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Han-Joon Kim, Sang-Won Jeon, Ho-Kyoung Yoon
Human influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. The influenza vaccination is recommended annually, but several adverse effects related to allergic reactions have been reported. Panic attacks are also known to occur, but no case of a panic attack adverse effect has been reported in South Korea. We present two cases of panic disorder patients whose symptoms were aggravated by the influenza vaccination. We assumed that dysregulation of T-lymphocytes in panic disorder patients could have a role in activating various kinds of cytokines and chemokines, which then can lead to panic attack aggravation...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Paulina R Davis, Ginevra Giannini, Karin Rudolph, Nathaniel Calloway, Christopher M Royer, Tina L Beckett, M Paul Murphy, Frederick Bresch, Dieter Pagani, Thomas Platt, Xiaohong Wang, Amy Skinner Donovan, Tiffany L Sudduth, Wenjie Lou, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Donna M Wilcock, Edward G Barrett, Elizabeth Head
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) immunotherapy is a promising intervention to slow Alzheimer's disease. Aging dogs naturally accumulate Aβ and show cognitive decline. An active vaccine against fibrillar Aβ 1-42 (VAC) in aged beagles resulted in maintenance but not improvement of cognition along with reduced brain Aβ. Behavioral enrichment (ENR) led to cognitive benefits but no reduction in Aβ. We hypothesized cognitive outcomes could be improved by combining VAC with ENR in aged dogs. Aged dogs (11-12 years) were placed into 4 groups: (1) control/control (C/C); (2) control/VAC (C/V); (3) ENR/control (E/C); and (4) ENR/VAC (E/V) and treated for 20 months...
September 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
T Ilyicheva, A Durymanov, I Susloparov, N Kolosova, N Goncharova, S Svyatchenko, O Petrova, A Bondar, V Mikheev, A Ryzhikov
The influenza epidemic in 2015-2016 in Russia is characterized by a sharp increase of influenza cases (beginning from the second week of 2016) with increased fatalities. Influenza was confirmed in 20 fatal cases registered among children (0-10 years), in 5 cases among pregnant women, and in 173 cases among elderly people (60 years and older). Two hundred and ninety nine people died from influenza were patients with some chronic problems. The overwhelming majority among the deceased (more than 98%) were not vaccinated against influenza...
2016: PloS One
Sabrina J Merat, Richard Molenkamp, Koen Wagner, Sylvie M Koekkoek, Dorien van de Berg, Etsuko Yasuda, Martino Böhne, Yvonne B Claassen, Bart P Grady, Maria Prins, Arjen Q Bakker, Menno D de Jong, Hergen Spits, Janke Schinkel, Tim Beaumont
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is world-wide a major cause of liver related morbidity and mortality. No vaccine is available to prevent HCV infection. To design an effective vaccine, understanding immunity against HCV is necessary. The memory B cell repertoire was characterized from an intravenous drug user who spontaneously cleared HCV infection 25 years ago. CD27+IgG+ memory B cells were immortalized using BCL6 and Bcl-xL. These immortalized B cells were used to study antibody-mediated immunity against the HCV E1E2 glycoproteins...
2016: PloS One
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Bing Kan, Li Yang, Yan-Jun Wen, Jin-Rong Yang, Ting Niu, Jiong Li, Hong-Xin Deng, Wei Wei, Li-Gong Chen, Quan Zhang, Wei Wang, Yu-Quan Wei
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulating molecule of angiogenesis in tumor formation and progression. Cancer cells always secrete VEGF to stimulate angiogenesis that facilitate growth and invasion of the tumor. In this study, we established a VEGF164 overexpressing LL/2 lung cancer cell model and found that the postirradiated VEGF164-modified tumor cells protected the host against the challenge with LL/2 wild-type tumor cells. Histochemical assay showed that there were large areas of tumor necrosis with macrophage infiltration in the mice vaccinated with the VEGF164-modified tumor vaccine...
October 21, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, Gregory L Szeto, Alice Tzeng, Eric F Zhu, Jesse M Engreitz, Robert T Williams, Kavya Rakhra, Michael H Zhang, Adrienne M Rothschilds, Sudha Kumari, Ryan L Kelly, Byron H Kwan, Wuhbet Abraham, Kevin Hu, Naveen K Mehta, Monique J Kauke, Heikyung Suh, Jennifer R Cochran, Douglas A Lauffenburger, K Dane Wittrup, Darrell J Irvine
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity...
October 24, 2016: Nature Medicine
Martin Luther Mann Manyombe, Joseph Mbang, Jean Lubuma, Berge Tsanou
In this paper, an epidemic model is investigated for infectious diseases that can be transmitted through both the infectious individuals and the asymptomatic carriers (i.e., infected individuals who are contagious but do not show any disease symptoms). We propose a dose-structured vaccination model with multiple transmission pathways. Based on the range of the explicitly computed basic reproduction number, we prove the global stability of the disease-free when this threshold number is less or equal to the unity...
August 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Sarikapan Wilailak, Nuttapong Lertchaipattanakul
Between the years of 2010-2012, it was estimated there were a total of 112,392 new cases of cancers in Thailand, thus, the total age-standardized rate (ASR) per 100,000 is 137.6. In regards to the most prevalent types of cancer in female, breast cancer has the highest ASR, followed by cervical cancer (ASR=14.4); liver and bile duct cancer; colon and rectum cancer; trachea, bronchus and lung cancer; ovarian cancer (ASR=6.0); thyroid cancer; non-Hodgkin lymphoma and uterine cancer (ASR=4.3). The trend of cervical cancer in Thailand is decreasing, one key factor in making this possible was the employment of dual tract strategy (Pap smear and visual inspection with acetic acid [VIA]) by the government in 2005...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Dong Hoon Suh, Miseon Kim, Hak Jae Kim, Kyung Hun Lee, Jae Weon Kim
In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed...
November 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Maria T Arévalo, Junwei Li, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Yanping Chen, Ashley Navarro, Lihong Wu, Yongyong Yan, Mingtao Zeng
Preventative influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of 3 tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax edema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses...
October 24, 2016: Immunology
Anita S Iyer, Malika Bouhenia, John Rumunu, Abdinasir Abubakar, Randon J Gruninger, Jane Pita, Richard Lako Lino, Lul L Deng, Joseph F Wamala, Edward T Ryan, Stephen Martin, Dominique Legros, Justin Lessler, David A Sack, Francisco J Luquero, Daniel T Leung, Andrew S Azman
Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1-5 years old), 67 older children (6-17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Biao Tang, Yanni Xiao, Jianhong Wu
Zika virus co-circulates with dengue in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Cases of co-infection by dengue and Zika have been reported, the implication of this co-infection for an integrated intervention program for controlling both dengue and Zika must be addressed urgently. Here, we formulate a mathematical model to describe the transmission dynamics of co-infection of dengue and Zika with particular focus on the effects of Zika outbreak by vaccination against dengue among human hosts. Our analysis determines specific conditions under which vaccination against dengue can significantly increase the Zika outbreak peak, and speed up the Zika outbreak peak timing...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kokouvi Kassegne, Eniola Michael Abe, Jun-Hu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Genetics combined with proteomics allows for a better understanding of parasite-host interactions and host immune responses. Immunomics elucidates that antigens are targets of induced or naturally acquired immunity (NAI), a promising solution to the challenge of eradicating human infections. High-throughput protein microarrays enhance rapid antigen discovery for the development of serodiagnostic tests/vaccines. Areas covered: This review systematically analyzes the emergence of protein microarrays as a powerful technology for parasite antigen discovery and subsequently summarizes some of the attributes and disadvantages of these approaches...
October 24, 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
Rebecca J Winter, Bethany White, Stuart A Kinner, Mark Stoové, Rebecca Guy, Margaret E Hellard
OBJECTIVES: Testing is the first step in treatment and care for blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). As new treatments for viral hepatitis emerge, it is important to document effective models for BBV/STI testing. A nurse-led intervention was implemented across three prisons in Victoria to improve BBV/STI testing. We evaluated the impact of the intervention on BBV/STI testing rates and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination for reception prisoners. METHODS: BBV/STI testing and HBV vaccination data were collected from the medical files of 100 consecutive reception prisoners at three prisons (n=300) prior to and after the intervention was implemented...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Collins C Iwuji, Nuala McGrath, Tulio de Oliveira, Kholoud Porter, Deenan Pillay, Martin Fisher, Melanie Newport, Marie-Louise Newell
INTRODUCTION: Remarkable strides have been made in controlling the HIV epidemic, although not enough to achieve epidemic control. More recently, interest in biomedical HIV control approaches has increased, but substantial challenges with the HIV cascade of care hinder successful implementation. We summarise all available HIV prevention methods and make recommendations on how to address current challenges. DISCUSSION: In the early days of the epidemic, behavioural approaches to control the HIV dominated, and the few available evidence-based interventions demonstrated to reduce HIV transmission were applied independently from one another...
November 30, 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Lize Cuypers, Guangdi Li, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Supinya Piampongsant, Pieter Libin, Kristel Van Laethem, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Kristof Theys
Despite significant progress in hepatitis C (HCV) treatment, global viral eradication remains a challenge. An in-depth map of its genome diversity within the context of structural and immunological constraints could contribute to the design of pan-genotypic antivirals and preventive vaccines. For such analyses, extensive information is only available for the highly prevalent HCV genotypes (GT) 1a and 1b. Using 647 GT1a and 408 GT1b full-genome sequences obtained from the Los Alamos database, we found that respectively 3 per cent and 82 per cent of all codon positions are under positive and negative selective pressure, suggesting variation mainly accumulates due to random genetic drift...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
Christina Kratsch, Thorsten R Klingen, Linda Mümken, Lars Steinbrück, Alice C McHardy
Human influenza viruses are rapidly evolving RNA viruses that cause short-term respiratory infections with substantial morbidity and mortality in annual epidemics. Uncovering the general principles of viral coevolution with human hosts is important for pathogen surveillance and vaccine design. Protein regions are an appropriate model for the interactions between two macromolecules, but the currently used epitope definition for the major antigen of influenza viruses, namely hemagglutinin, is very broad. Here, we combined genetic, evolutionary, antigenic, and structural information to determine the most relevant regions of the hemagglutinin of human influenza A/H3N2 viruses for interaction with human immunoglobulins...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Katsuhiko Fukai, Tatsuya Nishi, Nobuaki Shimada, Kazuki Morioka, Manabu Yamada, Kazuo Yoshida, Kenichi Sakamoto, Rie Kitano, Reiko Yamazoe, Makoto Yamakawa
The effectiveness of a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan was analyzed under experimental conditions using cows and pigs in order to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of the emergency vaccination performed in the 2010 epidemic in Japan. Cows and pigs were administered a vaccine preserved for emergency use in Japan at 3 or 30 days before virus infection (dbv) and were subsequently infected with the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/JPN/2010, which was isolated in the 2010 epidemic in Japan...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Analía Rial, Florencia Ferrara, Norma Suárez, Paola Scavone, Juan Martín Marqués, José Alejandro Chabalgoity
Respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent infections in humans causing millions of deaths especially in children and the elderly. Antibiotics and vaccines are the main available tools of control, but resistant strains are continuously arising and available vaccines only account for few of many pathogens involved. Non-specific immunotherapies are an emerging alternative to induce protective immunity at the airways. Mucosally administered polyvalent bacterial lysates (PBLs) have been widely used for decades for prevention of respiratory diseases, but the bases of their proposed therapeutic effectiveness are still controversial...
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
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