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ADHD adult

Laura Gisbert, Vanesa Richarte, Montserrat Corrales, Pol Ibáñez, Rosa Bosch, Mariano Bellina, Christian Fadeuilhe, Miquel Casas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which neuropsychological performance parameters implicated in ADHD might mediate the relationship between emotional lability (EL) and this disorder. METHOD: Eight hundred twelve adult patients with ADHD were examined. EL was assessed using the EL subscale of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). To assess cognitive and executive functions, a battery of neuropsychological tests was performed in 262 patients with ADHD and high EL symptomatology and 550 patients with ADHD and low EL symptomatology...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Cheyenne Allenby, Mary Falcone, Leah Bernardo, E Paul Wileyto, Anthony Rostain, J Russell Ramsay, Caryn Lerman, James Loughead
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is a core deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to modulate cognitive control circuits and could enhance DLPFC activity, leading to improved impulse control in ADHD. OBJECTIVE: Hypothesis: We predicted 2.0 mA anodal stimulation (tDCS) versus sham stimulation applied over the left DLPFC would improve Conners Continuous Performance Task (CPT) scores...
April 23, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Carrie Georges, Danielle Hoffmann, Christine Schiltz
Behavioral evidence for the link between numerical and spatial representations comes from the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect, consisting in faster reaction times to small/large numbers with the left/right hand respectively. The SNARC effect is, however, characterized by considerable intra- and inter-individual variability. It depends not only on the explicit or implicit nature of the numerical task, but also relates to interference control. To determine whether the prevalence of the latter relation in the elderly could be ascribed to younger individuals' ceiling performances on executive control tasks, we determined whether the SNARC effect related to Stroop and/or Flanker effects in 26 young adults with ADHD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kasey Stanton, Miriam K Forbes, Mark Zimmerman
There has been growing interest in studying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood as a result of research indicating that ADHD often persists into adulthood and frequently is comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Adult ADHD symptoms are most commonly assessed via self-report, but prior research examining the structure of self-reported adult ADHD symptoms has yielded discrepant results. Explicating the factor structure of ADHD symptom measures is essential to determine if such self-report measures assess symptom dimensions showing distinctive relations with other psychopathology and psychosocial functioning...
June 7, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Iraci L S Torres, Luis Augusto Rohde
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental condition that impairs quality of life in social, academic, and occupational contexts for both children and adults. Although a strong neurobiological basis has been demonstrated, the pathophysiology of ADHD is still poorly understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are glial activation, neuronal damage and degeneration, increased oxidative stress, reduced neurotrophic support, altered neurotransmitter metabolism, and blood-brain barrier disruption...
June 6, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
Christine L Mathews, Holly E R Morrell, Jon E Molle
BACKGROUND: Up to 23% of people who play video games report symptoms of addiction. Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at increased risk for video game addiction, especially when playing games with more reinforcing properties. OBJECTIVES: The current study tested whether level of video game reinforcement (type of game) places individuals with greater ADHD symptom severity at higher risk for developing video game addiction. METHODS: Adult video game players (N = 2,801; Mean age = 22...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Alan Apter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Marta Carulla-Roig, Kayoko Isomura, Ana Pérez-Vigil, Henrik Larsson, Clara Hellner, David Mataix-Cols, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz
BACKGROUND: Monitoring "real world" dispensation patterns over time is important to build the evidence base for safe and efficient use of psychotropic drugs. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively examine the patterns of psychotropic drug dispensations in patients with Tourette and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD) in Sweden between 2005 and 2013. METHODS: A cohort of 6979 TD/CTD patients was identified through the Swedish National Patient Register. Their drug dispensation patterns, collected in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, were examined between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2013...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
A B Bowling, H W Tiemeier, V W V Jaddoe, E D Barker, P W Jansen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk of overweight/obesity among children and adults. Studies have also implicated obesity as a risk factor for ADHD. However, no studies have evaluated bidirectional, longitudinal associations between childhood fat mass and ADHD symptom severity. OBJECTIVES: We investigate bidirectional associations between ADHD symptoms and measures of body composition between ages 1.5 and 9. We further examine effects of specific eating patterns linked to ADHD on associations between symptom severity and body composition...
June 4, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Brian T Wymbs
OBJECTIVE: Adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have more conflictual relations with their romantic partners than adults without ADHD. This study investigated whether adults with ADHD are differentially susceptible to conflict when self-control resources are depleted. METHOD: Heterosexual adult couples (20 including at least one adult with ADHD; 12 including no adults with ADHD) were randomly assigned to have resources temporarily depleted or not...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jonathan M Slezak, Melanie Mueller, George A Ricaurte, Jonathan L Katz
Amphetamine is a common therapeutic agent for alleviating the core symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. The current study used a translational model of attention, the five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) procedure with rats, to examine the time-course effects of d-amphetamine. Effects of different dosages of d-amphetamine were related to drug-plasma concentrations, fashioned after comprehensive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic assessments that have been employed in clinical investigations...
June 2, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Cherry Youn, Jocelyn I Meza, Stephen P Hinshaw
OBJECTIVE: Examine the moderating effects of response inhibition on the longitudinal association between social preference/relational aggression measured in childhood, and intimate partner violence (IPV) measured in young adulthood, among women with ( n = 140) and without ( n = 88) histories of childhood ADHD. METHOD: During childhood, social preference was measured through confidential peer sociometric nominations, yielding negative and positive peer regard; relational aggression was assessed via staff behavioral observations; and response inhibition was assessed using commission errors from the continuous performance task...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Dana Ganor-Stern, Ofir Steinhorn
Adults with ADHD were compared to controls when solving multiplication problems exactly and when estimating the results of multidigit multiplication problems relative to reference numbers. The ADHD participants were slower than controls in the exact calculation and in the estimation tasks, but not less accurate. The ADHD participants were similar to controls in showing enhanced accuracy and speed for smaller problem sizes, for trials in which the reference numbers were smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answers and for reference numbers that were far (vs...
May 31, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Hila Z Gvirts, Yael D Lewis, Shira Dvora, Kfir Feffer, Uriel Nitzan, Ziv Carmel, Yechiel Levkovitz, Hagai Maoz
Impaired decision making in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been reported in several studies. Although methylphenidate (MPH) is known to ameliorate impaired decision making in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it has not yet been examined in patients with BPD. We therefore assessed the efficacy of a single dose of MPH on cognitive functions and decision making in patients with BPD. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. The study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled, random block order cross-over trial...
July 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Christoph Abé, Qazi Rahman, Niklas Långström, Eleonore Rydén, Martin Ingvar, Mikael Landén
BACKGROUND: Nonheterosexual individuals have higher risk of psychiatric morbidity. Together with growing evidence for sexual orientation-related brain differences, this raises the concern that sexual orientation may be an important factor to control for in neuroimaging studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: We studied sexual orientation in adult psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or ADHD in a large clinical cohort (N = 154). We compared cortical brain structure in exclusively heterosexual women (HEW, n = 29) with that of nonexclusively heterosexual women (nHEW, n = 37) using surface-based reconstruction techniques provided by FreeSurfer...
May 29, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Andrew Stickley, Hisateru Tachimori, Yosuke Inoue, Takahiro Shinkai, Reiji Yoshimura, Jun Nakamura, Gihei Morita, Shigeki Nishii, Yuki Tokutsu, Yuka Otsuka, Kazuteru Egashira, Miyuki Inoue, Takamitsu Kubo, Hirofumi Tesen, Naoyuki Takashima, Hirotaka Tominaga, Ai Koyanagi, Yoko Kamio
AIMS: To examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care (the J-PAAP study) which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan in April 2014 to January 2015 (N=864)...
May 29, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Timothy Wigal, Matthew Brams, Glen Frick, Brian Yan, Manisha Madhoo
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the efficacy, duration of effect, and tolerability of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) extended-release versus placebo and immediate-release MAS (MAS IR) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Adults with ADHD Rating Scale, Version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) scores ≥24 were randomized to SHP465 MAS (50 or 75 mg), placebo, or 25 mg MAS IR in a double-blind, 3-period, crossover study using a simulated adult workplace environment...
May 29, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Carla J Berg, Regine Haardörfer, Vu Milkie, Betelihem Getachew, Steven A Lloyd, Angela Lanier, Donyale Childs, Yasmeni Sandridge, Jennifer Bierhoff, Jingjing Li, Elliyah Dossantos, Michael Windle
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking escalates most in early to middle young adulthood. However, little research has examined a range of multilevel factors in relation to smoking trajectories during this time. METHODS: We examined: 1) trajectories of cigarette smoking among 2967 US college students (aged 18-25) in a two-year, six-wave longitudinal study (using growth mixture modeling); and 2) intrapersonal- (i.e., other substance use, depressive symptoms, ADHD symptoms,); interpersonal- (i...
May 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Joseph Biederman, Maura Fitzgerald, Thomas J Spencer, Lenard A Adler, Jessica Abrams, Itai Biederman, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the informativeness of self-reports of ADHD symptoms in adults with ADHD in the clinical setting. METHOD: Subjects were clinically referred adults aged 19 years to 67 years of age of both sexes ( N = 54). All subjects were on stable doses of stimulant and were considered responders to treatment. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) and the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Spearman's rank correlations were used to assess the correlations between clinician-assessed ADHD and patients' self-reports...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
Olaf Ballaschke, Sebastian Langer, Lukas Forschner
BACKGROUND: ADHD in adulthood is assumed to be a positive predictor for many comorbid diseases and impairments affecting all domains of life, particularly career performance. Participation in social and professional life is limited for populations which qualify for rehabilitation programs, and thus the prevalence of ADHD is presumably also higher in these populations. METHOD: To estimate the prevalence of ADHD in a population undergoing rehabilitation, 1010 people aged 18 to 75 years were screened for the presence of ADHD in adulthood...
May 25, 2018: Die Rehabilitation
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