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Tlr4, tlr2, toll like receptor,

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895422/genetic-polymorphism-in-cd14-gene-a-co-receptor-of-tlr4-associated-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Shweta Kapil, Ajay Duseja, Bal Krishan Sharma, Bhupesh Singla, Anuradha Chakraborti, Ashim Das, Pallab Ray, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
AIM: To evaluate the pathogenic role of toll-like receptor (TLR) gene polymorphisms in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Two hundred and fifty subjects (NAFLD = 200, healthy volunteers = 50) underwent polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism to assess one polymorphism in the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) gene (A753G), two polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene (TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile allele), and two polymorphisms in the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) (C-159T and C-550T) gene, a co-receptor of TLR4...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885699/strains-of-group-b-streptococci-from-septic-patients-induce-platelet-activation-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#2
Xiaoyan Liu, Hongyun Liu, Xianming Luo, Ping Zhang, Yanmin Gao, Shuangfeng Xie, Kang Xu, Jianxing Chang, Liping Ma
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes life-threatening bacterial sepsis, especially in newborns and pregnant women. Patients suffering from sepsis often display low platelet counts, characterized by thrombocytopenia, because of platelet activation. In the present study, the roles of six GBS strains from septic patients in platelet aggregation, as well as the underlying mechanisms, were investigated. Incubation of platelets with three of the strains induced platelet aggregation, increased the secretion of cellular adhesin molecule CD62P and activation of GPIIb/IIIa...
November 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884680/caloric-restriction-ameliorates-cardiomyopathy-in-animal-model-of-diabetes
#3
Keren Cohen, Maayan Waldman, Nader G Abraham, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Danny Gurfield, Dan Aravot, Michael Arad, Edith Hochhauser
BACKGROUND: The db/db mouse is an animal model of diabetes in which leptin receptor activity is deficient resulting accelerated cardiomyopathy when exposed to angiotensin (AT). Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4, TLR2) are pattern recognition receptors, that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and exacerbate and release inflammatory cytokines. Fetuin A (Fet A) is a fatty acid carrier which affects inflammation and insulin resistance in obese humans and animals through TLRs...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858225/putative-model-for-heat-shock-protein-70-complexation-with-receptor-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-through-fluorescence-proximity-assays-and-normal-mode-analyses
#4
Marcelo Sartori Grunwald, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun, Cristiane Santos Souza, Luana Heimfarth, Hugo Verli, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Extracellular heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is recognized by receptors on the plasma membrane, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, CD14, and CD40. This leads to activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, enhancement of the phagocytic activity of innate immune cells, and stimulation of antigen-specific responses. However, the specific characteristics of HSP70 binding are still unknown, and all HSP70 receptors have not yet been described. Putative models for HSP70 complexation to the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGEs), considering both ADP- and ATP-bound states of HSP70, were obtained through molecular docking and interaction energy calculations...
November 17, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851904/role-of-pathogen-associated-molecular-patterns-pamps-in-immune-responses-to-fungal-infections
#5
Mehdi Taghavi, Alireza Khosravi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Donya Nikaein, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari
Recent years have seen the rise of invasive fungal infections, which are mostly due to the increase in patients. Three major opportunistic fungal species in human are Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans that pose the biggest concern for these immunocompromised patients' mortality. The growing occurrence of opportunistic fungal infections has sparked the interest to understand defense mechanisms against pathogenic fungi. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as a part of innate immune system, play an important role for recognizing the invading microorganisms and initiating sufficient immune responses...
November 13, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818460/different-expression-patterns-of-toll-like-receptor-mrnas-in-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-iga-nephropathy-and-iga-vasculitis-with-nephritis
#6
Ayano Saito, Atsushi Komatsuda, Hajime Kaga, Ryuta Sato, Masaru Togashi, Shin Okuyama, Hideki Wakui, Naoto Takahashi
Mucosal immunity may play a key role in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and IgA vasculitis with nephritis (IgAVN). IgAVN is characterized by the presence of non-thrombocytopenic palpable purpura, associated with glomerulonephritis with IgA-dominant immune deposits. Recent studies have shown the up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in patients with IgAN or IgAVN. Among TLRs that mediate innate immune reactions, TLR2, TLR4, and TRL5 recognize bacterial components, while TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 recognize viral components...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812176/lipopolysaccharides-induced-suppression-of-innate-like-b-cell-apoptosis-is-enhanced-by-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotide-and-requires-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4
#7
Xiaoqian Yu, Yuhua Wang, Jiang Lin, Yang Hu, Toshihisa Kawai, Martin A Taubman, Xiaozhe Han
Innate-like B lymphocytes play an important role in innate immunity in periodontal disease through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. However, it is unknown how innate-like B cell apoptosis is affected by the periodontal infection-associated innate signals. This study is to determine the effects of two major TLR ligands, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), on innate-like B cell apoptosis. Spleen B cells were isolated from wild type (WT), TLR2 knockout (KO) and TLR4 KO mice and cultured with E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795867/the-role-of-tlr2-tlr4-and-tlr9-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#8
REVIEW
Mohsin H K Roshan, Amos Tambo, Nikolai P Pace
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in the pathogenesis of inflammatory conditions including coronary arterial disease (CAD). They are expressed by a variety of immune cells where they recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLRs recruit adaptor molecules, including myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MYD88) and TIRF-related adaptor protein (TRAM), to mediate activation of MAPKs and NF-kappa B pathways. They are associated with the development of CAD through various mechanisms...
2016: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793374/decreased-toll-like-receptor-2-messenger-ribonucleic-acid-and-increased-toll-like-receptor-4-in-the-tubal-epithelium-next-to-the-infiltrated-trophoblasts-during-tubal-pregnancy
#9
Yin Fen Ji, Jian Xu, Tao Zhang, Li You Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression patterns of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 in the tubal epithelial cells next to the infiltrated trophoblasts at the maternal-fetal interface during tubal pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: University-based obstetrics and gynecology hospital. PATIENT(S): Thirty-seven women undergoing salpingectomy for tubal ampullary pregnancy and nine nonpregnant patients with benign uterine or appendix disease...
October 25, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783847/participation-of-tlr2-and-tlr4-in-cytokines-production-by-patients-with-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-chronic-chagas-disease
#10
Laura Denise Mendes da Silva, Mariana Gatto, Mariana Miziara de Abreu Teodoro, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Érika Alessandra Pelisson Nunes da Costa, Francilene Capel Tavares Carvalho, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is a serious public health issue. Its evolution involves an acute stage, characterized by no specific symptoms, and the chronic stage during most individuals are asymptomatic, but about 30 to 40% of them become symptomatic presenting the cardiac or digestive disease. Host immune response mechanisms involved in symptomatic or asymptomatic chronic disease are not fully understood. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial in host resistance. However, a fine control of this inflammatory process, by action of anti-inflammatory cytokines, is necessary to avoid tissue injury...
October 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780938/toll-like-receptor-agonists-partially-restore-the-production-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-type-i-interferon-in-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome
#11
Kelly C G Manfrere, Marina P Torrealba, Denis R Miyashiro, Luanda M S Oliveira, Gabriel C de Carvalho, Josenilson F Lima, Anna Claudia C C Branco, Nátalli Z Pereira, Juliana Pereira, José A Sanches, Maria N Sato
Sézary syndrome (SS) carries a poor prognosis, and infections represent the most frequent cause of death in SS patients. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors that induce protective immune responses against infections. We sought to evaluate the ability of TLR agonists to induce inflammatory cytokine, Th2 cytokine, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of untreated SS patients. We detected impaired IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 secretion by PBMC induced by the agonists for TLR5, TLR3, TLR7 and TLR9 in SS patients, while it was partially recovered by TLR2/TLR4 and TLR7/8 agonists TNF secretion was restored following stimulation with TLR2/TLR4 agonists...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756149/synthesis-and-anti-inflammatory-evaluation-of-novel-paclitaxel-analogs
#12
Pei-Pei Xu, Qing-Feng Li, Yong-Mei Cui, Hai-Xia Lin
A series of paclitaxel analogs modified at C-3'-N and C-7 positions were synthesized from baccatin III and their structures were confirmed by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, HR-MS. Compound 7e exhibited potent ability to decrease TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α) in the LPS-activated RAW264.7 murine macrophage-like cell line. The preliminary data indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects may be related to MD-2 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), rather than Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).
October 18, 2016: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751870/diverse-action-of-lipoteichoic-acid-and-lipopolysaccharide-on-neuroinflammation-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-anxiety-in-mice
#13
Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738438/modulation-of-immunoregulatory-properties-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-by-toll-like-receptors-potential-applications-on-gvhd
#14
Bruno Sangiorgi, Rodrigo Alexandre Panepucci
In the last decade, the immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have attracted a lot of attention, due to their potential applicability in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a condition frequently associated with opportunistic infections. The present review addresses how Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPS) modulate the immunosuppressive phenotype of human MSCs by signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Overall, we observed that regardless of the source tissue, human MSCs express TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737730/spatiotemporal-expression-profile-of-proteases-and-immunological-angiogenic-hormonal-and-apoptotic-mediators-in-rat-placenta-before-and-during-intrauterine-trophoblast-migration
#15
Juneo F Silva, Natália M Ocarino, Rogéria Serakides
The gene and/or protein expression of proteases and immunological, angiogenic, hormonal and apoptotic mediators was evaluated in rat placenta before and during intrauterine trophoblast migration. The depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1), interferon (IFN)-γ, migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; also known as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2) were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729335/interleukin-23-secreted-by-activated-macrophages-drives-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-production-of-interleukin-17-to-aggravate-secondary-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#16
Qi Zhong, Kai Zhou, Qiao-Li Liang, Sen Lin, Yan-Chun Wang, Xiao-Yi Xiong, Zhao-You Meng, Ting Zhao, Wen-Yao Zhu, Yuan-Rui Yang, Mao-Fan Liao, Qiu-Wen Gong, Liang Liu, Ao Xiong, Junwei Hao, Jian Wang, Qing-Wu Yang
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays a key role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury, but the specific roles of peripheral inflammatory cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of macrophages, T lymphocytes, and the cytokines they secrete as potential targets for treating secondary brain injury after ICH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our results showed that peripheral macrophages and T lymphocytes successively infiltrated the brain, with macrophage counts peaking 1 day after ICH and T-lymphocyte counts peaking after 4 days...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725770/genetic-dissection-of-host-immune-response-in-pneumonia-development-and-progression
#17
Tamara V Smelaya, Olesya B Belopolskaya, Svetlana V Smirnova, Artem N Kuzovlev, Viktor V Moroz, Arkadiy M Golubev, Noel A Pabalan, Lyubov E Salnikova
The role of host genetic variation in pneumonia development and outcome is poorly understood. We studied common polymorphisms in the genes of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 rs1800795, IL8 rs4073, IL1B rs16944), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 rs1800896, IL4 rs2243250, IL13 rs20541) and toll-like receptors (TLR2 rs5743708 and rs4696480, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352139, rs5743836 and rs187084) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (390 cases, 203 controls) and nosocomial pneumonia (355 cases, 216 controls)...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722989/the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-high-glucose-induced-inflammatory-and-fibrosis-markers-in-human-peritoneal-mesothelial-cells
#18
Soon-Youn Choi, Hye-Myung Ryu, Ji-Young Choi, Jang-Hee Cho, Chan-Duck Kim, Yong-Lim Kim, Sun-Hee Park
PURPOSE: High glucose stimulates peritoneal inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). However, the roles of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 in high-glucose-induced inflammation and fibrosis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high glucose on TLR2 and TLR4 expression in HPMCs and to assess their impact on peritoneal inflammatory and fibrosis markers. METHODS: Using cultured HPMCs, TLRs expression by high-glucose (50 mM) stimulation was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR...
October 8, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718110/hiv-1-derived-single-stranded-rna-acts-as-activator-of-human-neutrophils
#19
Diana M Giraldo, Juan C Hernandez, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Neutrophils are key effector cells of the innate immune system and are involved in the host defense against invading pathogens such as viruses. Recently, it was reported that HIV-1-neutrophil interaction triggers neutrophil activation and promotes expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we assessed the role of single-stranded RNA40 (ssRNA40) derived from HIV-1 in neutrophil activation. We observed functional activation of neutrophils in response to HIV-1-derived ssRNA40 based on the expression of TLR7/8, RIG-I, and MDA5, induction of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
October 7, 2016: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716391/toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2-plays-a-role-in-controlling-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-vivo-but-does-not-require-activation-by-parasite-lipophosphoglycan
#20
Alice Halliday, Paul A Bates, Michael L Chance, Mark J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Despite several studies reporting involvement of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the recognition of surface glycolipids from Leishmania parasites in vitro, the role of TLR2 and its co-receptors during cutaneous leishmaniasis infection in vivo is unknown. METHODS: To explore the role of TLR2 and its co-receptors in cutaneous leishmaniasis, mice deficient in either TLR2, 4, 1 or 6, or wild-type (WT) controls, were infected with either Leishmania major promastigotes, L...
October 6, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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