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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088679/post-event-processing-in-social-anxiety-disorder-examining-the-mediating-roles-of-positive-metacognitive-beliefs-and-perceptions-of-performance
#1
Dubravka Gavric, David A Moscovitch, Karen Rowa, Randi E McCabe
BACKGROUND: Post-event processing (PEP) is defined as repetitive negative thinking following anxiety provoking social events. PEP is thought to maintain anxiety symptoms in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) but little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the maintenance of PEP. AIMS: The current study investigated how perceptions of performance and positive metacognitive beliefs might contribute to the persistence of PEP. METHOD: Participants with SAD (n = 24) as well as anxious (n = 24) and healthy (n = 25) control participants completed a standardized social performance task in the lab...
January 4, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088577/analyze-the-beta-waves-of-electroencephalogram-signals-from-young-musicians-and-non-musicians-in-major-scale-working-memory-task
#2
Chien-Chang Hsu, Ching-Wen Cheng, Yi-Shiuan Chiu
Electroencephalograms can record wave variations in any brain activity. Beta waves are produced when an external stimulus induces logical thinking, computation, and reasoning during consciousness. This work uses the beta wave of major scale working memory N-back tasks to analyze the differences between young musicians and non-musicians. After the feature analysis uses signal filtering, Hilbert-Huang transformation, and feature extraction methods to identify differences, k-means clustering algorithm are used to group them into different clusters...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#3
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086933/self-collection-based-hpv-testing-for-cervical-cancer-screening-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-uganda-a-descriptive-analysis-of-knowledge-intentions-to-screen-and-factors-associated-with-hpv-positivity
#4
Sheona M Mitchell, Heather N Pedersen, Evelyn Eng Stime, Musa Sekikubo, Erin Moses, David Mwesigwa, Christine Biryabarema, Jan Christilaw, Josaphat K Byamugisha, Deborah M Money, Gina S Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WHIV) are disproportionately impacted by cervical dysplasia and cancer. The burden is greatest in low-income countries where limited or no access to screening exists. The goal of this study was to describe knowledge and intentions of WHIV towards HPV self-collection for cervical cancer screening, and to report on factors related to HPV positivity among women who participated in testing. METHODS: A validated survey was administered to 87 HIV positive women attending the Kisenyi Health Unit aged 30-69 years old, and data was abstracted from chart review...
January 13, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081552/demographic-and-psychological-correlates-of-new-zealanders-support-for-euthanasia
#5
Carol Hj Lee, Isabelle M Duck, Chris G Sibley
AIMS: To explore the distribution of New Zealanders' support towards the legalisation of euthanasia and examine demographic and psychological factors associated with these attitudes. METHODS: 15,822 participants responded to the 2014/15 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (NZAVS) survey. This survey included an item on people's attitudes towards euthanasia, and information on their demographic and psychological characteristics. RESULTS: The majority of New Zealanders expressed support for euthanasia, which was assessed by asking "Suppose a person has a painful incurable disease...
January 13, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081516/autism-does-not-limit-strategic-thinking-in-the-beauty-contest-game
#6
Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
A popular hypothesis in developmental psychology is that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a specific impairment or developmental delay in their ability to reason about other people's mental processes, especially when this reasoning process is of a higher-order, recursive, or nested variety. One type of interpersonal interaction that involves this sort of complex reasoning about others' minds is an economic game, and because economic games have been extensively modeled in behavioral economics, they provide a unique testbed for a quantitative and precise analysis of cognitive functioning in ASD...
January 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081495/emotional-intensity-in-episodic-autobiographical-memory-and-counterfactual-thinking
#7
Matthew L Stanley, Natasha Parikh, Gregory W Stewart, Felipe De Brigard
Episodic counterfactual thoughts-imagined alternative ways in which personal past events might have occurred-are frequently accompanied by intense emotions. Here, participants recollected positive and negative autobiographical memories and then generated better and worse episodic counterfactual events from those memories. Our results suggest that the projected emotional intensity during the simulated remembered/imagined event is significantly higher than but typically positively related to the emotional intensity while remembering/imagining the event...
January 9, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081309/simulation-of-cryolipolysis-as-a-novel-method-for-noninvasive-fat-layer-reduction
#8
Abbas Majdabadi, Mohammad Abazari
BACKGROUND/AIM: Regarding previous problems in conventional liposuction methods, the need for development of new fat removal operations was appreciated. In this study we are going to simulate one of the novel methods, cryolipolysis, aimed to tackle those drawbacks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We think that simulation of clinical procedures contributes considerably in efficacious performance of the operations. To do this we have attempted to simulate temperature distribution in a sample fat of the human body...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081145/probing-the-association-between-early-evolutionary-markers-and-schizophrenia
#9
Saurabh Srinivasan, Francesco Bettella, Sahar Hassani, Yunpeng Wang, Aree Witoelar, Andrew J Schork, Wesley K Thompson, David A Collier, Rahul S Desikan, Ingrid Melle, Anders M Dale, Srdjan Djurovic, Ole A Andreassen
Schizophrenia is suggested to be a by-product of the evolution in humans, a compromise for our language, creative thinking and cognitive abilities, and thus, essentially, a human disorder. The time of its origin during the course of human evolution remains unclear. Here we investigate several markers of early human evolution and their relationship to the genetic risk of schizophrenia. We tested the schizophrenia evolutionary hypothesis by analyzing genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia and other human phenotypes in a statistical framework suited for polygenic architectures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081131/-i-wasted-3-years-thinking-it-s-not-a-problem-patient-and-health-system-delays-in-diagnosis-of-leprosy-in-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#10
Thirumugam Muthuvel, Srinivas Govindarajulu, Petros Isaakidis, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Vasudev Rokade, Rajbir Singh, Sanjeev Kamble
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, leprosy is one of the major causes of preventable disability. India contributes to 60% of global leprosy burden. With increasing numbers of leprosy with grade 2 disability (visible disability) at diagnosis, we aimed to determine risk factors associated with grade 2 disability among new cases and explore patients and providers' perspectives into reasons for late presentation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was an explanatory mixed-methods study where the quantitative component, a matched case-control design, was followed by a qualitative component...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080996/mitigating-amphibian-chytridiomycoses-in-nature
#11
REVIEW
Trenton W J Garner, Benedikt R Schmidt, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Erin Muths, Andrew A Cunningham, Che Weldon, Matthew C Fisher, Jaime Bosch
Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080156/so-you-think-you-have-read-this-journal
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080123/treating-adult-survivors-of-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-neglect-a-new-framework
#13
Frances K Grossman, Joseph Spinazzola, Marla Zucker, Elizabeth Hopper
This article provides the outline of a new framework for treating adult survivors of childhood emotional abuse and neglect. Component-based psychotherapy (CBP) is an evidence-informed model that bridges, synthesizes, and expands upon several existing schools, or theories, of treatment for adult survivors of traumatic stress. These include approaches to therapy that stem from more classic traditions in psychology, such as psychoanalysis, to more modern approaches including those informed by feminist thought...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080119/the-role-of-episodic-context-in-retrieval-practice-effects
#14
Joshua W Whiffen, Jeffrey D Karpicke
The episodic context account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances subsequent retention because people must think back to and reinstate a prior learning context. Three experiments directly tested this central assumption of the context account. Subjects studied word lists and then either restudied the words under intentional learning conditions or made list discrimination judgments by indicating which list each word had occurred in originally. Subjects in both conditions experienced all items for the same amount of time, but subjects in the list discrimination condition were required to retrieve details about the original episodic context in which the words had occurred...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080118/photos-that-increase-feelings-of-learning-promote-positive-evaluations
#15
Brittany A Cardwell, Eryn J Newman, Maryanne Garry, Antonia Mantonakis, Randi Beckett
Research shows that when semantic context makes it feel easier for people to bring related thoughts and images to mind, people can misinterpret that feeling of ease as evidence that information is positive. But research also shows that semantic context does more than help people bring known concepts to mind-it also teaches people new concepts. In five experiments, we show that when photos increase these feelings of learning, they also increase positive evaluations. People saw fictitious wine names and evaluated claims about each...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079867/reducing-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#16
A J Vachharajani, N A Vachharajani, H Morris, A Niesen, A Elward, D A Linck, A M Mathur
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to safely reduce the number of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) inserted in infants with umbilical venous catheter using quality improvement methods. STUDY DESIGN: In a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit, a questionnaire designed to prompt critical thinking around the decision to place a PICC, along with an updated standardized feeding guideline was introduced. PICC insertion in 86 infants with umbilical venous catheter (pre intervention) with birth weight 1000-1500 g were compared with 115 infants (post intervention) using Fisher's exact test...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079674/borderline-intellectual-functioning-an-update
#17
Stephen Greenspan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a descriptive v-code that is often used, especially in forensic settings, as if it were a full-fledged disorder. Various historical and other aspects of this classification are reviewed, and commentary is made on the question of whether to upgrade BIF to a regular psychiatric category, or to eliminate it by folding it into an already recently expanded category of intellectual developmental disorder (IDD). RECENT FINDINGS: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) is an outmoded concept that is decreasingly being used...
January 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079497/meanings-of-waves-electroencephalography-and-society-in-mexico-city-1940-1950
#18
Nuria Valverde Pérez
Argument This paper focuses on the uses of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in Mexico during their introductory decade from 1940 to 1950. Following Borck (2006), I argue that EEGs adapted to fit local circumstances and that this adjustment led to the consolidation of different ways of making science and the emergence of new objects of study and social types. I also maintain that the way EEGs were introduced into the institutional networks of Mexico entangled them in discussions about the objective and juridical definitions of social groups, thereby preempting concerns about their technical and epistemic limitations...
December 2016: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079099/-nature-based-solutions-is-the-latest-green-jargon-that-means-more-than-you-might-think
#19
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078658/the-past-does-matter-a-nursing-perspective-on-post-traumatic-slave-syndrome-ptss
#20
Ejim Sule, Ryan M Sutton, Debbie Jones, Ramel Moore, Imaculata Igbo, Lovell A Jones
Few have reviewed the impact of post traumatic slave syndrome (PTSS) on the issues of inequities, especially as it pertains to mental and physical health. Furthermore, the impact of PTSS on the social determinants of health is an area that has been researched by few investigators. The possibilities that the impact of slavery and/or major stress events in the life of a population can become trans-generational are lost to history. Think about what is taking place in cities around the country and then think about racist socialization (internalized racism) and its impact on our society...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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