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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340383/infant-helping-in-the-first-year-of-life-parents-recollection-of-infants-earliest-prosocial-behaviors
#1
Stuart I Hammond, Elizabeth Al-Jbouri, Victoria Edwards, Laura E Feltham
Prosocial behavior is widely thought to emerge early in the second year of life. This paper presents evidence that helping emerges early in the first year of life. Parents of 80 children asked to recollect the earliest instance of their child helping recalled help in two contexts: chores (e.g., cleaning up) and care and self-care (e.g., feeding and dressing). A subset of parents recalled helping even before eight months of age, most often in the context of self-care tasks. The presence of helping this early in the lifespan is situated in recent research, and its implications for current theories of early prosocial behavior are discussed...
March 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340382/the-bdnfval66met-polymorphism-and-individual-differences-in-temperament-in-4-month-old-infants-a-pilot-study
#2
Lorenzo Giusti, Livio Provenzi, Daniela Tavian, Sara Missaglia, Niccolò Butti, Rosario Montirosso
Individual differences in infants' temperament are under genetic control. We investigated the association between brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNFval66met) polymorphism and temperament in 63 full-term infants. Met-carriers (N=25) had lower Regulatory capacities compared to val-homozygotes (N=38). These findings suggest that the BDNF polymorphism affects early temperament individual differences.
March 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340322/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-primary-and-booster-vaccination-with-2-investigational-formulations-of-diphtheria-tetanus-and-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-antigens-in-a-hexavalent-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-combination-vaccine-in-comparison-with-the-licensed-infanrix-hexa
#3
Timo Vesikari, Luis Rivera, Tiina Korhonen, Anitta Ahonen, Brigitte Cheuvart, Marjan Hezareh, Winnie Janssens, Narcisa Mesaros
Safety and immunogenicity of 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) were evaluated in a Primary (NCT01248884) and a Booster vaccination (NCT01453998) study. In the Primary study, 721 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation A (DATAPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), or B (DBTBPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) or the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa, GSK; control group) at 2, 3, 4 months of age...
March 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340305/the-clinical-application-of-ngs-based-snp-haplotyping-for-pgd-of-hb-h-disease
#4
Linjun Chen, Zhenyu Diao, Zhipeng Xu, Jianjun Zhou, Guijun Yan, Haixiang Sun
This study investigated the usefulness of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotyping for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of hemoglobin H (Hb H) disease. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) was used for whole genome amplification (WGA) of biopsied trophectoderm (TE) cells. Gap-PCR and NGS-based SNP haplotyping was used to distinguish the two genotypes of -α(3.7)/αα and -(SEA)/αα for PGD of Hb H disease. One out of the ten blastocysts (B11) was successfully diagnosed as genotype -α(3...
March 24, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340172/repositioning-disulfiram-as-a-radiosensitizer-against-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor
#5
Young Eun Lee, Seung Ah Choi, Pil Ae Kwack, Hak Jae Kim, Il Han Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Sangjoon Chong, Sung-Hye Park, Kyung Duk Park, Do Won Hwang, Kyeung Min Joo, Seung-Ki Kim
Background.: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is one of the most common malignant brain tumors in infants. Although cancer stem cells of AT/RT express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), effective chemotherapies against AT/RT have not been established. Here, we examined radiosensitizing effects of disulfiram (DSF), an irreversible inhibitor of ALDH against AT/RT for a novel therapeutic method. Methods.: Patient-derived primary cultured AT/RT cells (SNU.AT/RT-5 and SNU...
March 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340081/retroocular-and-subdural-hemorrhage-or-hemosiderin-deposits-in-pediatric-autopsies
#6
Marc R Del Bigio, Susan M Phillips
The presence of hemosiderin in the optic nerve sheath and/or retina is sometimes used to estimate the timing of injury in infants or children with suspected non-accidental head trauma. To determine the prevalence of hemosiderin in deaths not associated with trauma, we performed a prospective study of retroocular orbital tissue, cranial convexity, and cervical spinal cord dura mater in infants and children <2.5 years age. In 53 cases of non-traumatic death, approximately 70% had blood or hemosiderin within the orbital fat, ocular muscles, and parasagittal cranial and/or cervical spinal subdural compartment...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340039/infant-birth-outcomes-are-associated-with-dna-damage-biomarkers-as-measured-by-the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cytome-assay-the-dadhi-study
#7
Mansi Dass Singh, Philip Thomas, Maryam Hor, Theodora Almond, Julie Owens, William Hague, Michael Fenech
Accumulation of DNA damage in the first 1000 days may increase risk of accelerated ageing and degenerative diseases in adult life such as cancers. The extent of DNA damage in infants and the correlation of maternal factors during pregnancy with neonate birth outcomes and DNA damage is not known in infants born in Australia. Therefore, we performed a prospective cohort study to collect data on DNA damage in lymphocytes of Australian infants (aged 0, 3 and 6 months), using the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay...
March 3, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340001/early-life-origin-of-intestinal-inflammatory-disorders
#8
Delphine Ley, Jean-Luc Desseyn, Mona Mischke, Jan Knol, Dominique Turck, Frédéric Gottrand
A growing body of evidence supports the concept of perinatal programming through which the perinatal environment affects the development of the fetus and infant, thereby modifying the risk profile for disease later in life. Increasing attention is focusing on the role of the early environment in the development of chronic intestinal disorders. Epidemiological studies have highlighted the link between perinatal factors, such as breastfeeding, cesarean delivery, and antibiotic use, and an increased risk for inflammatory bowel disease and/or celiac disease...
March 7, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339914/infant-colonization-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-or-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-preceding-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-discharge
#9
Sarah A Clock, Haomiao Jia, Sameer Patel, Yu-Hui Ferng, Luis Alba, Susan Whittier, Patricia DeLaMora, Setareh Tabibi, Jeffrey Perlman, David Paul, Theoklis Zaoutis, Elaine Larson, Lisa Saiman
Rates of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were determined for 1320 infants within 7 days of neonatal intensive care unit discharge. Overall, 4% and 1% of the infants were colonized with MRSA or VRE, respectively. Predictors identified in fixed-effects models were surgery during hospitalization (for MRSA colonization) and prolonged antimicrobial treatment (for VRE colonization).
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339607/gross-motor-trajectories-during-the-first-year-of-life-for-preterm-infants-with-very-low-birth-weight
#10
Yu-Han Su, Suh-Fang Jeng, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Yu-Kang Tu, Yen-Tzu Wu, Li-Chiou Chen
Background.: Early identification of motor dysfunction in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants is important in order to provide early intervention. Objective.: This study was to examine the motor trajectories of VLBW preterm infants during their first year of life and to investigate the predictive ability and influencing factors of the trajectories. Design and Methods.: A total of 342 VLBW preterm infants were prospectively assessed for motor development by the Alberta Infant Motor Scales at 4, 6, 9 and 12 months and for developmental outcomes using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development- second edition at 24 months...
February 4, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339500/detecting-congenital-malformations-lessons-learned-from-the-mpepu-study-botswana
#11
Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Zash, Roger L Shapiro, Oganne Batlang, Kerapetse Botebele, Kara Bennett, Florence Chilisa, Erik von Widenfelt, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Lewis B Holmes, Kathleen M Powis
INTRODUCTION: A large and increasing number of HIV-infected women are conceiving on antiretroviral treatment (ART). While most antiretrovirals are considered safe in pregnancy, monitoring for rare pregnancy and infant adverse outcomes is warranted. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective secondary analysis nested within a clinical trial of infant cotrimoxazole vs. placebo prophylaxis in Botswana (the Mpepu Study). Infants were examined at birth, and at least every 3 months through 18 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339411/infant-constraint-induced-movement-therapy-lessons-learned-from-clinical-implementation
#12
Teressa Garcia Reidy, Joan Carney, Nicole Whiston, Erin Naber
Current evidence supports the efficacy of pediatric constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT) for toddlers and children but little has been published about its use in early intervention with children eighteen months and younger. This paper and case report describes the clinical experience of developing and executing a modified pediatric CIMT intervention with infants under 18 months old. This is an emerging area of practice that is showing positive trends with initial cases.
2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339145/respiratory-syncytial-virus-host-interaction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-bronchiolitis-and-its-impact-on-respiratory-morbidity-in-later-life
#13
REVIEW
Giovanni A Rossi, Andrew A Colin
Rossi GA, Colin AA(.) Respiratory syncytial virus - host interaction in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis and its impact on respiratory morbidity in later life. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common agent of severe airway disease in infants and young children. Large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a clear relationship between RSV infection and subsequent recurrent wheezing and asthma into childhood, thought to be predominantly related to long-term changes in neuroimmune control of airway tone rather than to allergic sensitization...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338846/patient-exposure-during-plain-radiography-and-mammography-in-japan-in-1974-2014
#14
Yuta Matsunaga, Ai Kawaguchi, Kenichi Kobayashi, Masanao Kobayashi, Yasuki Asada, Kazuyuki Minami, Shoichi Suzuki, Koichi Chida
We investigated changes in the entrance skin dose (ESD) and the mean glandular dose (MGD) during plain radiography or mammography in Japan from 1974 to 2014. Surveys regarding the conditions used for plain radiography and mammography were performed throughout Japan in 1974, 1979, 1989, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2014. The anatomical regions considered were categorised as follows: skull anteroposterior (AP), lumbar AP, lumbar lateral (LAT), pelvis (AP), ankle, chest posteroanterior (PA), Guthmann (lateral pelviography for pregnant women), infant hip joint and mammography...
March 1, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338817/risk-factor-models-for-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-children-born-very-preterm-or-with-very-low-birth-weight-a-systematic-review-of-methodology-and-reporting
#15
Louise Linsell, Reem Malouf, Joan Morris, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Neil Marlow
The prediction of long-term outcomes in surviving infants born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) is necessary to guide clinical management, provide information to parents, and help target and evaluate interventions. There is a large body of literature describing risk factor models for neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT/VLBW children, yet few, if any, have been developed for use in routine clinical practice or adopted for use in research studies or policy evaluation. We sought to systematically review the methods and reporting of studies that have developed a multivariable risk factor model for neurodevelopment in surviving VPT/VLBW children...
March 3, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338567/bevacizumab-therapy-for-pilomyxoid-astrocytoma
#16
Ryan D Metts, Walter Bartynski, Cynthia T Welsh, Stephen Kinsman, Amy-Lee Bredlau
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system generally found in young children near the hypothalamus. Herein, we report a 19-month-old female infant with a pilomyxoid astrocytoma, who underwent surgery as well as carboplatin and vincristine chemotherapy in an attempt to delay radiation therapy to the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor had increased in tumor volume on therapy. Chemotherapy with carboplatin and vincristine was stopped and bevacizumab therapy (10 mg/kg every other week) was initiated...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338502/sellar-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-at-rt-a-clinicopathologically-and-genetically-distinct-variant-of-at-rt
#17
Satoshi Nakata, Sumihito Nobusawa, Takanori Hirose, Shinji Ito, Naoko Inoshita, Shunsuke Ichi, Vishwa J Amatya, Yukio Takeshima, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Yukihiko Sonoda, Hironori Haga, Junko Hirato, Yoichi Nakazato, Hideaki Yokoo
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are rare aggressive tumors of the central nervous system that predominantly affect infants. Although adult AT/RT are rare, accumulated cases have revealed adult-specific AT/RT in the sellar region. Twelve previously reported cases of sellar AT/RT exclusively occurred in adult females, suggesting biological differences from conventional infant AT/RT. We herein investigated a series of 6 sellar AT/RT for histopathologic features, the molecular status of the INI1/SMARCB1 gene, and clinical courses...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338496/infants-and-adults-use-of-temporal-cues-in-consonant-discrimination
#18
Laurianne Cabrera, Lynne Werner
OBJECTIVES: Adults can use slow temporal envelope cues, or amplitude modulation (AM), to identify speech sounds in quiet. Faster AM cues and the temporal fine structure, or frequency modulation (FM), play a more important role in noise. This study assessed whether fast and slow temporal modulation cues play a similar role in infants' speech perception by comparing the ability of normal-hearing 3-month-olds and adults to use slow temporal envelope cues in discriminating consonants contrasts...
March 23, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338487/the-evolution-of-disease-chronic-lung-disease-of-infancy-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Michael C Tracy, David N Cornfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or chronic lung disease of infancy BPD was originally described 50 years ago, in 1967 by Northway et al. This article possesses two fundamental objectives to provide: a brief historical perspective on BPD; and an update relative to current notions of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and clinical management of BPD complicated by vascular disease. The review highlights areas of consensus and ongoing uncertainty. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical cause and presentation of infants with BPD has evolved over the past several decades...
March 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338426/the-role-of-exercise-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-osteopenia-of-prematurity-an-update
#20
Alon Eliakim, Ita Litmanovitz, Dan Nemet
Premature infants have an increased risk of osteopenia due to limited bone mass accretion in utero and a greater need for bone nutrients. Until recently, most of efforts to prevent osteopenia of prematurity focused on nutritional changes. Recent studies indicate that passive range of motion exercise of the extremities may lead to beneficial effects on body weight, increased bone mineralization, increased bone formation markers and leptin levels, and attenuation of the natural post-natal decline in bone SOS...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
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