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Tlr4, tlr2, toll like receptor,

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350671/enhanced-calvarial-bone-healing-in-cd11c-tlr4-and-myd88-mice
#1
Dan Wang, Gwen M Taylor, James R Gilbert, Joseph E Losee, Chhinder P Sodhi, David J Hackam, Timothy R Billiar, Gregory M Cooper
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is integral to the injury response. The inflammatory response is essential to the host defense against infection and also to tissue regeneration and repair. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical activators of the innate immune response and present attractive therapeutic targets for inflammation-modulated tissue regeneration. The authors' previous study showed that depletion of TLR4 resulted in accelerated skull bone healing concurrent with increased expression of osteoclastogenic genes...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344593/agaricus-brasiliensis-polysaccharides-stimulate-human-monocytes-to-capture-candida-albicans-express-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-and-produce-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#2
Priscila Raquel Martins, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Andrea Vanessa da Silva Pinto Domeneghini, Márjorie Assis Golim, Ramon Kaneno
BACKGROUND: Agaricus brasiliensis is a medicinal mushroom with immunomodulatory and antitumor activities attributed to the β-glucans presented in the polysaccharide fraction of its fruiting body. Since β-glucans enhance cellular immunoresponsiveness, in this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of an acid-treated polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF) of A. brasiliensis on the ability of human monocytes to adhere/phagocyte C. albicans yeast cells, their expression of pattern recognition receptors and their ability to produce cytokines...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340580/toll-like-receptors-genes-polymorphisms-and-the-occurrence-of-hcmv-infection-among-pregnant-women
#3
Wioletta Wujcicka, Edyta Paradowska, Mirosława Studzińska, Jan Wilczyński, Dorota Nowakowska
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of intrauterine infections worldwide. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been reported as important factors in immune response against HCMV. Particularly, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 have been shown to be involved in antiviral immunity. Evaluation of the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genes, in the development of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in pregnant women and their fetuses and neonates, was performed...
March 24, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338748/role-of-scavenger-receptors-as-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-receptors-in-toll-like-receptor-activation
#4
Kyoko Komai, Takashi Shichita, Minako Ito, Mitsuhiro Kanamori, Shunsuke Chikuma, Akihiko Yoshimura
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have been implicated in sterile inflammation in various tissue injuries. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a representative DAMP, and has been shown to transmit signals through receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) and TLRs, including TLR2 and TLR4. HMGB1 does not, however, bind to TLRs with high affinity; therefore, the mechanism of HMGB1-mediated TLR activation remains unclear. In this study, we found that fluorescently labeled HMGB1 was efficiently internalized into macrophages through class A scavenger receptors...
February 24, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327786/polymorphisms-in-genes-tlr1-2-and-4-are-associated-with-differential-cytokine-and-chemokine-serum-production-in-patients-with-leprosy
#5
Nadja de Lima Santana, Jamile Leão Rêgo, Joyce Moura Oliveira, Lucas Frederico de Almeida, Marcos Braz, Lídia Maria Medeiros Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Léa Cristina Castellucci
BACKGROUND: Leprosy or hansen's disease is a spectral disease whose clinical forms mostly depends on host's immune and genetic factors. Different Toll-like receptors (TLR) variants have been described associated with leprosy, but with some lack of replication across different populations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of polymorphisms in genes TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 and susceptibility to leprosy in a genetic case control study; to verify the association between genotypes of these markers and the immunological profile in the serum of patients with leprosy...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319123/saccharomyces-boulardii-and-bacillus-subtilis-b10-modulate-tlrs-and-cytokines-expression-patterns-in-jejunum-and-ileum-of-broilers
#6
Imran Rashid Rajput, Huang Ying, Sun Yajing, Muhammad Asif Arain, Li Weifen, Li Ping, Dost Muhammad Bloch, Liu Wenhua
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299776/toll-like-receptors-elicit-different-recruitment-kinetics-of-monocytes-and-neutrophils-in-mouse-acute-inflammation
#7
Beat A Imhof, Stephane Jemelin, Yalin Emre
Leukocyte recruitment is an important process in combatting pathogens. The largest class of circulating leukocytes are neutrophils, which rapidly invade inflamed tissue, followed by inflammatory Ly6C(+) monocytes. Ly6C(low) monocytes patrol the endothelial wall routinely in the steady state. We recently reported early luminal recruitment of Ly6C(low) monocytes, which preceded and orchestrated neutrophil arrival and extravasation in response to TLR7/8-mediated vascular inflammation. Here we dissected the kinetics of recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils and examined the dynamics of Ly6C(low) monocytes in response to several other Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, using intravital confocal microscopy...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296959/estradiol-alters-the-immune-responsiveness-of-cervical-epithelial-cells-stimulated-with-ligands-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#8
Behnia S Lashkari, Dilly O C Anumba
The mucosa of the female reproductive tract plays a pivotal role in host defence. Pregnancy must alter immunological mechanisms at this interface to protect the conceptus. We sought to determine how estradiol (E2) alters the immune-responsiveness of cervical epithelial cells to ligand stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4. Human ectocervical epithelial cells (HECECs) were cultured and co-incubated with two concentrations of E2 and peptidoglycan (PGN) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) over durations that ranged between 10 minutes and 18 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293399/up-regulation-of-tlr2-and-tlr4-in-high-mobility-group-box1-stimulated-macrophages-in-pulpitis-patients
#9
Javad Mahmoudi, Babak Sabermarouf, Behzad Baradaran, Leila Sadat-Hatamnezhad, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani
OBJECTIVES: High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone, DNA-binding protein that serves a crucial role in regulating gene transcription and is involved in a variety of proinflammatory, extracellular activities. The aim of this study was to explore whether HMGB1 stimulation can up-regulate the expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophages from pulpitis and to clarify the subsequent events involving Th17 cells and Th17 cell-associated cytokine changes...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273337/ethanol-tlr3-and-tlr4-agonists-have-unique-innate-immune-responses-in-neuron-like-sh-sy5y-and-microglia-like-bv2
#10
Colleen J Lawrimore, Fulton T Crews
Ethanol (EtOH) consumption leads to an increase of proinflammatory signaling via activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) such as TLR3 and TLR4 that leads to kinase activation (ERK1/2, p38, TBK1), transcription factor activation (NFκB, IRF3) and increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6. This immune signaling cascade is thought to play a role in neurodegeneration and alcohol use disorders. While microglia are considered to be the primary macrophage in brain, it is unclear what if any role neurons play in ethanol-induced proinflammatory signaling METHODS: Microglia-like BV2 and retinoic acid differentiated neuron-like SH-SY5Y were treated with TLR3 agonist Poly(I:C), TLR4 agonist LPS, or EtOH for 10 or 30 minutes to examine proinflammatory immune signaling kinase and transcription factor activation using western blot, and for 24 hours to examine induction of proinflammatory gene mRNA using RT-PCR RESULTS: In BV2, both LPS and Poly(I:C) increased p-ERK1/2, p-p38, and p-NFκB by 30 minutes, whereas EtOH decreased p-ERK1/2 and increased p-IRF3...
March 8, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262750/the-interaction-between-farming-rural-environment-and-tlr2-tlr4-tlr6-and-cd14-genetic-polymorphisms-in-relation-to-early-and-late-onset-asthma
#11
Melisa Y Z Lau, Shyamali C Dharmage, John A Burgess, Aung K Win, Adrian J Lowe, Caroline Lodge, Jennifer Perret, Jennie Hui, Paul S Thomas, Stephen Morrison, Graham G Giles, John Hopper, Michael J Abramson, E Haydn Walters, Melanie C Matheson
Asthma phenotypes based on age-of-onset may be differently influenced by the interaction between variation in toll-like receptor (TLR)/CD14 genes and environmental microbes. We examined the associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the TLR/CD14 genes and asthma, and their interaction with proxies of microbial exposure (childhood farm exposure and childhood rural environment). Ten SNPs in four genes (TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, CD14) were genotyped for 1,116 participants from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS)...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260106/effects-of-probiotics-on-toll%C3%A2-like-receptor-expression-in-ulcerative-colitis-rats-induced-by-2-4-6%C3%A2-trinitro%C3%A2-benzene-sulfonic-acid
#12
Ping Yao, Fang Tan, Hongliang Gao, Lei Wang, Tao Yang, Yongbo Cheng
The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory effect of probiotics on the expression of Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) in an ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model, and to determine the role of probiotics in the underlying mechanisms through which UC develops and progresses in rat models. Rats were randomly allocated to one of the four following groups: i) The healthy control, ii) the model, iii) the Golden bifid treatment group, and iv) the TLR4 monoclonal antibody (TLR4mAb) intervention group. The UC rat model was established using 2,4,6‑trinitro‑benzene sulfonic acid...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257865/early-pregnancy-related-changes-in-toll-like-receptors-expression-in-ovine-trophoblasts-and-peripheral-blood-leukocytes
#13
Mehmet Salih Kaya, Mehmet Kose, Aydin Guzeloglu, Zekeriya Kıyma, Mehmet Osman Atli
In the present study, we aimed to 1) demonstrate the presence of all 10 toll-like receptors (TLRs) in ovine trophoblasts, and 2) investigate the expression profiles of TLR1-10 mRNAs in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) in ewes during early pregnancy. For those purposes, ovine trophoblasts (n = 6) were collected from pregnant ewes on day 13. PBLs were collected from non-pregnant (n = 6) and pregnant ewes (n = 17) on days of mating (d) 0 and 18. TLR mRNAs in ovine trophoblasts were visualized by free-floating in situ hybridization (ISH)...
April 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246611/increased-expression-of-toll-like-receptors-4-5-and-9-in-small-bowel-mucosa-from-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Aldona Dlugosz, Katherina Zakikhany, Nathalie Acevedo, Mauro D'Amato, Greger Lindberg
The aim of our study was to compare patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls regarding the expression of toll-like receptors 2, 4, 5, and 9 (TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), the primary mucosal receptors of bacterial components, in small and large bowel mucosa. Methods. We analysed biopsies from jejunum and sigmoid colon of 22 patients (17 females) with IBS aged 18-66 (median: 39) years and 14 healthy volunteers (12 females) aged 22-61 (median: 42) years. Eight patients had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS), 7 had diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS), and 7 had IBS without predominance of constipation or diarrhoea...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225045/membrane-targeting-of-tirap-is-negatively-regulated-by-phosphorylation-in-its-phosphoinositide-binding-motif
#15
Xiaolin Zhao, Wen Xiong, Shuyan Xiao, Tuo-Xian Tang, Jeffrey F Ellena, Geoffrey S Armstrong, Carla V Finkielstein, Daniel G S Capelluto
Pathogen-activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs), such as TLR2 and TLR4, dimerize and move laterally across the plasma membrane to phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate-enriched domains. At these sites, TLRs interact with the TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), triggering a signaling cascade that leads to innate immune responses. Membrane recruitment of TIRAP is mediated by its phosphoinositide (PI)-binding motif (PBM). We show that TIRAP PBM transitions from a disordered to a helical conformation in the presence of either zwitterionic micelles or monodispersed PIs...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223111/expression-analysis-of-nine-toll-like-receptors-in-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco-responding-to-aeromonas-hydrophila-challenge
#16
Xiao-Ting Zhang, Gui-Rong Zhang, Ze-Chao Shi, Yu-Jie Yuan, Huan Zheng, Li Lin, Kai-Jian Wei, Wei Ji
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important components of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which play significant roles in innate immunity to defense against pathogen invasion. Many TLRs have been found in teleosts, but there are no reports about cloning and expression of TLR genes in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). In this study, we analyzed the sequence characters and the relative mRNA expression levels of nine TLRs (TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4-1, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8-2, TLR9 and TLR22) in different tissues of yellow catfish...
February 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220810/dengue-virus-ns1-protein-activates-immune-cells-via-tlr4-but-not-tlr2-or-tlr6
#17
Naphak Modhiran, Daniel Watterson, Antje Blumenthal, Alan G Baxter, Paul R Young, Katryn J Stacey
The secreted hexameric form of the dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has recently been shown to elicit inflammatory cytokine release and disrupt endothelial cell monolayer integrity. This suggests that circulating NS1 contributes to the vascular leak that plays a major role in the pathology of dengue haemorrhagic fever and shock. Pathways activated by NS1 are thus of great interest as potential therapeutic targets. Recent works have separately implicated both toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the TLR2/6 heterodimer in immune cell activation by NS1...
February 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216438/porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide-induces-pro-inflammatory-adipokine-secretion-and-oxidative-stress-by-regulating-toll-like-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways-and-redox-enzymes-in-adipocytes
#18
Fanny Le Sage, Olivier Meilhac, Marie-Paule Gonthier
Gut microbiota LPS contributes to obesity-related chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, promoting insulin resistance. Periodontal disease also represents a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and is associated with obesity. This study compared the effect of LPS from P. gingivalis periodontopathogen and E. coli enterobacteria on inflammatory adipokine secretion and redox status of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that both LPS activated TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways involving MyD88 adaptor and NFκB transcription factor, leading to an increased secretion of leptin, resistin, IL-6 and MCP-1...
May 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216386/serotonin-disturbs-colon-epithelial-tolerance-of-commensal-e-coli-by-increasing-nox2-derived-superoxide
#19
Suhrid Banskota, Sushil Chandra Regmi, Jaya Gautam, Pallavi Gurung, Yu-Jeong Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang Joon Park, Jung-Ae Kim
Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933)...
February 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209121/evolution-of-toll-like-receptors-in-the-context-of-terrestrial-ungulates-and-cetaceans-diversification
#20
Edson Ishengoma, Morris Agaba
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the frontline actors in the innate immune response to various pathogens and are expected to be targets of natural selection in species adapted to habitats with contrasting pathogen burdens. The recent publication of genome sequences of giraffe and okapi together afforded the opportunity to examine the evolution of selected TLRs in broad range of terrestrial ungulates and cetaceans during their complex habitat diversification. Through direct sequence comparisons and standard evolutionary approaches, the extent of nucleotide and protein sequence diversity in seven Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10) between giraffe and closely related species was determined...
February 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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