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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908508/increment-of-ambient-exposure-to-fine-particles-and-the-reduced-human-fertility-rate-in-china-2000-2010
#1
Tao Xue, Tong Zhu
Epidemiological and toxicological studies suggest that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5 ) can reduce human reproductive capacity. We previously reported, based on spatial epidemiology, that higher levels of PM2.5 exposure were associated with a lower fertility rate (FR) in China. However, that study was limited by a lack of temporal variation. Using first-difference regression, we linked temporal changes in FR and PM2.5 with adjustment for ecological covariates across 2806 counties in China during 2000-2010...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908431/smoking-ban-and-health-at-birth-evidence-from-hungary
#2
Tamás Hajdu, Gábor Hajdu
In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their pregnancies. Using individual live birth, fetal loss, and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We apply a difference-in-differences framework and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth...
June 13, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908311/longitudinal-study-of-neonatal-brain-tissue-volumes-in-preterm-infants-and-their-ability-to-predict-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#3
REVIEW
L Gui, S Loukas, F Lazeyras, P S Hüppi, D E Meskaldji, C Borradori Tolsa
Premature birth has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the relation between such outcomes and brain growth in the neonatal period has not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigates longitudinal brain development between birth and term-equivalent age (TEA) by quantitative imaging in a cohort of premature infants born between 26 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA), to provide insight into the relation of brain growth with later neurodevelopmental outcomes. Longitudinal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 84 prematurely born infants acquired shortly after birth and TEA were automatically segmented into cortical gray matter (CGM), unmyelinated white matter (UWM), subcortical gray matter (SGM), cerebellum (CB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908039/no-neurodevelopmental-benefit-of-cerebral-oximetry-in-the-first-randomised-trial-in-preterm-infants-during-the-first-days-of-life-safeboosc-ii
#4
Anne M Plomgaard, Thomas Alderliesten, Frank van Bel, Manon Benders, Olivier Claris, Malaika Cordeiro, Eugene Dempsey, Monica Fumagalli, Christian Gluud, Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Petra Lemmers, Adelina Pellicer, Gerhard Pichler, Gorm Greisen
AIM: Cerebral hypoxia has been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. We studied whether reducing cerebral hypoxia in extremely preterm infants during the first 72 hours of life affected neurological outcomes at two years of corrected age. METHODS: In 2012-2013 the phase II randomised Safeguarding the Brains of our Smallest Children trial compared visible cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring in an intervention group and blinded NIRS monitoring in a control group...
June 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908036/acquired-von-willebrand-syndrome-in-congenital-heart-disease-surgery-results-from-an-observational-case-series
#5
Vanya Icheva, Martina Nowak-Machen, Ulrich Budde, Karl Jaschonek, Felix Neunhoeffer, Matthias Kumpf, Michael Hofbeck, Christian Schlensak, Gesa Wiegand
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery of the newborn and infant with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with a high rate of intraoperative bleeding complications. CHD-related anatomic features such as valve stenoses or patent arterial ducts can lead to enhanced shear stress in blood stream and thus cause acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intraoperative incidence and impact of aVWS after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in neonates and infants with complex CHD...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908001/easy-words-reference-resolution-in-a-malevolent-referent-world
#6
Lila R Gleitman, John C Trueswell
This article describes early stages in the acquisition of a first vocabulary by infants and young children. It distinguishes two major stages, the first of which operates by a stand-alone word-to-world pairing procedure and the second of which, using the evidence so acquired, builds a domain-specific syntax-sensitive structure-to-world pairing procedure. As we show, the first stage of learning is slow, restricted in character, and to some extent errorful, whereas the second procedure is determinative, rapid, and essentially errorless...
June 15, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907944/25-gauge-lens-sparing-vitrectomy-with-dissection-of-retrolental-adhesions-on-the-peripheral-retina-for-familial-exudative-vitreoretinopathy-in-infants
#7
Jin Ma, Yin Hu, Lin Lu, Xiaohu Ding
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical outcome of 25-gauge lens-sparing vitrectomy with dissection of retrolental adhesions on the peripheral retina for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy in infants. METHODS: Fifty-one eyes of 39 infants with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy associated with retrolental adhesions on the peripheral retina, retinal fold with macular detachment, and partial lens opacity. A 25-gauge lens-sparing vitrectomy was performed, and retrolental adhesions between the peripheral retina and the posterior lens capsule were surgically dissected...
June 16, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907939/feasibility-of-quantitative-ultrasonography-for-the-detection-of-metabolic-bone-disease-in-preterm-infants-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Liting Tong, Jaya Sujatha Gopal-Kothandapani, Amaka C Offiah
Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is characterised by disordered bone mineralisation and is therefore an increased fracture risk. Preterm infants are especially at risk due to incomplete in utero bone accretion during the last trimester. Currently, diagnosing metabolic bone disease mainly relies on biochemistry and radiographs. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound (US) are used less frequently. However, biochemical measurements correlate poorly with bone mineralisation and although scoring systems exist for metabolic bone disease, radiographs are subjective and do not detect early features of osteopenia...
June 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907928/trends-in-the-incidence-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-over-a-10-year-period
#9
Prudence P C Chow, Wilson W K Yip, Mary Ho, Julie Y C Lok, Henry H W Lau, Alvin L Young
AIM: To describe and evaluate the trends in the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity over a 10-year period in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all preterm infants screened and/or treated for retinopathy of prematurity from January 2006 to December 2015 at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong. Preterm infants with incomplete records or transferred-in from other hospitals/region solely for treatment of ROP were excluded...
June 16, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907895/feasibility-of-analysis-of-the-scn5a-gene-in-paraffin-embedded-samples-in-sudden-infant-death-cases-at-the-pretoria-medico-legal-laboratory-south-africa
#10
Barbara Ströh van Deventer, Lorraine du Toit-Prinsloo, Chantal van Niekerk
To determine variations in the SCN5A gene linked to inherited cardiac arrhythmogenic disorders in sudden, unexplained infant death (SUID) cases examined at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory, South Africa. A retrospective study was conducted on SUID cases and controls, analyzing DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) myocardial tissue samples as well as blood samples. A total of 48 FFPE tissue samples (cases), 10 control FFPE tissue samples and nine control blood samples were included...
June 16, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907873/genetic-background-of-japanese-patients-with-pediatric-hypertrophic-and-restrictive-cardiomyopathy
#11
Takeharu Hayashi, Kousuke Tanimoto, Kayoko Hirayama-Yamada, Etsuko Tsuda, Mamoru Ayusawa, Shinichi Nunoda, Akira Hosaki, Akinori Kimura
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) present a high risk for sudden cardiac death in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to identify disease-associated genetic variants in Japanese patients with pediatric HCM and RCM. We analyzed 67 cardiomyopathy-associated genes in 46 HCM and 7 RCM patients diagnosed before 16 years of age using a next-generation sequencing system. We found that 78% of HCM and 71% of RCM patients carried disease-associated genetic variants. Disease-associated genetic variants were identified in 80% of HCM patients with a family history and in 77% of HCM patients with no apparent family history (NFH)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907863/attenuation-of-retinal-vascular-development-in-neonatal-mice-subjected-to-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#12
Ismail S Zaitoun, Ulas Cikla, Dila Zafer, Eshwar Udho, Reem Almomani, Andrew Suscha, Pelin Cengiz, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
A significant proportion of children that survive hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) develop visual impairment. These visual deficits are generally attributed to injuries that occur in the primary visual cortex and other visual processing systems. Recent studies suggested that neuronal damage might also occur in the retina. An important structure affecting the viability of retinal neurons is the vasculature. However, the effects of HIE on the retinal neurovasculature have not been systemically evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907849/does-prolonged-severe-hypercapnia-interfere-with-normal-cerebrovascular-function-in-piglets
#13
Massroor Pourcyrous, Sandeep Chilakala, Mohamad T Elabiad, Helena Parfenova, Charles W Leffler
BACKGROUND: Hypercapnia causes cerebral vasodilation and increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). During prolonged hypercapnia it is unknown whether cerebral vasodilation persists and whether cerebrovascular function is preserved. We investigated the effects of prolonged severe hypercapnia on pial arteriolar diameters (PAD) and cerebrovascular reactivity to vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. METHODS: Piglets were anesthetized, intubated and ventilated. Closed cranial windows were implanted to measure PAD...
May 28, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907798/congenital-hyperinsulinism-as-the-presenting-feature-of-kabuki-syndrome-clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-10-affected-individuals
#14
Kai Lee Yap, Amy E Knight Johnson, David Fischer, Priscilla Kandikatla, Jacea Deml, Viswateja Nelakuditi, Sara Halbach, George S Jeha, Lindsay C Burrage, Olaf Bodamer, Valeria C Benavides, Andrea M Lewis, Sian Ellard, Pratik Shah, Declan Cody, Alejandro Diaz, Aishwarya Devarajan, Lisa Truong, Siri Atma W Greeley, Diva D De Leó-Crutchlow, Andrew C Edmondson, Soma Das, Paul Thornton, Darrel Waggoner, Daniela Del Gaudio
PURPOSE: Describe the clinical and molecular findings of patients with Kabuki syndrome (KS) who present with hypoglycemia due to congenital hyperinsulinism (HI), and assess the incidence of KS in patients with HI. METHODS: We documented the clinical features and molecular diagnoses of 10 infants with persistent HI and KS via a combination of sequencing and copy-number profiling methodologies. Subsequently, we retrospectively evaluated 100 infants with HI lacking a genetic diagnosis, for causative variants in KS genes...
June 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907664/ventilation-inhomogeneity-in-infants-with-recurrent-wheezing
#15
Zihang Lu, Rachel E Foong, Krzysztof Kowalik, Theo J Moraes, Ayanna Boyce, Aimee Dubeau, Susan Balkovec, Per Magnus Gustafsson, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Wendy Lou, Felix Ratjen, Malcolm Sears, Padmaja Subbarao
BACKGROUND: The care of infants with recurrent wheezing relies largely on clinical assessment. The lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity, is a sensitive marker of early airway disease in children with cystic fibrosis, but its utility has not been explored in infants with recurrent wheezing. OBJECTIVE: To assess ventilation inhomogeneity using LCI among infants with a history of recurrent wheezing compared with healthy controls. METHODS: This is a case-control study, including 37 infants with recurrent wheezing recruited from outpatient clinics, and 113 healthy infants from a longitudinal birth cohort, the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development study...
June 15, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907614/human-milk-as-a-protective-factor-for-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Jinglan Huang, Li Zhang, Jun Tang, Jing Shi, Yi Qu, Tao Xiong, Dezhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To summarise current evidence evaluating the effects of human milk on the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. DESIGN: We searched for studies on human milk and BPD in English and Chinese databases on 26 July 2017. Furthermore, the references of included studies were also screened. The inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis were the following: (1) preterm infants (<37 weeks); (2) human milk; (3) comparing with formula feeding; (4) the outcome included BPD; and (5) the type of study was randomised controlled trial (RCT) or cohort study...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907475/radiotherapy-for-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-with-paraplegia-a-rare-oncologic-emergency-case-report-in-infancy-and-literature-review
#17
Kentaro Nakashima, Yuhki Koga, Yasunari Sakai, Hidetoshi Takada, Katsumi Harimaya, Saiji Ohga, Tomoaki Taguchi, Yoshinao Oda, Hiroshi Honda, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal disease with focal or disseminated lesions that may compress the surrounding tissues, including the spinal cord. Because few reports have described the spinal symptoms as the first manifestation of pediatric LCH, the long-term neurological outcomes remain unclear. CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW: We report a 21-month-old boy who presented with sudden-onset paraplegia. Imaging analyses revealed that osteolytic lesions and epidural tumors compressing the spinal cord at the T7-9 vertebrae...
June 12, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907397/association-between-prophylactic-indomethacin-and-death-or-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#18
REVIEW
Erik A Jensen, Elizabeth E Foglia, Barbara Schmidt
The use of prophylactic indomethacin in very preterm infants is controversial. The last randomized controlled trial (RCT) to study this therapy enrolled infants over 20 years ago. More recently, observational studies have investigated the association between exposure to prophylactic indomethacin and neonatal morbidities and mortality. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of these studies for the outcomes of death and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Two observational studies involving a total of 11,289 very preterm infants were suitable for meta-analysis...
May 10, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907216/liquid-chromatography-mass-spectroscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-biliary-atresia-in-children-with-hyperbilirubinemia
#19
Jamie Golden, Jessica A Zagory, Michael Fenlon, Catherine J Goodhue, Yi Xiao, Xiaowei Fu, Kasper S Wang, Christopher P Gayer
BACKGROUND: Biliary atresia (BA) is difficult to distinguish from other causes of cholestasis. We evaluated the use of liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and bile acid profiles in the rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of BA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and Institutional Review Board approval, we used LC-MS to measure 26 bile acids in serum and stool samples from experimental models of BA and in urine, stool, and serum samples from non-cholestatic and cholestatic human infants...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906795/national-survey-of-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-medication-safety-practices
#20
Rachel G Greenberg, P Brian Smith, Carl Bose, Reese H Clark, C Michael Cotten, Chris DeRienzo
OBJECTIVE:  We conducted a detailed survey to identify medication safety practices among a large network of United States neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS:  We created a 53-question survey to assess 300 U.S. NICU's demographics, medication safety practices, adverse drug event (ADE) reporting, and ADE response plans. RESULTS:  Among the 164 (55%) NICUs that responded to the survey, more than 85% adhered to practices including use of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, and clinical decision support; fewer reported adopting barcoding, formal safety surveys, and formal culture training; 137 of 164 (84%) developed at least one NICU-specific order-set with a median of 10 order-sets...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
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