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Tlr4, tlr2, toll like receptor,

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787561/interplay-of-strain-and-race-ethnicity-in-the-innate-immune-response-to-m-tuberculosis
#1
P Nahid, L G Jarlsberg, M Kato-Maeda, M R Segal, D H Osmond, S Gagneux, K Dobos, M Gold, P C Hopewell, D M Lewinsohn
BACKGROUND: The roles of host and pathogen factors in determining innate immune responses to M. tuberculosis are not fully understood. In this study, we examined host macrophage immune responses of 3 race/ethnic groups to 3 genetically and geographically diverse M. tuberculosis lineages. METHODS: Monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy Filipinos, Chinese and non-Hispanic White study participants (approximately 45 individuals/group) were challenged with M. tuberculosis whole cell lysates of clinical strains Beijing HN878 (lineage 2), Manila T31 (lineage 1), CDC1551 (lineage 4), the reference strain H37Rv (lineage 4), as well as with Toll-like receptor 2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (TLR2/LTA) and TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (TLR4/LPS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779267/%C3%AE-synuclein-activates-innate-immunity-but-suppresses-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-murine-astrocytes
#2
Jintang Wang, Zheng Chen, Jeremy Walston, Peisong Gao, Maolong Gao, Sean X Leng
Glial activation and neuroinflammation contribute to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, linked to neuron loss and dysfunction. α-Synuclein (α-syn), as a metabolite of neuron, can induce microglia activation to trigger innate immune response. However, whether α-syn, as well as its mutants (A53T, A30P and E46K), induces astrocyte activation and inflammatory response is not fully elucidated. In this study, we used A53T mutant and wildtype α-syns to stimulate primary astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manners (0...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777767/biglycan-is-a-new-high-affinity-ligand-for-cd14-in-macrophages
#3
Heiko Roedig, Madalina V Nastase, Helena Frey, Kristin Moreth, Jinyang Zeng-Brouwers, Chiara Poluzzi, Louise Tzung-Harn Hsieh, Christian Brandts, Simone Fulda, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
Sterile inflammation is a therapeutic target in many diseases where it represents an important initiator of disease progression. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying its evolution and biological relevance are not yet completely elucidated. Biglycan, a prototype extracellular matrix-derived damage-associated molecular pattern, mediates sterile inflammation in macrophages through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and/or TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. Here we discovered that soluble biglycan is a novel high-affinity ligand for CD14, a well-known GPI-anchored co-receptor for TLRs...
May 16, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774159/toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-modulate-intestinal-il-10-differently-in-ileum-and-colon
#4
Eva Latorre, Elena Layunta, Laura Grasa, Julián Pardo, Santiago García, Ana I Alcalde, José E Mesonero
Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases are consequence of an intestinal homeostasis breakdown in which innate immune dysregulation is implicated. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are immune recognition receptors expressed in the intestinal epithelium, the first physical-physiological barrier for microorganisms, to inform the host of the presence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an essential anti-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to maintenance of intestinal homeostasis...
April 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765997/effects-of-oral-probiotic-feeding-on-toll-like-receptor-gene-expression-of-the-chicken-s-cecal-tonsil
#5
Fatemeh Asgari, Reza Falak, Shahram Teimourian, Babak Pourakbari, Salimeh Ebrahimnezhad, Mehdi Shekarabi
Background: It was proposed that probiotics may influence immune system through direct or indirect exposure. Direct exposure is mostly mediated by surface receptors. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are conserved molecular sensors which could be triggered via some pathogen associated structures, hence, modulate the immune responses. This study was conducted to elucidate the impact of lactobacillus acidophilus as a common probiotic on the expression level of TLRs in the chicken's cecal tonsil...
April 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764842/role-of-the-hepcidin-ferroportin-axis-in-pathogen-mediated-intracellular-iron-sequestration-in-human-phagocytic-cells
#6
Rodrigo Abreu, Frederick Quinn, Pramod K Giri
Upon infection, pathogen and host compete for the same iron pool, because this trace metal is a crucial micronutrient for all living cells. Iron dysregulation in the host is strongly associated with poor outcomes in several infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, AIDS, and malaria, and inefficient iron scavenging by pathogens severely affects their virulence. Hepcidin is the master regulator of iron homeostasis in vertebrates, responsible for diminishing iron export from macrophages during iron overload or infection...
May 22, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760696/podosomes-but-not-the-maturation-status-determine-the-protease-dependent-3d-migration-in-human-dendritic-cells
#7
Céline Cougoule, Claire Lastrucci, Romain Guiet, Rémi Mascarau, Etienne Meunier, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Olivier Neyrolles, Renaud Poincloux, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini
Dendritic cells (DC) are professional Antigen-Presenting Cells scattered throughout antigen-exposed tissues and draining lymph nodes, and survey the body for pathogens. Their ability to migrate through tissues, a 3D environment, is essential for an effective immune response. Upon infection, recognition of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP) by Toll-like receptors (TLR) triggers DC maturation. Mature DC (mDC) essentially use the protease-independent, ROCK-dependent amoeboid mode in vivo , or in collagen matrices in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757592/the-profile-of-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-tlr4-and-their-cytosolic-downstream-signaling-pathway-in-common-variable-immunodeficiency-cvid-patients
#8
Laleh Sharifi, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Nima Rezaei, Reza Yazdani, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Farimah Masoumi, Saied Bokaie, Parsova Tavasolian, Rouzbeh Sanaei, Mona Moshiri, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Tina Alinia, Gholamreza Azizi, Abbas Mirshafiey
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinical primary antibody deficiency, characterized by increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the maturation and differentiation of B-cells, TLRs' defect can be involved in the pathogenesis of CVID. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 and their signaling pathway; also their association with autoimmunity, B-cell subtypes and response to pneumovax-23 were assessed in CVID patients...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755012/association-of-a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-tlr2-gene-rs3804099-but-not-in-the-tlr4-gene-rs4986790-with-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-peptic-ulcer
#9
Ehsan Mirkamandar, Maryam Nemati, Mohammad Mehdi Hayatbakhsh, Arezu Bassagh, Arezu Khosravimashizi, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), particularly TLR2 and TLR4, take part in elicitation of immune responses against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs3804099 in the TLR2 gene and rs4986790 in the TLR4 gene with H. pylori infection and peptic ulcer (PU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood specimens were obtained from 350 individuals, including 100 H. pylori-infected patients with PU, 125 H...
May 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752990/fecal-bacteria-from-crohn-s-disease-patients-more-potently-activated-nod-like-receptors-and-toll-like-receptors-in-macrophages-in-an-il-4-repressible-fashion
#10
Jun Gu, Gang Liu, Junjie Xing, Haihan Song, Zhongchuan Wang
Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by a pathogenic intestinal inflammation mediated by a Th1-skewed immune system and a dysregulated intestinal mucosal community. In this study, we investigated the role of bacteria on the activation and function of monocytes, and its association with CD pathogenesis. To this end, fecal bacteria from CD patients and healthy controls were collected and used to stimulate autologous circulating monocytes. Fecal bacteria from CD patients were more effective at upregulating NOD2, NLRP3, TLR2, and TLR4 expression than fecal bacteria from healthy controls...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729606/evaluation-of-tissue-levels-of-toll-like-receptors-and-cytokine-mrnas-associated-with-bovine-periodontitis-and-oral-health
#11
Ana C Borsanelli, David F Lappin, Lorenzo Viora, George King, David Bennett, Iveraldo S Dutra, Marcello P Riggio
Bovine periodontitis is a progressive and purulent infection associated with an anaerobic subgingival biofilm, which induces irreversible damage to the dentition of affected animals. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is unclear and treatment and control of the disease process in cattle are almost unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the innate immune response by quantifying expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) and cytokine genes in gingival tissue samples from cattle with and without periodontitis...
April 25, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728623/specific-features-of-human-monocytes-activation-by-monophosphoryl-lipid-a
#12
Ryme Chentouh, Catherine Fitting, Jean-Marc Cavaillon
We deciphered the mechanisms of production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by adherent human blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). Both LPS and MPLA induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production proved to be dependent on the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Of note, MPLA induced IL-1β release in human adherent PBMCs whereas MPLA was previously reported to not induce this cytokine in murine cells. Both LPS and MPLA stimulatory effects were inhibited by Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) antagonists...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698675/human-choroidal-melanocytes-express-functional-toll-like-receptors-tlrs
#13
Adrian V Cioanca, Peter J McCluskey, Steven S Eamegdool, Michele C Madigan
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors that sense highly conserved pathogen associated antigenic determinants, triggering an innate immune response and subsequently instructing the adaptive immune system so that together, the pathogen can be eliminated. TLRs are widely distributed in human ocular tissues and cell types, and are active players in ocular inflammation. To date, the presence and function of TLRs on human choroidal melanocytes (HCMs), the most abundant choroidal cell type, have not been characterized...
April 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695002/changes-in-the-messenger-rna-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-in-healthy-infants-according-to-age
#14
Francesco Savino, Ilaria Galliano, Maria Garro, Andrea Savino, Paolo Manzoni, Valentina Daprà, Paola Montanari, Massimiliano Bergallo
BACKGROUND:  Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are potentially useful indicators of several pediatric disease states. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which inflammation is regulated by interactions between microbiota and the host. Little data are available regarding the expression of TLRs in postnatal healthy infants. TLR 2 and TLR4 are extracellular TLRs that act as innate immune receptors by recognizing a wide range of endogenous ligands and microorganisms. METHODS:  The aim of this study was to use real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of TLR2 and TLR4 in blood samples obtained from healthy full-term infants and toddlers...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691386/toll-like-receptors-mediated-pathways-activate-inflammatory-responses-in-the-esophageal-mucosa-of-adult-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#15
Ángel Arias, María Vicario, David Bernardo, José M Olalla, Marina Fortea, Ana Montalban-Arques, Pilar Martínez-Fernández, Ana M González-Castro, Teresa Mota-Huertas, Laura Arias-González, Alfredo J Lucendo
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal microbiota and regulation of adaptive immunity are increasingly being investigated in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of innate immune activity. Our objective was to characterize the esophageal and duodenal innate immune response in EoE and its modulation by dietary therapy. METHODS: Esophageal and duodenal biopsy samples were collected from 10 adults with untreated EoE, before and after effective treatment with a six-food elimination diet (SFED), and 10 controls with normal esophagus...
April 25, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686780/peptidoglycan-associated-lipoprotein-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-induces-apoptosis-and-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-via-tlr2-in-murine-macrophages-raw-264-7-in-vitro
#16
Riikka Ihalin, Kjell Eneslätt, Sirkka Asikainen
Peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) is a conserved pro-inflammatory outer membrane lipoprotein in Gram-negative bacteria. Compared to systemic pathogens, little is known about the virulence properties of PAL in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AaPAL). The aims of this study were to investigate the cytolethality of AaPAL and its ability to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Mouse macrophages were stimulated with AaPAL, and the production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 was measured after 6, 24, and 48 h...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683870/isosteviol-sodium-injection-improves-outcomes-by-modulating-tlrs-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#17
Jie Zan, Hao Zhang, Min-Yi Lu, Hui-Min Beng, Kai-Lun Zhong, Xiao-Ou Sun, Wen Tan
Previous studies have shown that isosteviol sodium (STVNa) protects against permanent cerebral ischemia injury by inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Overwhelming evidence shows that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the upstream regulators of NF-κB. On the basis of the similarity of the pathology caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, we speculated that STVNa may have a therapeutic effect against TBI through regulation of the TLRs/NF-κB signaling-mediated inflammatory response...
April 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678225/synergistic-effect-of-co-stimulation-of-membrane-and-endosomal-tlrs-on-chicken-innate-immune-responses
#18
Sungwon Kim, Pete Kaiser, Dominika Borowska, Lonneke Vervelde
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (TLR-Ls) are critical activators of immunity and are successfully being developed as vaccine adjuvants in both mammals and birds. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of co-stimulation of membrane and endosomal TLRs on the innate immune responses using chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), and studied the effect of age on the induction of innate responses. BMMs from 1 and 4-week-old birds were stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4 (PCSK; TLR2), synthetic monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), Di[3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonyl]-lipid A ammonium salt (KLA; TLR4), Gardiquimod, Resiquimod (R848; TLR7), CpG class B and C (TLR21)...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670923/cathelicidin-ll-37-affects-surface-and-intracellular-toll-like-receptor-expression-in-tissue-mast-cells
#19
Justyna Agier, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Paulina Żelechowska, Magdalena Wiktorska, Jacek Pietrzak, Sylwia Różalska
Undoubtedly, mast cells take part in host defense against microorganisms as they are numerous at the portal of infection, they release many proinflammatory and antimicrobial mediators, and they express pattern recognition receptors, such as TLRs. These receptors play a key role in recognition and binding molecules associated with microorganisms and molecules associated with damage. Cathelicidins exhibit direct antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microbes by perturbing their cell membranes. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for these molecules in supporting cell activation...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659876/effects-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-lr1-on-the-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-weaned-pigs
#20
Hongbo Yi, Guangda Yang, Yunxia Xiong, Xiaolu Wen, Zhilin Wang, Xuefen Yang, Kaiguo Gao, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, a new strain isolated from the feces of weaned pigs, on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. A total of 144 weaned pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 21 d of age) with an initial BW of 6.49 ± 0.02 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens, each of per treatment and 6 pigs. Pigs were fed a basal diet (CON, controls), the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 75 mg/kg aureomycin (OA) or the basal diet supplemented with 5×1010 cfu/kg L...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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