannull, Suhong Tong, Timothy M Crombleholme
PURPOSE: Fetal MRI is performed without sedation. In cases of maternal claustrophobia or when reduction of fetal motion is critical, benzodiazepines may help. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose benzodiazepine on fetal motion MRI and its effect on maternal oxygen levels at higher elevation. METHODS: A total of 131 fetal MRI scans performed from March 2012 through December 2013 were studied. Nineteen of the cases were performed following Valium administration...
November 1, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Takeo Katsuki, Tim Ken Mackey, Raphael Cuomo
BACKGROUND: Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. OBJECTIVE: In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies...
2015: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Giorgio Famiglini, Veronica Termopoli, Pierangela Palma, Achille Cappiello
This is the first application based on electron ionization (EI) using a Direct-EI LC interface and MS/MS to detect unequivocally target compounds in a very small real sample. The determination and quantification of benzodiazepines in very small residues of beverages, collected at the scene of drug-facilitated crimes are mandatory in legal procedures. A specific and sensitive analytical instrumentation is needed, involving little or no sample preparation. Here, a direct flow injection analysis of alcoholic beverages spiked with commercially available drugs containing diazepam and flunitrazepam is presented...
April 2016: Electrophoresis
Ajul Shah, Megan Rowlands, Naveen Krishnan, Anup Patel, Anke Ott-Young
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, narcotics have been used for analgesia after breast surgery. However, these agents have unpleasant side effects. Intercostal nerve blockade is an alternative technique to improve postoperative pain. In this study, the authors investigate outcomes in patients who receive thoracic intercostal nerve blocks for implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed. The operative technique for breast reconstruction and administration of nerve blocks is detailed...
November 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Christopher Ringwalt, Sharon Schiro, Meghan Shanahan, Scott Proescholdbell, Harold Meder, Anna Austin, Nidhi Sachdeva
The misuse, abuse and diversion of controlled substances have reached epidemic proportion in the United States. Contributing to this problem are providers who over-prescribe these substances. Using one state's prescription drug monitoring program, we describe a series of metrics we developed to identify providers manifesting unusual and uncustomary prescribing practices. We then present the results of a preliminary effort to assess the concurrent validity of these algorithms, using death records from the state's vital records database pertaining to providers who wrote prescriptions to patients who then died of a medication or drug overdose within 30 days...
October 2015: Journal of Primary Prevention
F J B Mendonça Júnior, L Scotti, H Ishiki, S P S Botelho, M S Da Silva, M T Scotti
Benzodiazepines (BZ or BZD) are a class of gabaminergic psychoactive chemicals used in hypnotics, sedation, in the treatment of anxiety, and in other CNS disorders. These drugs include alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), and others. There are two distinct types of pharmacological binding sites for benzodiazepines in the brain (BZ1 and BZ2), these sites are on GABA-A receptors, and are classified as short, intermediate, or long-acting. From the thienobenzodiazepine class (TBZ), Olanzapine (2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-l-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine) (Zyprexa) was used as an example to demonstrate the antagonism of this class of compounds for multiples receptors including: dopamine D1-D5, α-adrenoreceptor, histamine H1, muscarinic M1-M5 and 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT6 receptors...
2015: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Zoya Farzampour, Richard J Reimer, John Huguenard
Since their introduction in the 1960s, benzodiazepines (BZs) remain one of the most commonly prescribed medications, acting as potent sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants. The primary neural action of BZs and related compounds is augmentation of inhibitory transmission, which occurs through allosteric modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced current at the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). The discovery of the BZ-binding site on GABAARs encouraged many to speculate that the brain produces its own endogenous ligands to this site (Costa & Guidotti, 1985)...
2015: Advances in Pharmacology
Nalini Vadivelu, Harman Singh-Gill, Gopal Kodumudi, Aaron Joshua Kaye, Richard D Urman, Alan David Kaye
BACKGROUND: Drug tolerance has been on the rise in recent years worldwide, and consequently, pain management in our population has become challenging. METHODS: Discussed in this review are commonly abused drugs and considerations for treating acute and chronic pain states in patients with substance disorders. RESULTS: After marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco, the most widely abused substances are oxycodone (Oxycontin), diazepam (Valium), and methylphenidate (Ritalin)...
2014: Ochsner Journal
Joanna G Katzman, George D Comerci, Michael Landen, Larry Loring, Steven M Jenkusky, Sanjeev Arora, Summers Kalishman, Lisa Marr, Chris Camarata, Daniel Duhigg, Jennifer Dillow, Eugene Koshkin, Denise E Taylor, Cynthia M A Geppert
Chronic pain and opioid addiction are 2 pressing public health problems, and prescribing clinicians often lack the skills necessary to manage these conditions. Our study sought to address the benefits of a coalition of an academic medical center pain faculty and government agencies in addressing the high unintentional overdose death rates in New Mexico. New Mexico's 2012-2013 mandated chronic pain and addiction education programs studied more than 1000 clinicians. Positive changes were noted in precourse and postcourse surveys of knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes...
August 2014: American Journal of Public Health
Roger Li, Herbert C Ruckle, Jon D Creech, David J Culpepper, Michelle A Lightfoot, Muhannad Alsyouf, Lesli Nicolay, Forrest Jellison, D Duane Baldwin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effect of oral anxiolytics in diminishing patient discomfort and pain perception has been demonstrated in GI endoscopy, percutaneous coronary interventions, and various procedures in the emergency department setting, but has not been prospectively studied in the setting of prostate biopsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of diazepam on pain perception during and after prostate biopsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing prostate biopsy at a single academic institution were enrolled into a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study...
July 2014: Journal of Endourology
Nicholas E Calcaterra, James C Barrow
Diazepam (Valium) is among the most successful drugs from the onset of the psychopharmacological revolution that began during the 1950s. Efficacious in treating a wide-spectrum of CNS disorders, including anxiety and epilepsy, it set the standard for pharmacotherapy in terms of potency, onset of action, and safety. In this Review, the legacy of diazepam to chemical neuroscience will be considered along with its synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, adverse events and dependence, clinical use, and regulatory issues...
April 16, 2014: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Hirbod Bahrani, Jamaludin Mohamad, Mohammad Javad Paydar, Hussin A Rothan
Aquilaria subintegra, locally known as "Gaharu", belongs to the Thymelaeceae family. This plant's leaves have been claimed to be effective for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Malay traditional practitioner in Malaysia. In this research, the chloroform extracts of the leaves and stem of A. subintegra were tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids compounds in the extracts...
February 2014: Current Alzheimer Research
J A Ferreira
Dermabrasion of the face for multiple conditions requiring reconstructive surgery continues to be a valuable procedure. An important complication of the procedure, however, in the form of hyperpigmentation, led to a search for the cause. When normal anatomic studies failed to indicate a valid reason for this complication in a female patient, further search revealed a biochemical reason-diazepam (Valium). Treatment with a bleaching agent, hydroquinone ointment, reversed the hyperpigmentation and led to a permanent satisfactory result...
December 1980: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Kevin C Honeychurch, Adrian Crew, Hannah Northall, Stuart Radbourne, Owian Davies, Sam Newman, John P Hart
In this study we investigated the possibility of applying disposable electrochemical screen-printed carbon sensors for the rapid identification and quantitative determination of diazepam in beverages. This was achieved utilising a previously unreported oxidation peak. The origin of this peak was investigated further by cyclic voltammetry and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. At pH 6 the voltammetric behaviour of this oxidation process was found to involve adsorption of the drug allowing for the development of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric assay...
November 15, 2013: Talanta
Jeannette Y Wick
After more than 50 years of experience with benzodiazepines, the American health care system has a love-hate relationship with them. In 1955, Hoffmann-La Roche chemist Leo Sternbach serendipitously identified the first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium). By 1960, Hoffmann-La Roche marketed it as Librium, and it pursued molecular modifications for enhanced activity. Valium (diazepam) followed in 1963. Hoffmann-La Roche's competitors also began looking for analogues. Initially, benzodiazepines appeared to be less toxic and less likely to cause dependence than older drugs...
September 2013: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Tamas Bartfai, Ming-wei Wang
The task of finding selective and stable peptide receptor agonists with low molecular weight, desirable pharmacokinetic properties and penetrable to the blood-brain barrier has proven too difficult for many highly coveted drug targets, including receptors for endothelin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and galanin. These receptors and ligand-gated ion channels activated by structurally simple agonists such as glutamate, glycine and GABA present such a narrow chemical space that the design of subtype-selective molecules capable of distinguishing a dozen of glutamate and GABA receptor subtypes and possessing desirable pharmacokinetic properties has also been problematic...
July 2013: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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