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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691993/epidemiology-and-molecular-characterization-of-chicken-anaemia-virus-from-commercial-and-native-chickens-in-taiwan
#1
S-C Ou, H-L Lin, P-C Liu, H-J Huang, M-S Lee, Y-Y Lien, Y-L Tsai
Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs)...
April 25, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691859/survey-of-rabies-vaccination-status-of-queensland-veterinarians-and-veterinary-students
#2
D Mendez, L Foyle, R Cobbold, R Speare
BACKGROUND: To determine the rabies vaccination status of Queensland veterinarians and veterinary students and their perception of zoonotic risk from Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent by post in 2011 to veterinary surgeons registered in Queensland, to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University via SurveyMonkey® in 2013 and to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University and University of Queensland via SurveyMonkey® in 2014...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691856/in-this-issue-may-2018-antimicrobial-labelling-in-australia-%C3%A2-queensland-survey-of-rabies-vaccination-%C3%A2-antibody-response-to-hev-vaccine-%C3%A2-response-to-ibdv-infection-in-chickens-%C3%A2-outbreaks-of-winter-scours-in-merino-sheep-%C3%A2-tonsillar-mast-cell-tumour-in-a
#3
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691855/virus-neutralising-antibody-responses-in-horses-following-vaccination-with-equivac%C3%A2-hev-a-field-study
#4
Rhh Tan, A Hodge, R Klein, N Edwards, J A Huang, D Middleton, S P Watts
OBJECTIVE: To determine the antibody responses to a commercial Hendra virus vaccine (Equivac® HeV) in a field environment. METHODS: A group of 61 horses received a primary vaccination course comprising two doses administered 3-6 weeks apart (V1, V2) and a 3rd dose (V3) given 6 months after the second. This was followed by booster vaccinations at 12 monthly intervals (V4, V5). Antibody titres were assessed using a virus-neutralisation test. RESULTS: Neutralising antibodies against HeV were not detected prior to vaccination...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691472/production-and-delivery-of-helicobacter-pylori-napa-in-lactococcus-lactis-and-its-protective-efficacy-and-immune-modulatory-activity
#5
Xiaoyan Peng, Rongguang Zhang, Guangcai Duan, Chen Wang, Nan Sun, Linghan Zhang, Shuaiyin Chen, Qingtang Fan, Yuanlin Xi
Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein A subunit (NapA) has been identified as a virulence factor, a protective antigen and a potent immunomodulator. NapA shows unique application potentials for anti-H. pylori vaccines and treatment strategies of certain allergic diseases and carcinomas. However, appropriate production and utilization modes of NapA still remain uncertain to date. This work has established a novel efficient production and utilization mode of NapA by using L. lactis as an expression host and delivery vector, and demonstrated immune protective efficacy and immune modulatory activity of the engineered L...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691454/heterologous-dna-prime-protein-boost-immunization-with-reca-and-flid-offers-cross-clade-protection-against-leptospiral-infection
#6
Veerapandian Raja, Sankaran Sobana, Charles Solomon Akino Mercy, Bianca Cotto, Durlav Prasad Bora, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan
The emergence of >300 serovars of Leptospira confounded the use of generalized bacterin, the whole cell lysate, as vaccines to control leptospirosis. Because of substantial genetic and geographic heterogeneity among circulating serovars, one vaccine strain per serovar cannot be efficacious against all the serovars. We have performed heterologous DNA prime-protein boost vaccination challenge studies in hamsters using in vivo expressed, leptospiral recombinase A (RecA) and flagellar hook associated protein (FliD)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691450/assessing-the-benefits-of-early-pandemic-influenza-vaccine-availability-a-case-study-for-ontario-canada
#7
David Champredon, Marek Laskowski, Nathalie Charland, Seyed M Moghadas
New vaccine production technologies can significantly shorten the timelines for availability of a strain-specific vaccine in the event of an influenza pandemic. We sought to evaluate the potential benefits of early vaccination in reducing the clinical attack rate (CAR), taking into account the timing and speed of vaccination roll-out. Various scenarios corresponding to the transmissibility of a pandemic strain and vaccine prioritization strategies were simulated using an agent-based model of disease spread in Ontario, the largest Canadian province...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691437/immunological-responses-following-administration-of-a-genotype-1a-1b-2-3a-quadrivalent-hcv-vlp-vaccine
#8
D Christiansen, L Earnest-Silveira, B Chua, P Meuleman, I Boo, B Grubor-Bauk, D C Jackson, Z Y Keck, S K H Foung, H E Drummer, E J Gowans, J Torresi
The significant public health problem of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been partially addressed with the advent of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, the development of an effective preventative vaccine would have a significant impact on HCV incidence and would represent a major advance towards controlling and possibly eradicating HCV globally. We previously reported a genotype 1a HCV viral-like particle (VLP) vaccine that produced neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and T cell responses to HCV. To advance this approach, we produced a quadrivalent genotype 1a/1b/2a/3a HCV VLP vaccine to produce broader immune responses...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691418/immunosilencing-peptides-by-stereochemical-inversion-and-sequence-reversal-retro-d-peptides
#9
Pol Arranz-Gibert, Sonia Ciudad, Jesús Seco, Jesús García, Ernest Giralt, Meritxell Teixidó
Peptides are experiencing a new era in medical research, finding applications ranging from therapeutics to vaccines. In spite of the promising properties of peptide pharmaceuticals, their development continues to be hindered by three weaknesses intrinsic to their structure, namely protease sensitivity, clearance through the kidneys, and immune system activation. Here we report on two retro-D-peptides (H2 N-hrpyiah-CONH2 and H2 N-pwvpswmpprht-CONH2 ), which are protease-resistant and retain the original BBB shuttle activity of the parent peptide but are much less immunogenic than the parent peptide...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691393/vaccines-work
#10
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691363/detection-of-circulating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-dna-by-droplet-digital-pcr-for-vaccine-evaluation-in-challenged-monkeys-and-tb-diagnosis
#11
Neng Song, Yang Tan, Lingyun Zhang, Wei Luo, Qing Guan, Ming-Zhe Yan, Ruiqi Zuo, Weixiang Liu, Feng-Ling Luo, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is emerging as a more serious pathogen due to the increased multidrug-resistant TB and co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The development of an effective and sensitive detection method is urgently needed for bacterial load evaluation in vaccine development, early TB diagnosis, and TB treatment. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a newly developed sensitive PCR method for the absolute quantification of nucleic acid concentrations. Here, we used ddPCR to quantify the circulating virulent M...
April 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691324/suppression-of-costimulation-by-human-cytomegalovirus-promotes-evasion-of-cellular-immune-defenses
#12
Eddie C Y Wang, Mariana Pjechova, Katie Nightingale, Virginia-Maria Vlahava, Mihil Patel, Eva Ruckova, Simone K Forbes, Luis Nobre, Robin Antrobus, Dawn Roberts, Ceri A Fielding, Sepehr Seirafian, James Davies, Isa Murrell, Betty Lau, Gavin S Wilkie, Nicolás M Suárez, Richard J Stanton, Borivoj Vojtesek, Andrew Davison, Paul J Lehner, Michael P Weekes, Gavin W G Wilkinson, Peter Tomasec
CD58 is an adhesion molecule that is known to play a critical role in costimulation of effector cells and is intrinsic to immune synapse structure. Herein, we describe a virally encoded gene that inhibits CD58 surface expression. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL148 was necessary and sufficient to promote intracellular retention of CD58 during HCMV infection. Blocking studies with antagonistic anti-CD58 mAb and an HCMV UL148 deletion mutant (HCMV∆UL148) with restored CD58 expression demonstrated that the CD2/CD58 axis was essential for the recognition of HCMV-infected targets by CD8+ HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs)...
April 24, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691216/the-usability-and-effectiveness-of-mobile-health-technology-based-lifestyle-and-medical-intervention-apps-supporting-health-care-during-pregnancy-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Sanne B Overdijkink, Adeline V Velu, Ageeth N Rosman, Monique Dm van Beukering, Marjolein Kok, Regine Pm Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: A growing number of mobile health (mHealth) technology-based apps are being developed for personal lifestyle and medical health care support, of which several apps are related to pregnancy. Evidence on usability and effectiveness is limited but crucial for successful implementation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the usability, that is, feasibility and acceptability, as well as effectiveness of mHealth lifestyle and medical apps to support health care during pregnancy in high-income countries...
April 24, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691102/how-baby-s-first-shot-determines-the-development-of-maternal-attitudes-towards-vaccination
#14
Cornelia Betsch, Birte Bödeker, Philipp Schmid, Ole Wichmann
BACKGROUND: The attitude towards vaccination is a major determinant of vaccination behavior; this also includes parents' attitudes towards the immunization of their child. Negative attitudes have been associated with vaccine hesitancy and outbreaks of infectious diseases throughout the globe. This study aimed to assess how and why attitudes become more pro-vaccine or vaccine-skeptical over time, and which sources are especially influential in this process. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with measurements at time of recruitment during pregnancy and at +3, +6 and +14 months after childbirth with cross-sectional control groups...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691101/influenza-vaccination-in-the-elderly-is-a-trial-on-mortality-ethically-acceptable
#15
Ruud Andreas Fritz Verhees, Wybo Dondorp, Carel Thijs, Geert Jan Dinant, Johannes Andreas Knottnerus
The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly has long been a topic of debate, fueled by the absence of direct evidence from randomized trials on its effect on mortality and the methodological limitations of observational studies pointing this direction. It is argued that new placebo-controlled trials should be undertaken to resolve this uncertainty. However, such trials may be ethically questionable. To bring this discussion forward, we provide a comprehensive overview of the ethical challenges of an influenza vaccine efficacy trial designed to evaluate mortality in the elderly...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691100/immunisation-of-chickens-with-live-salmonella-vaccines-role-of-booster-vaccination
#16
U Methner
It is accepted that booster vaccinations of chickens with live Salmonella vaccines are essential part of vaccinations schemes to induce an effective adaptive immune response. As manufacturer of registered live Salmonella vaccines recommend different times of booster the question raises whether the duration between the first and second immunisation might influence the protective effect against Salmonella exposure. Chickens were immunised with a live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine on day 1 of age followed by a booster vaccination at different intervals (day 28, 35 or 42 of age) to study the effects on the colonisation and invasion of the Salmonella vaccine strain, the humoral immune response and the efficacy against infection with Salmonella Enteritidis on day 56 of age...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690895/history-epidemiology-and-diagnostics-of-dengue-in-the-american-and-brazilian-contexts-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Tiago Souza Salles, Thayane da Encarnação Sá-Guimarães, Evelyn Seam Lima de Alvarenga, Victor Guimarães-Ribeiro, Marcelo Damião Ferreira de Meneses, Patricia Faria de Castro-Salles, Carlucio Rocha Dos Santos, Ana Claudia do Amaral Melo, Marcia Regina Soares, Davis Fernandes Ferreira, Monica Ferreira Moreira
Dengue virus (DENV), an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes, has become a major threat to American human life, reaching approximately 23 million cases from 1980 to 2017. Brazil is among the countries most affected by this terrible viral disease, with 13.6 million cases. DENV has four different serotypes, DENV1-4, which show a broad clinical spectrum. Dengue creates a staggering epidemiological and economic burden for endemic countries. Without a specific therapy and with a commercial vaccine that presents some problems relative to its full effectiveness, initiatives to improve vector control strategies, early disease diagnostics and the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs are priorities...
April 24, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690685/-current-status-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-shanghai-revealed-by-a-questionnaire-analysis
#18
J Liu, J Zhang, Q J Cheng, J F Xu, Z J Jie, Y Jiao, Y Huang, J M Qu
Objective: To understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among doctors in various hospitals across Shanghai, for the purpose of promoting the 2016 clinical practice guidelines for adult CAP of China. Methods: A questionnaire was designed to address the common questions in CAP management. The responses were collected via WeChat and the data were analyzed. Results: A total of 1 254 valid questionnaires were received, 46.1% from tertiary , 26.4% from secondary and 27...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690575/natural-immunity-to-hiv-a-template-for-vaccine-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Lyvia Fourcade, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion...
April 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690563/intracellular-bacterial-infections-a-challenge-for-developing-cellular-mediated-immunity-vaccines-for-farmed-fish
#20
REVIEW
Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu
Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly expanding farming systems in the world. Its rapid expansion has brought with it several pathogens infecting different fish species. As a result, there has been a corresponding expansion in vaccine development to cope with the increasing number of infectious diseases in aquaculture. The success of vaccine development for bacterial diseases in aquaculture is largely attributed to empirical vaccine designs based on inactivation of whole cell (WCI) bacteria vaccines. However, an upcoming challenge in vaccine design is the increase of intracellular bacterial pathogens that are not responsive to WCI vaccines...
April 22, 2018: Microorganisms
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