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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798935/effects-of-maternal-valium-administration-on-fetal-mri-motion-artifact-a-comparison-study-at-high-altitude
#1
Mariana L Meyers, David M Mirsky, Kimberly A Dannull, Suhong Tong, Timothy M Crombleholme
PURPOSE: Fetal MRI is performed without sedation. In cases of maternal claustrophobia or when reduction of fetal motion is critical, benzodiazepines may help. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose benzodiazepine on fetal motion MRI and its effect on maternal oxygen levels at higher elevation. METHODS: A total of 131 fetal MRI scans performed from March 2012 through December 2013 were studied. Nineteen of the cases were performed following Valium administration...
November 1, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26677966/establishing-a-link-between-prescription-drug-abuse-and-illicit-online-pharmacies-analysis-of-twitter-data
#2
Takeo Katsuki, Tim Ken Mackey, Raphael Cuomo
BACKGROUND: Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. OBJECTIVE: In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies...
2015: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26634646/liquid-chromatography-electron-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry-with-the-direct-ei-interface-in-the-fast-determination-of-diazepam-and-flunitrazepam-in-alcoholic-beverages
#3
Giorgio Famiglini, Veronica Termopoli, Pierangela Palma, Achille Cappiello
This is the first application based on electron ionization (EI) using a Direct-EI LC interface and MS/MS to detect unequivocally target compounds in a very small real sample. The determination and quantification of benzodiazepines in very small residues of beverages, collected at the scene of drug-facilitated crimes are mandatory in legal procedures. A specific and sensitive analytical instrumentation is needed, involving little or no sample preparation. Here, a direct flow injection analysis of alcoholic beverages spiked with commercially available drugs containing diazepam and flunitrazepam is presented...
April 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26505714/thoracic-intercostal-nerve-blocks-reduce-opioid-consumption-and-length-of-stay-in-patients-undergoing-implant-based-breast-reconstruction
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ajul Shah, Megan Rowlands, Naveen Krishnan, Anup Patel, Anke Ott-Young
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, narcotics have been used for analgesia after breast surgery. However, these agents have unpleasant side effects. Intercostal nerve blockade is an alternative technique to improve postoperative pain. In this study, the authors investigate outcomes in patients who receive thoracic intercostal nerve blocks for implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed. The operative technique for breast reconstruction and administration of nerve blocks is detailed...
November 2015: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26143508/the-use-of-a-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-to-develop-algorithms-to-identify-providers-with-unusual-prescribing-practices-for-controlled-substances
#5
Christopher Ringwalt, Sharon Schiro, Meghan Shanahan, Scott Proescholdbell, Harold Meder, Anna Austin, Nidhi Sachdeva
The misuse, abuse and diversion of controlled substances have reached epidemic proportion in the United States. Contributing to this problem are providers who over-prescribe these substances. Using one state's prescription drug monitoring program, we describe a series of metrics we developed to identify providers manifesting unusual and uncustomary prescribing practices. We then present the results of a preliminary effort to assess the concurrent validity of these algorithms, using death records from the state's vital records database pertaining to providers who wrote prescriptions to patients who then died of a medication or drug overdose within 30 days...
October 2015: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25694077/benzo-and-thienobenzo-diazepines-multi-target-drugs-for-cns-disorders
#6
REVIEW
F J B Mendonça Júnior, L Scotti, H Ishiki, S P S Botelho, M S Da Silva, M T Scotti
Benzodiazepines (BZ or BZD) are a class of gabaminergic psychoactive chemicals used in hypnotics, sedation, in the treatment of anxiety, and in other CNS disorders. These drugs include alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin), and others. There are two distinct types of pharmacological binding sites for benzodiazepines in the brain (BZ1 and BZ2), these sites are on GABA-A receptors, and are classified as short, intermediate, or long-acting. From the thienobenzodiazepine class (TBZ), Olanzapine (2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-l-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine) (Zyprexa) was used as an example to demonstrate the antagonism of this class of compounds for multiples receptors including: dopamine D1-D5, α-adrenoreceptor, histamine H1, muscarinic M1-M5 and 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT6 receptors...
2015: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25600369/endozepines
#7
REVIEW
Zoya Farzampour, Richard J Reimer, John Huguenard
Since their introduction in the 1960s, benzodiazepines (BZs) remain one of the most commonly prescribed medications, acting as potent sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and muscle relaxants. The primary neural action of BZs and related compounds is augmentation of inhibitory transmission, which occurs through allosteric modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced current at the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). The discovery of the BZ-binding site on GABAARs encouraged many to speculate that the brain produces its own endogenous ligands to this site (Costa & Guidotti, 1985)...
2015: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25249810/practical-guide-to-the-management-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-in-the-presence-of-drug-tolerance-for-the-healthcare-practitioner
#8
REVIEW
Nalini Vadivelu, Harman Singh-Gill, Gopal Kodumudi, Aaron Joshua Kaye, Richard D Urman, Alan David Kaye
BACKGROUND: Drug tolerance has been on the rise in recent years worldwide, and consequently, pain management in our population has become challenging. METHODS: Discussed in this review are commonly abused drugs and considerations for treating acute and chronic pain states in patients with substance disorders. RESULTS: After marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco, the most widely abused substances are oxycodone (Oxycontin), diazepam (Valium), and methylphenidate (Ritalin)...
2014: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24922121/rules-and-values-a-coordinated-regulatory-and-educational-approach-to-the-public-health-crises-of-chronic-pain-and-addiction
#9
Joanna G Katzman, George D Comerci, Michael Landen, Larry Loring, Steven M Jenkusky, Sanjeev Arora, Summers Kalishman, Lisa Marr, Chris Camarata, Daniel Duhigg, Jennifer Dillow, Eugene Koshkin, Denise E Taylor, Cynthia M A Geppert
Chronic pain and opioid addiction are 2 pressing public health problems, and prescribing clinicians often lack the skills necessary to manage these conditions. Our study sought to address the benefits of a coalition of an academic medical center pain faculty and government agencies in addressing the high unintentional overdose death rates in New Mexico. New Mexico's 2012-2013 mandated chronic pain and addiction education programs studied more than 1000 clinicians. Positive changes were noted in precourse and postcourse surveys of knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes...
August 2014: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24641687/a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-assessing-diazepam-to-reduce-perception-and-recall-of-pain-during-transrectal-ultrasonography-guided-biopsy-of-the-prostate
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Roger Li, Herbert C Ruckle, Jon D Creech, David J Culpepper, Michelle A Lightfoot, Muhannad Alsyouf, Lesli Nicolay, Forrest Jellison, D Duane Baldwin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effect of oral anxiolytics in diminishing patient discomfort and pain perception has been demonstrated in GI endoscopy, percutaneous coronary interventions, and various procedures in the emergency department setting, but has not been prospectively studied in the setting of prostate biopsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of diazepam on pain perception during and after prostate biopsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing prostate biopsy at a single academic institution were enrolled into a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study...
July 2014: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24552479/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-diazepam-valium
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas E Calcaterra, James C Barrow
Diazepam (Valium) is among the most successful drugs from the onset of the psychopharmacological revolution that began during the 1950s. Efficacious in treating a wide-spectrum of CNS disorders, including anxiety and epilepsy, it set the standard for pharmacotherapy in terms of potency, onset of action, and safety. In this Review, the legacy of diazepam to chemical neuroscience will be considered along with its synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, adverse events and dependence, clinical use, and regulatory issues...
April 16, 2014: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24479629/isolation-and-characterisation-of-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitors-from-aquilaria-subintegra-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#12
Hirbod Bahrani, Jamaludin Mohamad, Mohammad Javad Paydar, Hussin A Rothan
Aquilaria subintegra, locally known as "Gaharu", belongs to the Thymelaeceae family. This plant's leaves have been claimed to be effective for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Malay traditional practitioner in Malaysia. In this research, the chloroform extracts of the leaves and stem of A. subintegra were tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids compounds in the extracts...
February 2014: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24174099/the-role-of-diazepam-in-skin-hyperpigmentation
#13
J A Ferreira
Dermabrasion of the face for multiple conditions requiring reconstructive surgery continues to be a valuable procedure. An important complication of the procedure, however, in the form of hyperpigmentation, led to a search for the cause. When normal anatomic studies failed to indicate a valid reason for this complication in a female patient, further search revealed a biochemical reason-diazepam (Valium). Treatment with a bleaching agent, hydroquinone ointment, reversed the hyperpigmentation and led to a permanent satisfactory result...
December 1980: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24148407/the-redox-behaviour-of-diazepam-valium%C3%A2-using-a-disposable-screen-printed-sensor-and-its-determination-in-drinks-using-a-novel-adsorptive-stripping-voltammetric-assay
#14
Kevin C Honeychurch, Adrian Crew, Hannah Northall, Stuart Radbourne, Owian Davies, Sam Newman, John P Hart
In this study we investigated the possibility of applying disposable electrochemical screen-printed carbon sensors for the rapid identification and quantitative determination of diazepam in beverages. This was achieved utilising a previously unreported oxidation peak. The origin of this peak was investigated further by cyclic voltammetry and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. At pH 6 the voltammetric behaviour of this oxidation process was found to involve adsorption of the drug allowing for the development of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric assay...
November 15, 2013: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24007886/the-history-of-benzodiazepines
#15
Jeannette Y Wick
After more than 50 years of experience with benzodiazepines, the American health care system has a love-hate relationship with them. In 1955, Hoffmann-La Roche chemist Leo Sternbach serendipitously identified the first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium). By 1960, Hoffmann-La Roche marketed it as Librium, and it pursued molecular modifications for enhanced activity. Valium (diazepam) followed in 1963. Hoffmann-La Roche's competitors also began looking for analogues. Initially, benzodiazepines appeared to be less toxic and less likely to cause dependence than older drugs...
September 2013: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23624758/positive-allosteric-modulators-to-peptide-gpcrs-a-promising-class-of-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Tamas Bartfai, Ming-wei Wang
The task of finding selective and stable peptide receptor agonists with low molecular weight, desirable pharmacokinetic properties and penetrable to the blood-brain barrier has proven too difficult for many highly coveted drug targets, including receptors for endothelin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and galanin. These receptors and ligand-gated ion channels activated by structurally simple agonists such as glutamate, glycine and GABA present such a narrow chemical space that the design of subtype-selective molecules capable of distinguishing a dozen of glutamate and GABA receptor subtypes and possessing desirable pharmacokinetic properties has also been problematic...
July 2013: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23558086/iphone%C3%A2-applications-as-versatile-video-tracking-tools-to-analyze-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Julian T Pittman, Katie M Ichikawa
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising model organism for experimental studies relevant to biological psychiatry. The objective of this study was to develop a novel video-based movement tracking and analysis system to quantify behavioral changes following psychoactive drug exposure in zebrafish. We assessed the effects of withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure, and subsequent administration of fluoxetine (Prozac®), buspirone (Buspar®), and diazepam (Valium) using two behavioral paradigms; the Novel Tank Diving Test and the Light/Dark Choice Assay...
May 2013: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22981367/anxioselective-anxiolytics-on-a-quest-for-the-holy-grail
#18
REVIEW
Phil Skolnick
The discovery of benzodiazepine receptors provided the impetus to discover and develop anxioselective anxiolytics ('Valium without the side effects'). The market potential for an anxioselective based on the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor resulted in clinical trials of multiple compounds. In contrast to the anxioselective profile displayed in preclinical models, compounds such as bretazenil, TPA023, and MRK 409 produced benzodiazepine-like side effects (sedation, dizziness) in Phase I studies, whereas alpidem and ocinaplon exhibited many of the characteristics of an anxioselective in the clinic...
November 2012: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22461947/testicular-compromise-due-to-inguinal-hernia
#19
Morgan Eutermoser, Kristen Nordenholz
A 34-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a 3-hour complaint of pain in the right lower quadrant and right testicle. He stated that his pain began suddenly while standing at work. On physical examination, he had a small, firm, unreducible bulge in his right inguinal canal and an enlarged right scrotum. The patient was placed in trendelenburg position; intravenous fentanyl, valium, and dilaudid were administered; and surgery consult was obtained. A testicular ultrasonogram (Figure) was obtained owing to continued pain in the right scrotum and inability to evaluate the testicle...
February 2012: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22460105/dietary-and-botanical-anxiolytics
#20
REVIEW
Elham Alramadhan, Mirna S Hanna, Mena S Hanna, Todd A Goldstein, Samantha M Avila, Benjamin S Weeks
Drugs used to treat anxiety have many negative side effects including addiction, depression, suicide, seizures, sexual dysfunction, headaches and more. Anxiolytic medications do not restore normal levels of neurotransmitters but instead manipulate the brain chemistry. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) prevent the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse allowing serotonin to remain in the area of activity for a longer period of time but does not correct the lack of serotonin production...
April 2012: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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