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Terhi Tapiainen, Niko Paalanne, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Riikola M, Katja Korpela, Tytti Pokka, Jarmo Salo, Tuula Kaukola, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko
BACKGROUND: Meconium is formed before birth and may reflect the microbiome of the fetus. To test our hypothesis, we investigated whether maternal factors during pregnancy, such as biodiversity of the living environment, influence the microbiome of the first stool more than immediate perinatal factors. METHODS: We recruited 218 consecutive newborn infants from one hospital. Regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to characterize the microbiomes of the first-pass meconium samples (N=212)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Mehmet Özbek, Emel Ergün, Feyzullah Beyaz, Levent Ergün, Nuh Y Ld R M, Özge Özgenç, Füsun Erhan
The object of this study was to describe the prenatal development and histochemical properties of mucins in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. To determine changes in the mucin profile, the sections were stained with specific histochemical stains for carbohydrates. While neutral and mixed mucins were observed in the superficial epithelial cells of the abomasal pyloric region, acidic mucins were detected in the secretory ducts and corpus of the glands. Acidic mucins consisted predominantly of sialomucins. In the duodenal villi, the number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins increased toward the end of gestation, whereas Brunner's glands contained acidic mucins until the 95th day of gestation and both acidic and neutral mucins thereafter...
March 14, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
B Lisowska-Myjak, E Skarżyńska, M Bakun
Intrauterine environmental factors can be associated with perinatal complications and long-term health outcomes although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Meconium formed exclusively in utero and passed naturally by a neonate may contain proteins which characterise the intrauterine environment. The aim of the study was proteomic analysis of the composition of meconium proteins and their classification by biological function. Proteomic techniques combining isoelectrofocussing fractionation and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to study the protein composition of a meconium sample obtained by pooling 50 serial meconium portions from 10 healthy full-term neonates...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Anh-Vu Ngo, A Luana Stanescu, Grace S Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Neonatal bowel disorders require prompt and accurate diagnosis to avoid potential morbidity and mortality. Symptoms such as feeding intolerance, emesis, or failure to pass meconium may prompt a radiologic evaluation. CONCLUSION: We discuss the most common neonatal bowel disorders and present a practical imaging algorithm for trainees and general radiologists.
March 12, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Lucía Paniagua-González, Cristian Jiménez-Morigosa, Elena Lendoiro, Marta Concheiro, Angelines Cruz, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Ana de Castro
Tobacco exposure during pregnancy is associated with obstetric and fetal complications. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine nicotine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) in placenta (PL) and umbilical cord (UC). Specimens were homogenized in water, followed by solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using an Atlantis® HILIC Silica column. Detection was accomplished in electrospray in positive mode. Method validation included: linearity (5 to 1000 ng/g), accuracy (86...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lisa F Stinson, Jeffrey A Keelan, Matthew S Payne
The establishment of human gut microbiota commences initially in utero . Meconium-the first fecal material passed after birth-can be used to study fetal gut contents; however, processing meconium samples for microbiome studies presents significant technical challenges. Meconium hosts a low biomass microbiome, is tar-like in texture and contains high concentrations of PCR inhibitors. This study aimed to evaluate four different DNA extraction methods to elucidate the most effective method for bacterial DNA recovery and sequencing analysis from first-pass meconium...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dimitrios-Rafail Kalaitzopoulos, Konstantinos Chatzistergiou, Anna-Lea Amylidi, Damianos G Kokkinidis, Dimitrios G Goulis
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine hydrochloride is 1 of the most widespread psycho-stimulants in the world. Nevertheless, its effect on pregnant women and their neonates has not been investigated extensively. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature for the effect of methamphetamine exposure during pregnancy to neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis of retrospective, case-control studies was conducted. Inclusion criteria were women who have used methamphetamine during pregnancy, determined by self-report, maternal or neonatal urine test, and/or meconium toxicology, compared with control women not taking methamphetamine...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Víctor Lago Leal, Loida Pamplona Bueno, Lucía Cabanillas Vilaplana, Estefanía Nicolás Montero, Mónica Martín Blanco, Cristina Fernández Romero, Sara El Bakkali, Tamara Pradillo Aramendi, Lara Sobrino Lorenzano, Paula Castellano Esparza, Esther Ballesteros Benito, Nieves Rayo Navarro, Pablo Del Barrio Fernández, Vanesa Ocaña Martínez, Luis Martínez Cortés
OBJECTIVE: To assess the short and medium-term effects of milking maneuver (MM) compared with early cord clamping for infants born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 138 infants between 24+0 and 36+6 weeks of gestation were allocated to MM or early cord clamping. Primary outcomes were the requirement of red blood cell transfusions or phototherapy. RESULTS: Initial hemoglobin was significantly higher in the MM group by 1.675 g/dL (p < 0...
March 5, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Seetha Shankaran, Abbot Laptook, Scott McDonald, Martin Keszler, Krisa Van Meurs, Ronnie Guillet, Sanjay Chawla, Beena G Sood, Sonia Bonifacio, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of term infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) associated with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). METHODS: We compared infants with and without PPHN enrolled in 2 randomized trials of therapeutic hypothermia: the induced hypothermia trial of cooling to 33.5°C for 72 hours vs normothermia, and the "usual-care" arm (33.5°C for 72 hours) of the optimizing cooling trial...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Clara Yieh Lin Chong, Frank H Bloomfield, Justin M O'Sullivan
The gut microbiome is established in the newborn period and is recognised to interact with the host to influence metabolism. Different environmental factors that are encountered during this critical period may influence the gut microbial composition, potentially impacting upon later disease risk, such as asthma, metabolic disorder, and inflammatory bowel disease. The sterility dogma of the foetus in utero is challenged by studies that identified bacteria, bacterial DNA, or bacterial products in meconium, amniotic fluid, and the placenta; indicating the initiation of maternal-to-offspring microbial colonisation in utero...
February 28, 2018: Nutrients
John H T Waldhausen, Morgan Richards
Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common inheritable traits in Caucasians. Meconium ileus and its potential complications are the most likely reasons that these patients will need surgical care. Surgical intervention is usually needed in the neonatal period but may also be required later in life. This article discusses the various ways cystic fibrosis can affect the gastrointestinal tract. Both the operative and nonoperative management of complicated and uncomplicated meconium ileus are discussed in the neonatal period as well as long-term issues, such as distal intestinal obstructive syndrome, fibrosing colonopathy, and rectal prolapse, all of which may be seen in older children and adults...
March 2018: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Anub Mathew Thomas, Camilla Schjalm, Per H Nilsson, Paal H H Lindenskov, Runa Rørtveit, Rønnaug Solberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Magnus M Berglund, Patrik Strömberg, Corinna Lau, Terje Espevik, Johan Høgset Jansen, Albert Castellheim, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Andreas Barratt-Due
BACKGROUND: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a severe lung condition affecting newborns and it can lead to a systemic inflammatory response. We previously documented complement activation and cytokine release in a piglet MAS model. Additionally, we showed ex vivo that meconium-induced inflammation was dependent on complement and Toll-like receptors. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of the combined inhibition of complement (C5) and CD14 on systemic inflammation induced in a forceful piglet MAS model...
February 27, 2018: Neonatology
Amber M Wood, Elizabeth G Livingston, Brenna L Hughes, Jeffrey A Kuller
Importance: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) complicates approximately 0.2% to 2% of pregnancies and can lead to increased fetal risks in pregnancy. Objective: This review aims to increase the knowledge of women's health care providers regarding the diagnosis, management, and fetal risks associated with ICP. Results: The diagnosis of ICP is based on symptoms of pruritus that typically include the palms and soles, as well as elevated bile acid levels...
February 2018: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Yi-Chao Shi, He Guo, Jing Chen, Gang Sun, Rong-Rong Ren, Ming-Zhou Guo, Li-Hua Peng, Yun-Sheng Yang
Previous studies have revealed significant differences in microbiome compositions between infants delivered via cesarean section (C-section) and natural vaginal birth. However, the importance of the delivery mode in the first days of life remains unclear. Importantly, this stage is minimally affected by infant feeding. Here, we used a metagenomic sequencing technique to characterize the meconium microbiome from the feces of a Chinese cohort of vaginally and C-section-delivered infants, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) newborns, during the first 24 h after birth...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zeynep Ozturk, Cigdem Colak Kalayci
Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as anxiolytic herbal supplement. Herbal medicines are natural products, but it doesn't mean they are always safe, especially during pregnancy. Passiflora incarnata extract was not teratogenic in experimental studies. However, there are no data available on possible effects on human pregnancy. Here we report five pregnant women with depression and/or anxiety who used passiflora incarnata in pregnancy. We observed one pregnancy resulting in neonatal death, two pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes, two infants with meconium aspiration syndrome and one infant with persistent pulmonary hypertension...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Nicole T Brown, Jessica M Turner, Sailesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is an increasingly common condition in non-obstetric populations and is associated with significant morbidity. The incidence of sleep-disordered breathing in pregnancy is unknown and it is likely that many cases go undiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to determine if pregnant women diagnosed with sleep-disordered breathing are more likely to have adverse intrapartum and perinatal outcomes compared to controls...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Juliana Durack, Nikole E Kimes, Din L Lin, Marcus Rauch, Michelle McKean, Kathryn McCauley, Ariane R Panzer, Jordan S Mar, Michael D Cabana, Susan V Lynch
Gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic dysfunction in infancy precedes childhood atopy and asthma development. Here we examined gut microbiota maturation over the first year of life in infants at high risk for asthma (HR), and whether it is modifiable by early-life Lactobacillus supplementation. We performed a longitudinal comparison of stool samples collected from HR infants randomized to daily oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (HRLGG) or placebo (HRP) for 6 months, and healthy (HC) infants. Meconium microbiota of HRP participants is distinct, follows a delayed developmental trajectory, and is primarily glycolytic and depleted of a range of anti-inflammatory lipids at 6 months of age...
February 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Chiara Autilio, Mercedes Echaide, Daniele De Luca, Jesús Pérez-Gil
BACKGROUND: Whole-body hypothermia (WBH) is used to improve neurological outcomes in perinatal asphyxia. Recent studies suggested a beneficial effect of hypothermia for some types of acute respiratory failure. However, no data are available about the biophysical function of human surfactant during WBH. We investigated whether WBH improves surfactant biophysical properties in asphyxiated neonates with or without meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). METHODS: Non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has been collected from 10 asphyxiated neonates (2 with MAS, 8 with no lung disease (NLD)) at different time-points (pre-WBH, 24h, 48h, 72h of WBH and post-WBH)...
2018: PloS One
Simuli L Wabuyele, Jennifer M Colby, Gwendolyn A McMillin
Maternal substance abuse during pregnancy is a growing problem with major public health and legal concerns. In utero substance exposure may adversely affect neonatal development, pregnancy outcome and the long term behavioral, cognitive and developmental abilities of the child. Also, serious legal implications are associated with substance abuse during pregnancy, including charges of child abuse and neglect which may result in removal of the neonate from parental care and loss of custodial rights. Timely detection of in utero drug exposure is necessary for early identification and effective management of exposed newborns...
February 5, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Erkan Kalafat, Jose Morales-Rosello, Basky Thilaganathan, Jasreen Dhother, Asma Khalil
OBJECTIVE: Small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses are at increased risk of admission to the neonatal unit, even at term. We aimed to develop and validate a predictive model for the risk of prolonged neonatal unit admission in suspected SGA fetuses at term. METHODS: A single-center cohort study of singleton pregnancies with SGA fetus, defined as estimated fetal weight (EFW) less than the 10th centile, at term. The variables included known risk factors for neonatal unit admissions: maternal characteristics, EFW, abdominal circumference (AC), fetal Dopplers, gestational age (GA) at delivery, and intrapartum risk factors (meconium, pyrexia)...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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