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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160182/enhanced-bone-regeneration-via-diabetic-cell-based-adenoviral-bmp2-gene-therapy-in-diabetic-animals
#1
Shin-Young Park, Kyoung-Hwa Kim, Chan Ho Park, Seung-Yun Shin, In-Chul Rhuy, Yong-Moo Lee, Yang Jo Seol
The application of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been extensively investigated to improve diabetes-impaired bone healing; however, the delivery of BMP-2 via gene therapy for bone regeneration has rarely been investigated in diabetic animals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate which cells induce more new bone formation in diabetic animals when cell-based BMP2 gene therapy is applied. For this purpose, we harvested bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) twice in the same animal before (non-diabetic BMSCs; nBMSCs) and after diabetes induction (diabetic BMSCs; dBMSCs) using modified bone marrow ablation methods...
November 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159829/calcium-hydroxide-regulates-transcription-of-the-bone-sialoprotein-gene-via-a-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-osteoblast-like-ros-17-2-8-cells
#2
Shuang Wang, Keisuke Noda, Yuanyuan Yang, Zhengyan Shen, Zhen Chen, Yorimasa Ogata
Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a glycoprotein associated with mineralized tissues. In this study, we investigated the regulation of Bsp transcription by calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] in rat osteosarcoma-derived osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells and stromal bone marrow cells. Application of Ca(OH)2 (0.4 mM) increased the levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and BspmRNAs at 3 and 6 h and the level of BSP protein at 12 h. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs encompassing different regions of the rat Bsp gene promoter ligated to a luciferase reporter gene...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159783/in-vitro-study-of-the-effects-of-denosumab-on-giant-cell-tumor-of-bone-comparison-with-zoledronic-acid
#3
Isao Shibuya, Masamichi Takami, Arei Miyamoto, Akiko Karakawa, Akira Dezawa, Shigeru Nakamura, Ryutaro Kamijo
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive primary bone tumor that contains numerous osteoclasts formed from marrow-derived precursors through receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL), an osteoclast differentiation factor expressed in neoplastic cells of GCTB. Denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting RANKL, has recently been used for the treatment of GCTB, and superior treatment effects have been reported. The aim of this work was to elucidate the mechanism of action of denosumab, and the differences between denosumab and zoledronic acid at the level of GCTB cells...
November 20, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158412/induced-gnas-r201h-expression-from-the-endogenous-gnas-locus-causes-fibrous-dysplasia-by-up-regulating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#4
Sanjoy Kumar Khan, Prem Swaroop Yadav, Gene Elliott, Dorothy Zhang Hu, Ruoshi Xu, Yingzi Yang
Fibrous dysplasia (FD; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man no. 174800) is a crippling skeletal disease caused by activating mutations of the GNAS gene, which encodes the stimulatory G protein Gαs FD can lead to severe adverse conditions such as bone deformity, fracture, and severe pain, leading to functional impairment and wheelchair confinement. So far there is no cure, as the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remain largely unknown and the lack of appropriate animal models has severely hampered FD research...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158314/tumour-adipose-tissue-crosstalk-fuelling-tumour-metastasis-by-extracellular-vesicles
#5
REVIEW
Lucía Robado de Lope, Olwen Leaman Alcíbar, Ana Amor López, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Héctor Peinado
During metastasis, tumour cells must communicate with their microenvironment by secreted soluble factors and extracellular vesicles. Different stromal cell types (e.g. bone marrow-derived cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts) influence the growth and progression of tumours. In recent years, interest has extended to other cell types in the tumour microenvironment such as adipocytes and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Indeed, obesity is becoming pandemic in some developing countries and it is now considered to be a risk factor for cancer progression...
January 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158313/extracellular-vesicle-mediated-cell-cell-communication-in-haematological-neoplasms
#6
REVIEW
Junko H Ohyashiki, Tomohiro Umezu, Kazuma Ohyashiki
Crosstalk between bone marrow tumour cells and surrounding cells, including bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), endothelial cells and immune cells, is important for tumour growth in haematological neoplasms. In addition to conventional signalling pathways, extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are endosome-derived vesicles containing proteins, mRNAs, lipids and miRNAs, can facilitate modulation of the bone marrow microenvironment without directly contacting non-tumourous cells. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of EV-mediated cell-cell communication in haematological neoplasms, particularly leukaemia and multiple myeloma...
January 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157289/vitamin-c-plus-hydrogel-facilitates-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-mediated-endometrium-regeneration-in-rats
#7
Huan Yang, Su Wu, Ran Feng, Junjiu Huang, Lixiang Liu, Feng Liu, Yuqing Chen
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is a common uterine cavity disease which can be caused by mechanical damage that may eventually lead to infertility and pregnancy abnormalities. Since the effect of therapeutic drugs appears disappointing, cell therapy has emerged as an alternative choice for endometrium regeneration. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the combination of hydrogel Pluronic F-127 (PF-127), Vitamin C (Vc), and a bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) mixture could be a feasible strategy to improve the endometrial regeneration in a mechanical damage model of IUA in rats...
November 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156823/differential-activation-of-fyn-kinase-distinguishes-saturated-and-unsaturated-fats-in-mouse-macrophages
#8
Elena Tarabra, Ting-Wen An Lee, Victor A Zammit, Manu Vatish, Eijiro Yamada, Jeffrey E Pessin, Claire C Bastie
Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency (fynKO) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155425/granulocyte-derived-tnf%C3%AE-promotes-vascular-and-hematopoietic-regeneration-in-the-bone-marrow
#9
Emily Bowers, Anastasiya Slaughter, Paul S Frenette, Rork Kuick, Oscar M Pello, Daniel Lucas
Endothelial cells are a critical component of the bone marrow (BM) stromal network, which maintains and regulates hematopoietic cells. Vascular regeneration precedes, and is necessary for, successful hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, the only cure for most hematopoietic diseases. Recent data suggest that mature hematopoietic cells regulate BM stromal-cell function. Whether a similar cross-talk regulates the BM vasculature is not known. Here we found that donor hematopoietic cells act on sinusoidal endothelial cells and induce host blood vessel and hematopoietic regeneration after BM transplantation in mice...
November 20, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155314/mesenchymal-stromal-cell-irradiation-interferes-with-the-adipogenic-osteogenic-differentiation-balance-improving-their-hematopoietic-supporting-ability
#10
Silvia Preciado, Sandra Muntión, Ana Rico, Luis A Pérez Romasanta, Teresa L Ramos, Rebeca Ortega, Javier Borrajo, Luis A Corchete, Concepción Rodríguez, María Díez-Campelo, Luis I Sánchez-Abarca, María-Consuelo Del Cañizo, Fermín Sánchez-Guijo
Bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells are precursors of adipocytes and osteoblasts and key regulators of hematopoiesis. Irradiation is widely used in conditioning regimens. Despite mesenchymal stromal cells are radio-resistant, the effects of low-dose irradiation on their behavior have not been extensively explored. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of 2.5 Gy on mesenchymal stromal cells. Cells from 25 healthy donors were either irradiated or not (the latter were used as controls). Cells were characterized following ISCT criteria, including in vitro differentiation assays...
November 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154961/inhibition-of-cyclooxygenase-cox-2-suppresses-the-recruitment-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-the-microvasculature-of-endometriotic-lesions
#11
Jeannette Rudzitis-Auth, Ruth M Nickels, Michael D Menger, Matthias W Laschke
The incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into newly developing blood vessels contributes to the vascularization of endometriotic lesions. here, we analyzed whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 signaling regulates this vasculogenic process. Endometriotic lesions were surgically induced in irradiated FVB/N mice, which were reconstituted with bone marrow from FVB/N-TgN (Tie2/green fluorescent protein (GFP)) 287 Sato mice. The animals received β-estradiol 17-valerate once a week and were daily treated with the selective COX-2 inhibitor parecoxib (25 mg/kg) or vehicle (control) over 7 and 28 days...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154944/%C3%AE-estradiol-antagonizes-the-inhibitory-effects-of-caffeine-in-bmmscs-via-the-er%C3%AE-mediated-camp-dependent-pka-pathway
#12
Chaowei Wang, Yi Zhou, Xiaoxu Guan, Mengfei Yu, Huiming Wang
Caffeine negatively mediates bone homeostasis to cause bone loss and even osteoporosis. This phenomenon occurs in postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency but not in healthy young women. In this study, we determined whether the effects of caffeine on bone homeostasis were antagonized by estrogen and the underlying mechanisms. In particular, because high levels of cAMP, an important second messenger, have been observed in postmenopausal women suffering from osteoporosis, we examined the role of cAMP in the effects of caffeine on bone homeostasis...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152317/bone-marrow-derived-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-from-horses-after-euthanasia
#13
Carmen Schröck, Carina Eydt, Florian Geburek, Lena Kaiser, Felicitas Päbst, Janina Burk, Christiane Pfarrer, Carsten Staszyk
Allogeneic equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs) have been proposed for use in regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine. A source of allogeneic eMSCs might be the bone marrow from euthanized horses. The purpose of this study was to compare in vitro characteristics of equine bone marrow derived eMSC (eBM-MSCs) from euthanized horses (eut-MSCs) and from narcotized horses (nar-MSCs). Eut-MSCs and nar-MSCs showed typical eMSC marker profiles (positive: CD44, CD90; negative: CD11a/CD18 and MHCII) and possessed tri-lineage differentiation characteristics...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151594/adipocytes-sustain-pancreatic-cancer-progression-through-a-non-canonical-wnt-paracrine-network-inducing-ror2-nuclear-shuttling
#14
C Carbone, G Piro, N Gaianigo, F Ligorio, R Santoro, V Merz, F Simionato, C Zecchetto, G Falco, G Conti, P T Kamga, M Krampera, F Di Nicolantonio, L De Franceschi, A Scarpa, G Tortora, D Melisi
BACKGROUND: Solid epidemiological evidences connect obesity with incidence, stage, and survival in pancreatic cancer. However, the underlying mechanistic basis linking adipocytes to pancreatic cancer progression remain largely elusive. We hypothesized that factors secreted by adipocytes could be responsible for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction and, in turn, a more aggressive phenotype in models of pancreatic preneoplastic lesions. METHODS: We studied the role of factors secreted by two adipogenic model systems from primary human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (hBMSC) in an in vitro experimental cell transformation model system of human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE) cell stably expressing activated KRAS (HPDE/KRAS),RESULTS:We measured a significant induction of EMT and aggressiveness in HPDE and HPDE/KRAS cell lines when cultured with medium conditioned by fully differentiated adipocytes (ADIPO(CM)) if compared with the same cells cultured with medium conditioned by hBMSC (hBMSC(CM)) from two different healthy donors...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151075/formation-of-new-blood-vessels-during-gastric-ulcer-healing-role-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#15
A Ahluwalia, T Brzozowski, M K Jones, Y Ichikawa, A S Tarnawski
Regeneration of blood vessels (neovascularization) is critical for gastric ulcer (GU) healing. The contributions of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMD-EPCs) to neovascularization during GU healing are not fully elucidated. Our specific aims were to determine whether in GU, BMD-EPCs are incorporated into blood vessels of GU granulation tissue jointly with ECs, thus forming hybrid vessels; or, form separate vessels consisting of only BMD-EPCs. GUs were induced in rats by serosal application of acetic acid...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146168/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-enhanced-by-platelet-rich-plasma-maintain-adhesion-to-scaffolds-in-arthroscopic-simulation
#16
Alexander R Hoberman, Carl Cirino, Mary Beth McCarthy, Mark P Cote, Leo Pauzenberger, Knut Beitzel, Augustus D Mazzocca, Felix Dyrna
PURPOSE: To assess the response of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (bMSCs) enhanced by platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the setting of a normal human tendon (NHT), a demineralized bone matrix (DBM), and a fibrin scaffold (FS) with simulated arthroscopic mechanical washout stress. METHODS: Bone marrow was aspirated from the humeral head and concentrated. BMSCs were counted, plated, and grown to confluence. Cells were seeded onto 3 different scaffolds: (1) NHT, (2) DBM, and (3) FS...
November 13, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146005/bone-marrow-adipocytes-in-haematological-malignancies
#17
Ewa Frączak, Mateusz Olbromski, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Natalia Glatzel-Plucińska, Piotr Dzięgiel, Jarosław Dybko, Kazimierz Kuliczkowski, Tomasz Wróbel
Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are an active and significant element of the bone marrow microenvironment. They are involved in metabolic functions, complex interactions with other stromal cells, and in the development and progression of tumours. Currently, there is little data regarding the role of BMAs in haematological malignancies. Due to this, we have attempted to characterise the BMAs in these malignancies in terms of quantity and morphology. Our study included 30 patients aged 22-76 with myelo- (n=17) and lymphoproliferative malignancies (n=13), both with and without bone marrow infiltration...
November 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143796/angelica-sinensis-polysaccharides-ameliorate-stress-induced-premature-senescence-of-hematopoietic-cell-via-protecting-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-from-oxidative-injuries-caused-by-5-fluorouracil
#18
Hanxianzhi Xiao, Lirong Xiong, Xiaoying Song, Pengwei Jin, Linbo Chen, Xiongbin Chen, Hui Yao, Yaping Wang, Lu Wang
Myelosuppression is the most common complication of chemotherapy. Decline of self-renewal capacity and stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) induced by chemotherapeutic agents may be the cause of long-term myelosuppression after chemotherapy. Whether the mechanism of SIPS of hematopoietic cells relates to chemotherapeutic injury occurred in hematopoietic microenvironment (HM) is still not well elucidated. This study explored the protective effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), an acetone extract polysaccharide found as the major effective ingredients of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb named Chinese Angelica (Dong Quai), on oxidative damage of homo sapiens bone marrow/stroma cell line (HS-5) caused by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and the effect of ASP relieving oxidative stress in HM on SIPS of hematopoietic cells...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140182/tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-cxcl12-modulate-proliferation-and-chemotherapy-sensitivity-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-co-cultured-with-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#19
Roland Christian Schelker, Sabine Iberl, Gunnar Müller, Christina Hart, Wolfgang Herr, Jochen Grassinger
OBJECTIVES: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play a central role within the bone marrow (BM) niche, supporting hematopoiesis via soluble factors like cytokines and chemokines. In our study, we sought to investigate the effect of blocking transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) receptor CXCR4 on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in an MSC co-culture system. METHODS: Human MSCs were obtained by BM aspirates and their phenotype and functional properties were confirmed in vitro...
November 15, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139088/contrasting-views-on-the-role-of-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-in-tumour-growth-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-design
#20
Ahmed Kolade Oloyo, Melvin Anyasi Ambele, Michael Sean Pepper
The effect of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) on tumour growth remains controversial. Experimental evidence supports both an inhibitory and a stimulatory effect. We have assessed factors responsible for the contrasting effects of MSCs on tumour growth by doing a meta-analysis of existing literature between 2000 and May 2017. We assessed 183 original research articles comprising 338 experiments. We considered (a) in vivo and in vitro experiments, (b) whether in vivo studies were syngeneic or xenogeneic, and (c) if animals were immune competent or deficient...
November 15, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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