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Bioinformatics & pathogenicity prediction

Luisa Azevedo, Matthew Mort, Antonio C Costa, Raquel M Silva, Dulce Quelhas, Antonio Amorim, David N Cooper
Understanding the functional sequelae of amino-acid replacements is of fundamental importance in medical genetics. Perhaps, the most intuitive way to assess the potential pathogenicity of a given human missense variant is by measuring the degree of evolutionary conservation of the substituted amino-acid residue, a feature that generally serves as a good proxy metric for the functional/structural importance of that residue. However, the presence of putatively compensated variants as the wild-type alleles in orthologous proteins of other mammalian species not only challenges this classical view of amino-acid essentiality but also precludes the accurate evaluation of the functional impact of this type of missense variant using currently available bioinformatic prediction tools...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Na Li, Taofeng Du, Yunhuan Yan, Angke Zhang, Jiming Gao, Gaopeng Hou, Shuqi Xiao, En-Min Zhou
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the swine industry. Current antiviral strategies do not effectively prevent and control PRRSV. Recent reports show that microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in viral infections by post transcriptionally regulating the expression of viral or host genes. Our previous research showed that non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) is an essential factor for PRRSV infection. Using bioinformatic prediction and experimental verification, we demonstrate that MYH9 expression is regulated by the miRNA let-7f-5p, which binds to the MYH9 mRNA 3'UTR and may play an important role during PRRSV infection...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alan J Fox, Matthew C Hiemenz, David B Lieberman, Shrey Sukhadia, Barnett Li, Joseph Grubb, Patrick Candrea, Karthik Ganapathy, Jianhua Zhao, David Roth, Evan Alley, Alison Loren, Jennifer J D Morrissette
As our understanding of the driver mutations necessary for initiation and progression of cancers improves, we gain critical information on how specific molecular profiles of a tumor may predict responsiveness to therapeutic agents or provide knowledge about prognosis. At our institution a tumor genotyping program was established as part of routine clinical care, screening both hematologic and solid tumors for a wide spectrum of mutations using two next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels: a custom, 33 gene hematological malignancies panel for use with peripheral blood and bone marrow, and a commercially produced solid tumor panel for use with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue that targets 47 genes commonly mutated in cancer...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Peter B Gilbert, Ying Huang, Holly E Janes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Models of implementation of known-effective interventions for HIV prevention indicate that an efficacious vaccine to prevent HIV infection would be critical for controlling the HIV pandemic. Key issues in the design of future HIV vaccine trials are: first, how to develop reliable immunological correlates of vaccine efficacy, second, how to down-select candidate vaccine regimens into efficacy trials, and third, how to learn about vaccine efficacy in the context of the evolving HIV prevention landscape...
November 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
J Zhang, R Cheng, J Liang, C Ni, M Li, Z Yao
Pathogenic mutations in genes (SASH1 and PTPN11) can cause a rare genetic disorder associated with pigmentation defects and the well-known LEOPARD syndrome, respectively. Both conditions presented with lentiginous phenotypes. The aim of this study was to arrive at definite diagnoses of three Chinese boys with clinically suspected lentigines-related syndromes. ADAR1, ABCB6, SASH1 and PTPN11 were candidate genes for mutational screening. Sanger sequencing was performed to identify the mutations, whereas bioinformatic analysis was used to predict the pathogenicity of novel missense mutations...
October 2016: Clinical Genetics
Shanshan Liu, Ye Tao, Lixia Yu, Peilin Zhuang, Qinghui Zhi, Yan Zhou, Huancai Lin
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the major clinical pathogen responsible for dental caries. Its acid tolerance has been identified as a significant virulence factor for its survival and cariogenicity in acidic conditions. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are recognized as key regulators of virulence and stress adaptation. Here, we constructed three libraries of sRNAs with small size exposed to acidic conditions for the first time, followed by verification using qRT-PCR. The levels of two sRNAs and target genes predicted to be bioinformatically related to acid tolerance were further evaluated under different acid stress conditions (pH 7...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pedro Tiago Monteiro, Pedro Pais, Catarina Costa, Sauvagya Manna, Isabel Sá-Correia, Miguel Cacho Teixeira
We present the PATHOgenic YEAst Search for Transcriptional Regulators And Consensus Tracking (PathoYeastract - database, a tool for the analysis and prediction of transcription regulatory associations at the gene and genomic levels in the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and C. glabrata Upon data retrieval from hundreds of publications, followed by curation, the database currently includes 28 000 unique documented regulatory associations between transcription factors (TF) and target genes and 107 DNA binding sites, considering 134 TFs in both species...
September 12, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Amanda L Lewis, Lloyd S Robinson, Kavita Agarwal, Warren G Lewis
Sialic acids are nine-carbon backbone carbohydrates found in prominent outermost positions of glycosylated molecules in mammals. Mimicry of sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, Neu5Ac) enables some pathogenic bacteria to evade host defenses. Fusobacterium nucleatum is a ubiquitous oral bacterium also linked with invasive infections throughout the body. We employed multidisciplinary approaches to test predictions that F. nucleatum engages in de novo synthesis of sialic acids. Here we show that F. nucleatum sbsp...
September 9, 2016: Glycobiology
Kara K Osbak, Simon Houston, Karen V Lithgow, Conor J Meehan, Michal Strouhal, David Šmajs, Caroline E Cameron, Xaveer Van Ostade, Chris R Kenyon, Geert A Van Raemdonck
BACKGROUND: The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap) tandem mass spectrometry...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jacob L Steenwyk, John S Soghigian, John R Perfect, John G Gibbons
BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) are a class of structural variants (SVs) and are defined as fragments of DNA that are present at variable copy number in comparison with a reference genome. Recent advances in bioinformatics methodologies and sequencing technologies have enabled the high-resolution quantification of genome-wide CNVs. In pathogenic fungi SVs have been shown to alter gene expression, influence host specificity, and drive fungicide resistance, but little attention has focused specifically on CNVs...
2016: BMC Genomics
Xia Qi, Sheng-Wei Ren, Feng Zhang, Yi-Qiang Wang
AIM: To research the two homologous predicted proline-rich protein genes, Mus musculus predicted gene 4736 (MP4) and proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 1 (Prb1) which were significantly upregulated in cultured corneal organs when encountering fungal pathogen preparations. This study was to confirm the expression and potential functions of these two genes in ocular surface. METHODS: A Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis model was established in Balb/c mice. One day post infection, mRNA level of MP4 was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and MP4 protein detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or Western blot using a customized polyclonal anti-MP4 antibody preparation...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Qianting Chen, Congling Dai, Qianjun Zhang, Juan Du, Wen Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the prediction performance evaluation with five kinds of bioinformatics software (SIFT, PolyPhen2, MutationTaster, Provean, MutationAssessor). METHODS: From own database for genetic mutations collected over the past five years, Chinese literature database, Human Gene Mutation Database, and dbSNP, 121 missense mutations confirmed by functional studies, and 121 missense mutations suspected to be pathogenic by pedigree analysis were used as positive gold standard, while 242 missense mutations with minor allele frequency (MAF)>5% in dominant hereditary diseases were used as negative gold standard...
October 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Jorge I Vélez, Francisco Lopera, Hardip R Patel, Angad S Johar, Yeping Cai, Dora Rivera, Carlos Tobón, Andrés Villegas, Diego Sepulveda-Falla, Shaun G Lehmann, Simon Easteal, Claudio A Mastronardi, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos
The identification of mutations modifying the age of onset (AOO) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial for understanding the natural history of AD and, therefore, for early interventions. Patients with sporadic AD (sAD) from a genetic isolate in the extremes of the AOO distribution were whole-exome genotyped. Single- and multi-locus linear mixed-effects models were used to identify functional variants modifying AOO. A posteriori enrichment and bioinformatic analyses were applied to evaluate the non-random clustering of the associate variants to physiopathological pathways involved in AD...
August 30, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Massimiliano Marvasi, Marcos H de Moraes, Isai Salas-Gonzalez, Steffen Porwollik, Marcelo Farias, Michael McClelland, Max Teplitski
It is becoming clear that human enteric pathogens, like Salmonella, can efficiently colonize vegetative and reproductive organs of plants. Even though the bacterium's ability to proliferate within plant tissues has been linked to outbreaks of salmonellosis, little is known about regulatory and physiological adaptations of Salmonella, or other human pathogens, to their persistence in plants. A screen of Salmonella deletion mutants in tomatoes identified rcsA and rcsB genes as those under positive selection. In tomato fruits, populations of Salmonella rcsB mutants were as much as 100-fold lower than those of the wild type...
August 25, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Sowmya R Ramachandran, Chuntao Yin, Joanna Kud, Kiwamu Tanaka, Aaron K Mahoney, Fangming Xiao, Scot H Hulbert
Fungi that cause cereal rust diseases (genus Puccinia) are important pathogens of wheat globally. Upon infection, the fungus secretes a number of effector proteins. Although a large repository of putative effectors has been predicted using bioinformatic pipelines, the lack of available high-throughput effector screening systems has limited functional studies on these proteins. In this study, we mined the available transcriptomes of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis to look for potential effectors that suppress host hypersensitive response (HR)...
October 18, 2016: Phytopathology
Nguyen Phuong Thao, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation...
August 2016: Current Genomics
Hong-Bo Liu, Guang-Fei Yang, Si-Jia Liang, Jun Lin
This study bioinformatically analyzed the non-VP1 capsid proteins (VP2-VP4) of Coxasckievirus A6 (CVA6), with an attempt to predict their basic physicochemical properties, structural/functional features and linear B cell eiptopes. The online tools SubLoc, TargetP and the others from ExPASy Bioinformatics Resource Portal, and SWISS-MODEL (an online protein structure modeling server), were utilized to analyze the amino acid (AA) sequences of VP2-VP4 proteins of CVA6. Our results showed that the VP proteins of CVA6 were all of hydrophilic nature, contained phosphorylation and glycosylation sites and harbored no signal peptide sequences and acetylation sites...
August 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Nejat Mahdieh, Bahareh Rabbani
Thalassemia is one of the most common single gene disorders worldwide. Nearly 80 to 90 million with minor beta thalassemia and 60-70 thousand affected infants are born annually worldwide. A comprehensive search on several databases including PubMed, InterScience, British Library Direct, and Science Direct was performed extracting papers about mutation detection and frequency of beta thalassemia. All papers reporting on the mutation frequency of beta thalassemia patients were selected to analyze the frequency of mutations in different regions and various ethnicities...
July 15, 2016: Blood Reviews
Suwatchareeporn Rotcheewaphan, John T Belisle, Kristofor J Webb, Hee-Jin Kim, John S Spencer, Bradley R Borlee
The second messenger, bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (cyclic di-GMP), is involved in the control of multiple bacterial phenotypes, including those that impact host-pathogen interactions. Bioinformatics analyses predicted that Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of leprosy, encodes three active diguanylate cyclases. In contrast, the related pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes only a single diguanylate cyclase. One of the M. leprae unique diguanylate cyclases (ML1419c) was previously shown to be produced early during the course of leprosy...
September 2016: Microbiology
Mark Agostino, Ricardo L Mancera, Paul A Ramsland, Juan Fernández-Recio
The antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) is recognized by effector proteins as part of the immune system. Pathogens produce proteins that bind Fc in order to subvert or evade the immune response. The structural characterization of the determinants of Fc-protein association is essential to improve our understanding of the immune system at the molecular level and to develop new therapeutic agents. Furthermore, Fc-binding peptides and proteins are frequently used to purify therapeutic antibodies. Although several structures of Fc-protein complexes are available, numerous others have not yet been determined...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
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