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Periventricular leukomalacia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145693/early-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#1
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Sanjay M Aher
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141932/umbilical-artery-perforation-a-potentially-life-threatening-complication-of-umbilical-artery-catheterisation
#2
Daniel Molanus, Machteld van Scherpenzeel, Joep Derikx, Frank van den Dungen
Umbilical artery catheterisation is frequently performed in preterm or critically ill newborn infants for invasive monitoring of blood pressure and blood sampling for laboratory tests. It is associated with well-known complications like catheter-related infections, thromboembolic events and aneurysmal formation of the aorta. In this report, we present another major complication of umbilical artery catheterisation: umbilical artery perforation. This complication occurred in a prematurely born infant and resulted in severe haemorrhagic shock, subsequent renal failure and severe periventricular leukomalacia...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119673/efficacy-of-antenatal-corticosteroids-in-preterm-twins-the-epipage2-cohort-study
#3
Déborah Palas, Virginie Ehlinger, Corinne I Alberge, Patrick Truffert, Gilles Kayem, François Goffinet, Pierre-Yves Ancel, Catherine Arnaud, Christophe Vayssiere
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of ACS therapy on short-term neonatal outcomes in preterm twins and further document the influence of the ACS-to-delivery interval. DESIGN: EPIPAGE2 is a nationwide observational multicentre prospective cohort study of neonates born between 22 and 34 completed weeks of gestation. SETTING: All French maternity units, except in a single administrative regions, between March and December 2011. POPULATION: 750 twin neonates born between 24 and 31 weeks of gestation...
November 8, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118507/periventricular-leukomalacia-with-16-ds-high-myopia-in-a-2%C3%A2-months-old-infant-a-rare-case-presentation
#4
Praveen Jeyaseelan, Tulika Kar, P Vijayalakshmi
Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is coagulation necrosis of white matter seen in preterm, low birth weight (LBW) infants and associated with a range of ocular manifestations. We report a case of 2½ months old (47 weeks gestational age) female infant with PVL associated with bilateral high myopia (-16 DS). On examination, child had difficulty in tracking objects and inferior field defect with preference for superior gaze. She was prescribed spectacles and visual stimulation exercises to preserve existing vision and prevent amblyopia...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077984/neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-compared-to-other-forms-of-triggered-ventilation-for-neonatal-respiratory-support
#5
REVIEW
Thomas E Rossor, Katie A Hunt, Sandeep Shetty, Anne Greenough
BACKGROUND: Effective synchronisation of infant respiratory effort with mechanical ventilation may allow adequate gas exchange to occur at lower peak airway pressures, potentially reducing barotrauma and volutrauma and development of air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. During neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA), respiratory support is initiated upon detection of an electrical signal from the diaphragm muscle, and pressure is provided in proportion to and synchronous with electrical activity of the diaphragm (EADi)...
October 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073624/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-preterm-infant-mortality-and-severe-morbidity-a-population-based-study
#6
James G Anderson, Elizabeth E Rogers, Rebecca J Baer, Scott P Oltman, Randi Paynter, J Colin Partridge, Larry Rand, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Martina A Steurer
BACKGROUND: Disparities exist in the rates of preterm birth and infant mortality across different racial/ethnic groups. However, only a few studies have examined the impact of race/ethnicity on the outcomes of premature infants. OBJECTIVE: To report the rates of mortality and severe neonatal morbidity among multiple gestational age (GA) groups stratified by race/ethnicity. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study utilizing linked birth certificate, hospital discharge, readmission, and death records up to 1 year of life...
October 27, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072676/comparison-of-sprinting-vs-non-sprinting-to-wean-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-off-in-very-preterm-infants
#7
N Eze, D Murphy, V Dhar, V K Rehan
OBJECTIVE: Though nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is commonly used for non-invasive neonatal respiratory support, the optimal method of weaning NCPAP is not established. In this prospective, two-center randomized control trial we hypothesize that gradually increasing spontaneous breathing time off NCPAP increases successful weaning from NCPAP in infants born <31 weeks gestational age. STUDY DESIGN: Infants were randomized to one of the two NCPAP weaning protocols, a sprinting, that is, gradually increasing spontaneous breathing time off CPAP, protocol vs a non-sprinting (weaning pressure down) protocol...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050043/-malpractice-claims-against-pediatricians-analysis-of-expert-testimonies-from-the-medical-service-of-health-insurance-companies-between-2000-and-2014
#8
Heiko Steinhauer, Joachim Holzschuh, Thomas Böhler
Background In Germany, few data are available on medical malpractice claims against pediatricians. On behalf of Statutory Health Insurance Companies their Medical Service (MDK) regularly offers expert testimony in case of allegations during pediatric treatment. Methods Analysis of 374 written pediatric testimonies, documented between September 1st, 2000 and August 31st, 2014. Results 193 allegations against pediatricians were analysed separately for each sector of care (35% concerning outpatients, 28% normal inpatients, and 37% patients treated in an intensive care unit, ICU)...
November 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048409/maternal-milk-feedings-reduce-sepsis-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-improve-outcomes-of-premature-infants
#9
J Cortez, K Makker, D F Kraemer, J Neu, R Sharma, M L Hudak
OBJECTIVE: Human milk (donor milk (DM) and/or maternal milk (MM)) feedings protect against late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death. However, DM lacks many anti-infective components of MM. Therefore, we studied exclusive MM feedings to evaluate the full effect of human milk on infectious and other outcomes in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: All infants born before 33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) who received exclusive (>95%) MM or exclusive preterm formula (PF) were included in this prospective investigation...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039883/volume-targeted-versus-pressure-limited-ventilation-in-neonates
#10
REVIEW
Claus Klingenberg, Kevin I Wheeler, Naomi McCallion, Colin J Morley, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND: Damage caused by lung overdistension (volutrauma) has been implicated in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Modern neonatal ventilation modes can target a set tidal volume as an alternative to traditional pressure-limited ventilation (PLV) using a fixed inflation pressure. Volume-targeted ventilation (VTV) aims to produce a more stable tidal volume in order to reduce lung damage and stabilise the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether VTV compared with PLV leads to reduced rates of death and death or BPD in newborn infants and to determine whether use of VTV affected outcomes including air leak, cranial ultrasound findings and neurodevelopment...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030024/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-at-3-years-old-for-infants-with-birth-weights-under-500%C3%A2-g
#11
Syunsuke Nagara, Masanori Kouwaki, Takao Togawa, Tokio Sugiura, Mayumi Okada, Norihisa Koyama
BACKGROUND: Marked improvements have been achieved in the survival of extremely low birth weight infants, but survival rates and prognoses of extremely small infants with birth weights ≤500 g remain poor. The aim of this study was to clarify long-term outcomes for surviving infants with birth weights ≤500 g. METHODS: The study population comprised fetuses of gestational age ≥22 weeks, expected live- or stillbirth weight ≤500 g, and birth date between 2003 and 2012...
September 21, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981078/maternal-magnesium-therapy-neonatal-serum-magnesium-concentration-and-immediate-neonatal-outcomes
#12
D Narasimhulu, A Brown, N M Egbert, M Rojas, S Haberman, A Bhutada, H Minkoff, S Rastogi
OBJECTIVE: The fetus is exposed to magnesium administered to the pregnant mother. However, there is controversy regarding magnesium-related neonatal adverse outcomes, largely driven by a limited understanding of the factors that influence neonatal serum magnesium concentrations and associated outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between antenatal maternal magnesium dose and serum concentrations, neonatal serum magnesium concentration and immediate neonatal outcomes...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971049/korean-database-of-cerebral-palsy-a-report-on-characteristics-of-cerebral-palsy-in-south-korea
#13
Shin-Young Yim, Chung-Yong Yang, Joo Hyun Park, Min Young Kim, Yong-Beom Shin, Eun-Young Kang, Zee-Ihn Lee, Bum-Sun Kwon, Ji Chan Chang, Seong Woo Kim, Myeong-Ok Kim, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Han-Young Jung, In Young Sung
OBJECTIVE: To introduce the Korean Database of Cerebral Palsy (KDCP) and to provide the first report on characteristics of subjects with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: The KDCP is a nationwide database of subjects with CP, which includes a total of 773 subjects. Characteristics such as demography, birth history, onset and type of CP, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, functional ability and accompanying impairments, were extracted and analyzed. RESULTS: Preterm delivery and low birth weight were found in 59...
August 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955060/pentoxifylline-and-pentaglobin-adjuvant-therapies-for-neonatal-nosocomial-sepsis-in-neonates-less-than-1500g-weight
#14
Sahin Hamilcikan, Emrah Can, Ovgu Buke, Can Polat, Esra Ozcan
OBJECTIVE: To compare different support therapies in very low birth-weight preterm neonates with nosocomial sepsis. METHODS: This clinical pilot study was conducted at the Bagcilar Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September 2015 to November 2016. Preterm infants appropriately sized for a gestational age of < 32 weeks and < 1,500g were included in the study. Pentaglobin was initiated on the day of diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis to very low birth-weight preterm neonates as a support therapy in addition to antibiotics: 5 ml/kg per day of pentaglobin was infused over a four-hour period on three consecutive days...
October 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931047/association-between-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemia-and-periventricular-leukomalacia-in-preterm-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Jichong Huang, Li Zhang, Bingyao Kang, Tingting Zhu, Yafei Li, Fengyan Zhao, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu
BACKGROUND: Although investigators have implicated hypoxic-ischemia (HI) as a potential cause of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the role of clinical risk factors or markers for HI in the development of PVL remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify perinatal HI-related factors associated with PVL. METHOD: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. The last search was performed on January 2017. Summary effect estimates (pooled odds ratios [ORs]) were calculated for each risk factor using fixed or random effects models with tests for heterogeneity and publication bias...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885171/gestational-age-and-outcomes-in-critical-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Martina A Steurer, Rebecca J Baer, Roberta L Keller, Scott Oltman, Christina D Chambers, Mary E Norton, Shabnam Peyvandi, Larry Rand, Satish Rajagopal, Kelli K Ryckman, Anita J Moon-Grady, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unknown how gestational age (GA) impacts neonatal morbidities in infants with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). We aim to quantify GA-specific mortality and neonatal morbidity in infants with CCHD. METHODS: Cohort study using a database linking birth certificate, infant hospital discharge, readmission, and death records, including infants 22 to 42 weeks' GA without chromosomal anomalies (2005-2012, 2 988 925 live births)...
October 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870155/pessary-or-progesterone-to-prevent-preterm-delivery-in-women-with-short-cervical-length-the-quadruple-p-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Maud D van Zijl, Bouchra Koullali, Christiana A Naaktgeboren, Ewoud Schuit, Dick J Bekedam, Etelka Moll, Martijn A Oudijk, Wilhelmina M van Baal, Marjon A de Boer, Henricus Visser, Joris van Drongelen, Flip W van de Made, Karlijn C Vollebregt, Moira A Muller, Mireille N Bekker, Jozien T J Brons, Marieke Sueters, Josje Langenveld, Maureen T Franssen, Nico W Schuitemaker, Erik van Beek, Hubertina C J Scheepers, Karin de Boer, Eveline M Tepe, Anjoke J M Huisjes, Angelo B Hooker, Evelyn C J Verheijen, Dimitri N Papatsonis, Ben Willem J Mol, Brenda M Kazemier, Eva Pajkrt
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is in quantity and in severity the most important topic in obstetric care in the developed world. Progestogens and cervical pessaries have been studied as potential preventive treatments with conflicting results. So far, no study has compared both treatments. METHODS/DESIGN: The Quadruple P study aims to compare the efficacy of vaginal progesterone and cervical pessary in the prevention of adverse perinatal outcome associated with preterm birth in asymptomatic women with a short cervix, in singleton and multiple pregnancies separately...
September 4, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869278/cerebral-near-infrared-spectroscopy-monitoring-for-prevention-of-brain-injury-in-very-preterm-infants
#18
REVIEW
Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Gorm Greisen, Bodil Als-Nielsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Cerebral injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is common in extremely preterm infants. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous estimation of cerebral oxygenation. This diagnostic method coupled with appropriate interventions if NIRS is out of normal range (that is cerebral oxygenation within the 55% to 85% range) may offer benefits without causing more harms. Therefore, NIRS coupled with appropriate responses to abnormal findings on NIRS needs assessment in a systematic review of randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised studies...
September 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861337/clinical-neuroimaging-in-the-preterm-infant-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#19
REVIEW
Manuel Hinojosa-Rodríguez, Thalía Harmony, Cristina Carrillo-Prado, John Darrell Van Horn, Andrei Irimia, Carinna Torgerson, Zachary Jacokes
Perinatal care advances emerging over the past twenty years have helped to diminish the mortality and severe neurological morbidity of extremely and very preterm neonates (e.g., cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [c-PVL] and Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage - Intraventricular Hemorrhage [GMH-IVH grade 3-4/4]; 22 to < 32 weeks of gestational age, GA). However, motor and/or cognitive disabilities associated with mild-to-moderate white and gray matter injury are frequently present in this population (e.g., non-cystic Periventricular Leukomalacia [non-cystic PVL], neuronal-axonal injury and GMH-IVH grade 1-2/4)...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856015/antenatal-corticosteroid-treatment-for-the-prevention-of-peri-intraventricular-haemorrhage-in-preterm-newborns-a-retrospective-cohort-study-using-transfontanelle-ultrasonography
#20
Bianca A Almeida, Livia T Rios, Edward Araujo Júnior, Luciano M Nardozza, Antonio F Moron, Marília G Martins
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between antenatal corticosteroids and peri-intraventricular haemorrhage (PIVH) using transfontanelle ultrasonography, as well as to evaluate the risk factors for its incidence. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using medical records of preterm newborns. The protocol for maternal corticoid administration for foetal lung maturation included dexamethasone 4 mg (intramuscular) 8/8 hours per 48 hours, with one cycle per week...
June 2017: Journal of Ultrasonography
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