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Tlr4, tlr2, toll like receptor,

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093922/toll-like-receptors-and-their-soluble-forms-differ-in-the-knee-and-thumb-basal-osteoarthritic-joints
#1
Goncalo Barreto, Jerker Sandelin, Abdelhakim Salem, Dan C Nordström, Eero Waris
Background and purpose - Although the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood, chondrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses (triggered by the activation of innate immune receptors by damage-associated molecules) are thought to be involved. We examined the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and OA in cartilage from 2 joints differing in size and mechanical loading: the first carpometacarpal (CMC-I) and the knee. Patients and methods - Samples of human cartilage obtained from OA CMC-I and knee joints were immunostained for TLRs (1-9) and analyzed using histomorphometry and principal component analysis (PCA)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089363/pertussis-toxin-targets-the-innate-immunity-through-dap12-fcr%C3%AE-and-myd88-adaptor-proteins
#2
Vongsavanh Phongsisay, Ei'ichi Iizasa, Hiromitsu Hara, Hiroki Yoshida
Activation of the innate immunity by adjuvants, such as pertussis toxin (PTX), in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes and antigen mimicry is sufficient to trigger autoimmunity. Toll-like, C-type lectin, and immunglobulin-like receptors play an important role in the innate immunity by sensing a variety of microbial products through several adaptor proteins, including MyD88, DAP12, and FcRγ. This study investigated the interaction between PTX and innate immune components. The direct interactions between coated PTX and receptor-fusion proteins were examined using ELISA-based binding assays...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089357/localization-of-toll-like-receptor-tlr-2-and-tlr4-mrna-in-the-colorectal-mucosa-of-miniature-dachshunds-with-inflammatory-colorectal-polyps
#3
N Yokoyama, H Ohta, J Yamazaki, Y Kagawa, O Ichii, N Khoirun, T Morita, T Osuga, S Y Lim, N Sasaki, K Morishita, K Nakamura, M Takiguchi
Inflammatory colorectal polyps (ICRPs) are characterized by the formation of multiple or solitary polyps with marked neutrophil infiltration in the colorectal area, and are speculated to be a novel form of breed-specific canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In human IBD, toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA in the colorectal mucosa of dogs with ICRPs by in-situ hybridization using an RNAscope assay...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069966/inherited-human-irak-1-deficiency-selectively-impairs-tlr-signaling-in-fibroblasts
#4
Erika Della Mina, Alessandro Borghesi, Hao Zhou, Salim Bougarn, Sabri Boughorbel, Laura Israel, Ilaria Meloni, Maya Chrabieh, Yun Ling, Yuval Itan, Alessandra Renieri, Iolanda Mazzucchelli, Sabrina Basso, Piero Pavone, Raffaele Falsaperla, Roberto Ciccone, Rosa Maria Cerbo, Mauro Stronati, Capucine Picard, Orsetta Zuffardi, Laurent Abel, Damien Chaussabel, Nico Marr, Xiaoxia Li, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
Most members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) families transduce signals via a canonical pathway involving the MyD88 adapter and the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) complex. This complex contains four molecules, including at least two (IRAK-1 and IRAK-4) active kinases. In mice and humans, deficiencies of IRAK-4 or MyD88 abolish most TLR (except for TLR3 and some TLR4) and IL-1R signaling in both leukocytes and fibroblasts. TLR and IL-1R responses are weak but not abolished in mice lacking IRAK-1, whereas the role of IRAK-1 in humans remains unclear...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060920/the-tir-homologue-lies-near-resistance-genes-in-staphylococcus-aureus-coupling-modulation-of-virulence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility
#5
Sabine Patot, Paul Rc Imbert, Jessica Baude, Patricia Martins Simões, Jean-Baptiste Campergue, Arthur Louche, Reindert Nijland, Michèle Bès, Anne Tristan, Frédéric Laurent, Adrien Fischer, Jacques Schrenzel, François Vandenesch, Suzana P Salcedo, Patrice François, Gérard Lina
Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains in Toll-like receptors are essential for initiating and propagating the eukaryotic innate immune signaling cascade. Here, we investigate TirS, a Staphylococcus aureus TIR mimic that is part of a novel bacterial invasion mechanism. Its ectopic expression in eukaryotic cells inhibited TLR signaling, downregulating the NF-kB pathway through inhibition of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9. Skin lesions induced by the S. aureus knockout tirS mutant increased in a mouse model compared with wild-type and restored strains even though the tirS-mutant and wild-type strains did not differ in bacterial load...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035483/chlamydia-pneumoniae-induces-interleukin-12-responses-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-asthma-and-the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-2-versus-4-a-pilot-study
#6
T A Smith-Norowitz, J Perlman, Y M Norowitz, R Joks, H G Durkin, M R Hammerschlag, S Kohlhoff
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae causes respiratory infection in adults and children, and has been associated with asthma exacerbations and induction of Immunoglobulin (Ig) E responses. We previously reported that C. pneumoniae enhances T helper (Th) 2 responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from asthmatic patients. It is likely that toll like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 mediate cytokine responses and host defense against C. pneumoniae. Thus, we sought to determine whether engagement of TLR-2 or TLR-4 may induce IL-12 production in our C...
December 29, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028951/increased-expression-of-tlr4-and-tlr7-but-not-prolactin-mrna-by-peripheral-blood-monocytes-in-active-celiac-disease
#7
Iva Brynychova, Iva Hoffmanova, Milos Dvorak, Pavlina Dankova
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and both adaptive and innate immunity are involved in its development. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether the markers of intestinal mucosal inflammation in CD can be detected in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs), and whether the immune properties of PBMs change as the clinical signs and symptoms of CD improve after the introduction of a gluten-free diet (GFD). The focus was on changes in mRNA expression of selected toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4, TLR7), stress cytokine prolactin (PRL), and proand anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10) in PBMs...
September 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027081/altered-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-in-human-oral-epithelium-in-oral-lichenoid-reactions
#8
Abdelhakim Salem, Rabeia Mustafa, Dyah Listyarifah, Ahmed Al-Samadi, Goncalo Barreto, Dan Nordström, Kari K Eklund
Oral lichenoid reactions (OLRs) are chronic inflammatory lesions induced by contact with allergens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of pattern-recognition receptor superfamily. Once activated, TLRs induce production of cytokines and chemokines, thus leading to inflammatory reaction in host tissue. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of TLRs in the initiation and perpetuation of OLRs, in which TLRs induce innate immune responses mounted against allergens. TLRs, 1 through 10, were mapped in tissue samples obtained from healthy donors and OLR patients using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and image analyses...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025987/toll-like-receptor-activation-by-sino-nasal-mucus-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#9
K Biswas, A Chang, M Hoggard, F J Radcliff, Y Jiang, M W Taylor, R Darveau, R G Douglas
BACKGROUND: The sino-nasal disease chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is primarily an inflammatory condition that manifests in several ways. However, the aetiology of this complex disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore the association between toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, host immune response and sino-nasal mucus in healthy and diseased patients. METHODS: The activation of TLR2/1 and TLR4 by sino-nasal mucus from 26 CRS patients and 10 healthy controls was measured...
December 27, 2016: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017496/toll-like-receptor-3-and-interferon-%C3%AE-mrna-expressions-were-increased-in-peripheral-blood-of-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-good-outcome
#10
Lingna Deng, Jingrui Pan, Qingxia Peng, Zhaofei Dong, Yidong Wang
BACKGROUND: Innate immunity plays an important role in brain ischemic injury, but there are only few studies on the effects of toll-like receptors (TLRs) on cerebral infarction patients up to now. We aimed to evaluate the TLR mRNA expression of patients with different outcomes. METHODS: Eighty-six cases suffering from cerebral infarction within 14 days were assigned into the good outcome group (n = 47) and the bad outcome group (n = 39) depending on the modified Rankin Scale scores (mRS ≤2 at 90 days following stroke onset was good outcome)...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011917/toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-mediated-reciprocal-th17-and-antibody-responses-to-group-a-streptococcus-infection
#11
Xiaoshuang Wang, Xin Fan, Shuai Bi, Ning Li, Beinan Wang
BACKGROUND: The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in adaptive immunity is incompletely understood. Recurrent human infections by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) and associated autoimmune conditions suggest that the immunity to GAS is intricately regulated and TLRs may be involved in the regulation. METHODS: This study investigated adaptive mucosal immune responses to GAS in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice with an intranasal infection model. RESULTS: FACS analyses of Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) cells showed that robust Th17 responses to GAS in WT mice were reduced in TLR2(-/-) mice by 50%...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009429/association-between-toll-like-receptor-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-immunological-pathways-in-uterine-cervical-neoplasms
#12
Lucas G G de Matos, Eduardo B Cândido, Paula V T Vidigal, Polyanna H C Bordoni, Rivia M Lamaita, Márcia M Carneiro, Agnaldo L da Silva-Filho
INTRODUCTION: The immune system plays a critical role in the defense against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its persistence. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane receptors responsible for activation of the innate immune response, and an association between TLR expression and uterine cervical cancer has been shown. Tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) are among the main mediators of skin and mucosa inflammation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the association between TLR and TNF immune expression and cervical cancer and premalignant cervical lesions...
November 15, 2016: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003154/antipsychotics-influence-toll-like-receptor-tlr-expression-and-its-relationship-with-cognitive-functions-in-schizophrenia
#13
Szabolcs Kéri, Csilla Szabó, Oguz Kelemen
Increasing evidence suggests that altered immune functions are related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Relatively little information is available on Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are implicated in the recognition of molecular patterns associated with pathogens and internal cellular damage signals. By using immunophenotyping and flow cytometry, we investigated TLRs in CD14+ monocytes, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), and CD3+CD4+CD25+ activated T cells (Tact) in 35 drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia before and after an 8-week period of antipsychotic treatment with risperidone or olanzapine...
December 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997520/polymorphisms-of-mannose-binding-lectin-and-toll-like-receptors-2-3-4-7-and-8-and-the-risk-of-respiratory-infections-and-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#14
Laura Toivonen, Juho Vuononvirta, Jussi Mertsola, Matti Waris, Qiushui He, Ville Peltola
BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and toll-like receptors (TLR) are important components of the innate immune system. We assessed the susceptibility of children with genetic variants in these factors to respiratory infections, rhinovirus infections, and acute otitis media. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, blood samples from 381 Finnish children were analyzed for polymorphisms in MBL2 at codons 52, 54, and 57, TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 Leu412Phe, TLR4 Asp299Gly, TLR7 Gln11Leu, and TLR8 Leu651Leu...
December 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997339/toll-like-receptor-3-adjuvant-in-combination-with-virus-like-particles-elicit-a-humoral-response-against-hiv
#15
Ethan Poteet, Phoebe Lewis, Changyi Chen, Sam On Ho, Thai Do, SuMing Chiang, Celia Labranche, David Montefiori, Gary Fujii, Qizhi Yao
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) composed of HIVIIIB Gag and HIVBaL gp120/gp41 envelope are a pseudovirion vaccine capable of presenting antigens in their native conformations. To enhance the immunogenicity of the HIV Env antigen, VLPs were coupled to VesiVax Conjugatable Adjuvant Lipid Vesicles (CALV) containing one of four toll-like-receptor (TLR) ligands, each activating a receptor with distinct cellular localization and downstream pathways. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated by intranasal prime followed by two sub-cheek boosts and their sera immunoglobulin and neutralizing potency were measured over a duration of 3months after vaccination...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996041/leptospira-surface-adhesin-lsa21-induces-toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-macrophages
#16
Syed M Faisal, Vivek P Varma, M Subathra, Sarwar Azam, Anil K Sunkara, Mohd Akif, Mirza S Baig, Yung-Fu Chang
Leptospirosis is zoonotic and emerging infectious disease of global importance. Little is understood about Leptospira pathogenesis and host immune response. In the present work we have investigated how Leptospira modulates the host innate immune response mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) via surface exposed proteins. We screened Leptospira outer membrane/surface proteins for their ability to activate/inhibit TLR2/4 signaling in HEK293 cell lines. Of these the 21 kDa Leptospira surface adhesin, Lsa21 had strong TLR2 and TLR4 activity leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of costimulatory molecules in mouse macrophages...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988432/tlrs-future-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-ra
#17
REVIEW
Hatem A Elshabrawy, Abdul E Essani, Zoltán Szekanecz, David A Fox, Shiva Shahrara
Toll like receptors (TLR)s have a central role in regulating innate immunity and in the last decade studies have begun to reveal their significance in potentiating autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Earlier investigations have highlighted the importance of TLR2 and TLR4 function in RA pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the newer data that indicate roles for TLR5 and TLR7 in RA and its preclinical models. We evaluate the pathogenicity of TLRs in RA myeloid cells, synovial tissue fibroblasts, T cells, osteoclast progenitor cells and endothelial cells...
December 15, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966312/the-common-genetic-variants-of-toll-like-receptor-and-susceptibilityto-adenoid-hypertrophy-a-hospital-based-cohort-study
#18
Mehmet Ali Babademez, Talih Özdaş, Sibel Özdaş
BACKGROUND/AIM: Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is one of the most frequent pediatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TLR2-R753Q, TLR4-T399I, and TLR4-D299G polymorphisms in children with AH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The variants of the TLR gene were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 60 patients with AH and in 50 healthy children. Data were analyzed with SNPStats and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) software...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943385/m2000-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-as-a-novel-antagonist-for-blocking-the-tlr2-and-tlr4-downstream-signaling-pathway
#19
Somaye Aletaha, Vahid Asgary, Leila Haddad, Maryam Roozbehkia, Reza Ahangari Cohan, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Abbas Mirshafiey
To date, selective blockade of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling have been developed as a new approach for treatment many inflammatory diseases. Since β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) has been known as an anti-inflammatory molecule in several experimental models, we investigated the antagonistic effects of M2000 on TLR2 and TLR4 downstream signaling transduction pathway in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell lines overexpressing TLR2/CD14 and the TLR4/MD2/CD14 complex, respectively. M2000 effectively inhibited mRNA expression of MyD88 and p65, major subunit of nuclear factor-κB, in HEK293 cells stimulated by Lipoteichoic acid (LTA, a TLR2 agonist) and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 agonist) with no evidence of cytotoxicity...
December 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934954/strap-acts-as-a-scaffolding-protein-in-controlling-the-tlr2-4-signaling-pathway
#20
Hyunbin D Huh, Eun A Ra, Taeyun A Lee, Sujin Kang, Areum Park, Eunhye Lee, Junhee L Choi, Eunji Jang, Ji Eun Lee, Sungwook Lee, Boyoun Park
The WD40-repeat protein serine/threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) is involved in the regulation of several biological processes, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, in response to various stresses. Here, we show that STRAP is a new scaffold protein that functions in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune responses. STRAP specifically binds transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and IκB kinase alpha (IKKα) along with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65, leading to enhanced association between TAK1, IKKα, and p65, and subsequent facilitation of p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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