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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821158/synthesis-characterization-bioactivity-and-potential-application-of-phenolic-acid-grafted-chitosan-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Jun Liu, Huimin Pu, Shuang Liu, Juan Kan, Changhai Jin
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the grafting of phenolic acid onto chitosan in order to enhance the bioactivity and widen the application of chitosan. Here, we present a comprehensive overview on the recent advances of phenolic acid grafted chitosan (phenolic acid-g-chitosan) in many aspects, including the synthetic method, structural characterization, biological activity, physicochemical property and potential application. In general, four kinds of techniques including carbodiimide based coupling, enzyme catalyzed grafting, free radical mediated grafting and electrochemical methods are frequently used for the synthesis of phenolic acid-g-chitosan...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821124/the-characterization-selenylation-and-antidiabetic-activity-of-mycelial-polysaccharides-from-catathelasma-ventricosum
#2
Yuntao Liu, Yuxian You, Yiwen Li, Lan Zhang, Leilei Yin, Yingbin Shen, Cheng Li, Hong Chen, Shujuan Chen, Bin Hu, Daiwen Chen
The mycelial polysaccharide from Catathelasma ventricosum (mCVP-1S) was found to be a heteropolysaccharide with an average size of 230kDa composed mainly of β-glucopyranosyl residues. The selenylation of mCVP-1S, performed using an HNO3-Na2SeO3 method, produced a series of selenized mCVP-1Ss (SemCVP-1Ss). Varying the reaction time, temperature and Na2SeO3 dosage altered the yield and selenium content of the SemCVP-1Ss. NMR spectra showed substitution mostly at C-6, and Congo red tests indicated excessive selenylation might destroy the triple-helical structure of SemCVP-1Ss...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821057/a-cell-penetrating-peptide-mediated-chitosan-nanocarriers-for-improving-intestinal-insulin-delivery
#3
Lei Li, Liaoqing Yang, Manman Li, Liefeng Zhang
To overcome barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the chitosan(CS)-based nanocarriers with a novel cell penetrating peptide (SAR6EW) have been prepared and evaluated in this study. Characterization measurements showed that SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs displayed global particles with smooth surfaces and an average diameter about 150nm. The entrapment efficiency and loading rates of insulin were 75.36% and 7.58%, respectively. Insulin could be released constantly from SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs in vitro. Furthermore, SAR6EW/CS/insulin-NPs could facilitate the uptake of insulin and induce a significantly higher internalization of insulin via adding clathrin and caveolae mediated endocytosis...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820963/ketone-body-acetoacetate-buffers-methylglyoxal-via-a-non-enzymatic-conversion-during-diabetic-and-dietary-ketosis
#4
Trine Salomón, Christian Sibbersen, Jakob Hansen, Dieter Britz, Mads Vandsted Svart, Thomas Schmidt Voss, Niels Møller, Niels Gregersen, Karl Anker Jørgensen, Johan Palmfeldt, Thomas Bjørnskov Poulsen, Mogens Johannsen
The α-oxoaldehyde methylglyoxal is a ubiquitous and highly reactive metabolite known to be involved in aging- and diabetes-related diseases. If not detoxified by the endogenous glyoxalase system, it exerts its detrimental effects primarily by reacting with biopolymers such as DNA and proteins. We now demonstrate that during ketosis, another metabolic route is operative via direct non-enzymatic aldol reaction between methylglyoxal and the ketone body acetoacetate, leading to 3-hydroxyhexane-2,5-dione. This novel metabolite is present at a concentration of 10%-20% of the methylglyoxal level in the blood of insulin-starved patients...
August 17, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820921/analysis-of-cone-mosaic-reflectance-properties-in-healthy-eyes-and-in-eyes-with-nonproliferative-diabetic-retinopathy-over-time
#5
Letizia Mariotti, Nicholas Devaney, Giuseppe Lombardo, Marco Lombardo
Purpose: We investigate the reflectance properties of the cone mosaic in adaptive optics (AO) images of healthy subjects and subjects with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) over time. Methods: We acquired images of the parafoveal cone mosaic over 5 years in 12 healthy subjects and in six patients with mild NPDR. We analyzed the parameters of the cone intensity histogram distribution (mean, SD, and skewness), two metrics of the cone mosaic texture (sharpness and entropy), and two novel metrics (cone/intercone intensity and slope of the variogram)...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820912/impact-of-novel-palmitoylated-prolactin-releasing-peptide-analogs-on-metabolic-changes-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#6
Veronika Pražienková, Martina Holubová, Helena Pelantová, Martina Bugáňová, Zdenko Pirník, Barbora Mikulášková, Andrea Popelová, Miroslava Blechová, Martin Haluzík, Blanka Železná, Marek Kuzma, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820783/epidemiology-of-obesity-in-the-hispanic-adult-population-in-the-united-states
#7
Kimberly Y Z Forrest, Marcy J Leeds, Alexander C Ufelle
Obesity is a major health concern in Hispanic populations. This study evaluated the epidemiology of obesity and associated factors among Hispanics using the data from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among the 1241 participants (20 years of age or older), the prevalence rates were as follows: overweight, 77.1%; obesity, 42.4%; and central obesity, 57.0%. These rates were consistent throughout most age groups. Significantly, more females than males were obese. Higher obesity rates were seen among those with diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, heart disease, and arthritis...
October 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820780/clinical-effectiveness-of-intravenous-exenatide-infusion-in-perioperative-glycemic-control-after-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-a-phase-ii-iii-randomized-trial
#8
Guillaume Besch, Andrea Perrotti, Frederic Mauny, Marc Puyraveau, Maude Baltres, Guillaume Flicoteaux, Lucie Salomon du Mont, Benoit Barrucand, Emmanuel Samain, Sidney Chocron, Sebastien Pili-Floury
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of intravenous exenatide compared to insulin in perioperative blood glucose control in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery patients. METHODS: Patients more than 18 yr old admitted for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were included in a phase II/III nonblinded randomized superiority trial. Current insulin use and creatinine clearance of less than 60 ml/min were exclusion criteria. Two groups were compared: the exenatide group, receiving exenatide (1-h bolus of 0...
August 18, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820747/involvement-of-hyperglycemia-in-the-development-of-platelet-procoagulant-response-the-role-of-aldose-reductase-and-platelet-swelling
#9
Tomasz Rusak, Tomasz Misztal, Malgorzata Rusak, Justyna Branska-Januszewska, Marian Tomasiak
: Rise in mean platelet volume (MPV) has been demonstrated to be associated with increased platelet reactivity. In diabetes patients, augmented MPV was proposed to contribute to increased risk of thrombotic complications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether under hyperglycemic conditions, aldose reductase (AR)-mediated sorbitol formation and associated rise in cell volume, which subsequently results in platelet hyperactivation. Platelets were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 13 patients with diabetes...
September 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820731/emphysematous-infections-of-the-urinary-tract-an-audit-of-20-patients-with-review-of-literature
#10
REVIEW
Sasanka Kumar Barua, Somor Jyoti Bora, Puskal Kumar Bagchi, Debanga Sarma, Mandeep Phukan, Saumar Jyoti Baruah, Thekampadum Puthenveetil Rajeev
Emphysematous infection of the urinary tract is a rapidly progressive, necrotizing infection which results into collection of gas and subsequent destruction of the tissues. Although very rare among general population, such necrotizing infection is common, particularly among those with compromised immune status. With the rising trend of people afflicted with diabetes mellitus globally, this fulminating infection may pose a serious threat to the medical fraternity. A high index of suspicion and abdominal CT scan usually helps to establish the diagnosis at an early stage and thereby facilitating aggressive antimicrobial therapy and percutaneous drainage where indicated...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820679/tuberculosis-related-diabetes-is-it-reversible-after-complete-treatment
#11
Huma Aftab, Dirk L Christensen, Atiqa Ambreen, Mohammad Jamil, Peter Garred, Jørgen H Petersen, Susanne D Nielsen, Ib C Bygbjerg
Individuals with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) were screened for diabetes (DM) with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Pakistan. A significant decrease in FPG was observed when TB was treated. Of those with newly diagnosed DM, 46% and 62% no longer had hyperglycemia after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Individuals with known DM also showed a significant decrease in fasting plasma levels when treated for TB, but after 3 months none had normoglycemia, and after 6 months 9.2% were normoglycemic. Thus, TB-related DM may abate when the stress terminates, as is the case in gestational DM...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820612/the-potential-of-signal-peptide-peptidase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-hepatitis-c
#12
Kohji Moriishi
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver steatosis, cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome with inflammation, and eventually leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV core protein is a well-known capsid protein and pathogenic factor related to lipid accumulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and carcinogenesis. Cleavage of the C-terminal transmembrane region by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) is required for maturation of the core protein. Areas covered: Herein, this review details the general aspects of the structure, lifecycle, pathogenesis, and maturation of the HCV core protein, the function of SPP, and clinically available direct-acting antivirals (DAAs)...
August 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820567/does-early-preventive-care-for-diabetes-improve-outcomes
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: National Bureau of Economic Research Bulletin on Aging and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820539/a-survey-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-among-university-employees-a-single-institutional-study
#14
Emmanuel I Agaba, Maxwell O Akanbi, Patricia A Agaba, Amaka N Ocheke, Zumnan M Gimba, Steve Daniyam, Edith N Okeke
BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising globally, with its attendant morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors among members of a university community. METHODS: All employees of the university were invited to the University health clinic for screening, using the World Health Organisation's STEPwise approach to NCDs. RESULTS: A total of 883 (521; 59...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820504/diabetes-insulin-pumps-after-injections-and-cgm-in-t1dm
#15
John C Pickup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820503/diabetes-systemic-effects-of-metformin-revealed
#16
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820493/marine-lipids-on-cardiovascular-diseases-and-other-chronic-diseases-induced-by-diet-an-insight-provided-by-proteomics-and-lipidomics
#17
REVIEW
Lucía Méndez, Gabriel Dasilva, Nùria Taltavull, Marta Romeu, Isabel Medina
Marine lipids, especially ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have largely been linked to prevention of diet-induced diseases. The anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic properties of EPA and DHA supplementation have been well-described. However, there is still a significant lack of information about their particular mechanism of action. Furthermore, repeated meta-analyses have not shown conclusive results in support of their beneficial health effects...
August 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820474/significance-of-resveratrol-in-clinical-management-of-chronic-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Awais Wahab, Kuo Gao, Caixia Jia, Feilong Zhang, Guihua Tian, Ghulam Murtaza, Jianxin Chen
Resveratrol could be beneficial to health and provides protection against a wide array of pathologies and age-associated problems, as evident from preclinical studies. However, a comparison of animal and human studies reveals that this dietary polyphenol cannot protect against metabolic diseases and their associated complications. The clinical outcomes are affected by many factors such as sample size. This article not only presents a comprehensive review of the current advances concerning the dose, the extent of absorption, interaction and toxicity of resveratrol in human studies, but also describes its therapeutic effects against several chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and aging and the related diseases...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820432/rho-kinase-blockade-attenuates-podocyte-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-the-notch-signaling-pathway-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#19
Keiichiro Matoba, Daiji Kawanami, Yosuke Nagai, Yusuke Takeda, Tomoyo Akamine, Sho Ishizawa, Yasushi Kanazawa, Tamotsu Yokota, Kazunori Utsunomiya
Podocyte apoptosis is a key process in the onset of diabetic nephropathy. A significant body of evidence shows that the Notch signaling pathway plays a central role in this process. We found that Rho-kinase mediates transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced Notch ligand Jag1 expression. Importantly, TGF-β-mediated podocyte apoptosis was attenuated by Rho-kinase inhibition. Mechanistically, Rho-kinase regulated Jag1 induction via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not Smad pathways...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820410/-changing-of-stillbirth-risks-in-different-options-of-its-registration
#20
S Mamedova
Purpose of the study - comparing of stillbirth rates and some of its risk factors in different options (after 22 and 28 completed weeks of gestation) of its registration. This study was conducted on the basis of a regional prenatal centre. Monitoring was conducted retrospectively with continuous coverage of all cases of completed pregnancy after 22 completed weeks of gestation. Stillbirth coefficient was calculated based on body weight (500 grams or more - I option, and a 1000 grams - II option) based on 100 of all birth cases (corresponding to 500 grams body weight or more, and 1,000 grams or more)...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
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