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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224622/slc2a3-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-duplication-influence-cognitive-processing-and-population-specific-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Sören Merker, Andreas Reif, Georg C Ziegler, Heike Weber, Ute Mayer, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Annette Conzelmann, Stefan Johansson, Clemens Müller-Reible, Indrajit Nanda, Thomas Haaf, Reinhard Ullmann, Marcel Romanos, Andreas J Fallgatter, Paul Pauli, Tatyana Strekalova, Charline Jansch, Alejandro Arias Vasquez, Jan Haavik, Marta Ribasés, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Klaus-Peter Lesch
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with profound cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial impairments with persistence across the life cycle. Our initial genome-wide screening approach for copy number variants (CNVs) in ADHD implicated a duplication of SLC2A3, encoding glucose transporter-3 (GLUT3). GLUT3 plays a critical role in cerebral glucose metabolism, providing energy for the activity of neurons, which, in turn, moderates the excitatory-inhibitory balance impacting both brain development and activity-dependent neural plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223929/the-effects-of-age-from-young-to-middle-adulthood-and-gender-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-dopaminergic-midbrain
#2
Andrew C Peterson, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, Herta H Chao, Chiang-Shan R Li
Dysfunction of the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is implicated in psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, schizophrenia and movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the prevalence of these disorders varies by age and sex, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. The objective of this study was to delineate the distinct resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the VTA and SNc and examine the effects of age, from young to middle-adulthood, and sex on the rsFC of these two dopaminergic structures in a data set of 250 healthy adults (18-49 years of age, 104 men)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223809/a-review-of-the-efficacy-of-atomoxetine-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adult-patients-with-common-comorbidities
#3
REVIEW
David B Clemow, Chris Bushe, Michele Mancini, Michael H Ossipov, Himanshu Upadhyaya
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223034/children-s-head-motion-during-fmri-tasks-is-heritable-and-stable-over-time
#4
Laura E Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222452/adult-adhd-addressing-a-unique-set-of-challenges
#5
REVIEW
Scott A Fields, William Michael Johnson, Madison B Hassig
ADHD diagnostic criteria are different for adults than they are for children. Plus, prescribing psychostimulants for adults raises the risk of misuse and diversion.
February 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219628/subcortical-brain-volume-differences-in-participants-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adults-a-cross-sectional-mega-analysis
#6
Martine Hoogman, Janita Bralten, Derrek P Hibar, Maarten Mennes, Marcel P Zwiers, Lizanne S J Schweren, Kimm J E van Hulzen, Sarah E Medland, Elena Shumskaya, Neda Jahanshad, Patrick de Zeeuw, Eszter Szekely, Gustavo Sudre, Thomas Wolfers, Alberdingk M H Onnink, Janneke T Dammers, Jeanette C Mostert, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Gregor Kohls, Eileen Oberwelland, Jochen Seitz, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Sara Ambrosino, Alysa E Doyle, Marie F Høvik, Margaretha Dramsdahl, Leanne Tamm, Theo G M van Erp, Anders Dale, Andrew Schork, Annette Conzelmann, Kathrin Zierhut, Ramona Baur, Hazel McCarthy, Yuliya N Yoncheva, Ana Cubillo, Kaylita Chantiluke, Mitul A Mehta, Yannis Paloyelis, Sarah Hohmann, Sarah Baumeister, Ivanei Bramati, Paulo Mattos, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Pamela Douglas, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson, Katya Rubia, Clare Kelly, Adriana Di Martino, Michael P Milham, Francisco X Castellanos, Thomas Frodl, Mariam Zentis, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Paul Pauli, Terry L Jernigan, Jan Haavik, Kerstin J Plessen, Astri J Lundervold, Kenneth Hugdahl, Larry J Seidman, Joseph Biederman, Nanda Rommelse, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Georg von Polier, Kerstin Konrad, Oscar Vilarroya, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Joan Carles Soliva, Sarah Durston, Jan K Buitelaar, Stephen V Faraone, Philip Shaw, Paul M Thompson, Barbara Franke
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219488/adolescents-prescription-stimulant-use-and-adult-functional-outcomes-a-national-prospective-study
#7
Sean Esteban McCabe, Philip Veliz, Timothy E Wilens, John E Schulenberg
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prospective 17-year relationship between the medical and nonmedical use of prescription stimulants during adolescence (age 18 years) and educational attainment and substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms in adulthood (age 35 years). METHOD: A survey was self-administered by nationally representative probability samples of US high school seniors from the Monitoring the Future study; 8,362 of these individuals were followed longitudinally from adolescence (age 18, high school senior years 1976-1996) to adulthood (age 35, 1993-2013)...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211596/the-structure-of-adult-adhd
#8
Lenard A Adler, Stephen V Faraone, Thomas J Spencer, Patricia Berglund, Samuel Alperin, Ronald C Kessler
Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in three pooled US samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201945/maternal-adhd-symptoms-and-parenting-stress
#9
David Williamson, Charlotte Johnston
OBJECTIVE: ADHD symptoms in adults are consistently related to stress in a variety of domains, although whether the link between ADHD symptoms and stress is direct, or accounted for or moderated by other variables, is little studied. We used a cross-sectional design to examine whether parenting self-efficacy accounts for the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and parenting stress, and whether levels of maternal neuroticism moderate this relation. METHOD: A nonclinical sample of mothers of 120, six- to 12-year-old children completed surveys online...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188687/the-influence-of-sex-and-age-on-prevalence-rates-of-comorbid-conditions-in-autism
#10
Kaustubh Supekar, Tara Iyer, Vinod Menon
Individuals with ASD frequently experience one or more comorbid conditions. Here, we investigate the influence of sex and age-two important, yet understudied factors-on ten common comorbid conditions in ASD, using cross-sectional data from 4790 individuals with ASD and 1,842,575 individuals without ASD. Epilepsy, ADHD, and CNS/cranial anomalies showed exceptionally large proportions in both male (>19%) and female (>15%), children/adolescents with ASD. Notably, these prevalence rates decreased drastically with age in both males and females...
February 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184164/assessment-and-monitoring-of-treatment-response-in-adult-adhd-patients-current-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
J Russell Ramsay
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome that emerges in childhood or early adolescence and persists into adulthood for a majority of individuals. There are many other adults with ADHD who may not seek out evaluation and treatment until adulthood, having been able to "get by" before struggling with inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity in adulthood, in addition to facing the associated features of disorganization, poor time management, and procrastination among many others...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182448/when-alcohol-is-only-part-of-the-problem-an-event-level-analysis-of-negative-consequences-related-to-alcohol-and-other-substance-use
#12
Kimberly A Mallett, Rob Turrisi, Brittney A Hultgren, Nichole Sell, Racheal Reavy, Michael Cleveland
While alcohol remains the drug of choice for most college students, national data show that 40% of college students also use other substances (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, etc.). Longitudinal studies indicate that students who report use of both alcohol and other substances experience more consequences (e.g., blackout, arrests). The current study expands upon this research by using a multilevel approach to examine average and event-level alcohol combined with other substance use (ALC+) and its role on consequences experienced...
February 9, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178911/bringing-mini-chalk-talks-to-the-bedside-to-enhance-clinical-teaching
#13
Michael B Pitt, Jay D Orlander
: Chalk talks - where the teacher is equipped solely with a writing utensil and a writing surface - have been used for centuries, yet little has been written about strategies for their use in medical education. Structured education proximal to patient encounters (during rounds, at the bedside, or in between patients in clinic) maximizes the opportunities for clinical learning. This paper presents a strategy to bring mini-chalk talks (MCTs) to the bedside as a practical way to provide relevant clinical teaching by visually framing teachable moments...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178870/group-treatment-for-adults-with-adhd-based-on-a-novel-combination-of-cognitive-and-dialectical-behavior-interventions
#14
Berkeh Nasri, Malin Castenfors, Peggy Fredlund, Ylva Ginsberg, Nils Lindefors, Viktor Kaldo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate feasibility and preliminary effects of a new group treatment manual for adults with ADHD and to explore adherence to treatment and its relation to outcome. METHOD: Eighteen adults with ADHD recruited from neuropsychiatric units in Stockholm underwent a 14-week program including combined cognitive and dialectical behavior therapy. Assessments were made at baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up, at one and six months after treatment end. Primary outcome measure was the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale version 1...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166690/how-substance-users-with-adhd-perceive-the-relationship-between-substance-use-and-emotional-functioning
#15
John T Mitchell, Thomas S Weisner, Peter S Jensen, Desiree W Murray, Brooke S G Molina, Eugene L Arnold, Lily Hechtman, James M Swanson, Stephen P Hinshaw, Elizabeth C Victor, Scott H Kollins, Karen C Wells, Katherine A Belendiuk, Andrew Blonde, Celeste Nguyen, Lizeth Ambriz, Jenny L Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: Although substance use (SU) is elevated in ADHD and both are associated with disrupted emotional functioning, little is known about how emotions and SU interact in ADHD. We used a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach to explore this relationship. METHOD: Narrative comments were coded for 67 persistent (50 ADHD, 17 local normative comparison group [LNCG]) and 25 desistent (20 ADHD, 5 LNCG) substance users from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) adult follow-up (21...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165547/effects-of-methylphenidate-treatment-on-the-cerebellum-in-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#16
A N Inci Kenar, G A Unal, Y Kiroglu, H Herken
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relationship between the use of methylphenidate (MPH) and changes in creatine, choline, and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), striatum, cerebellum, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 60 patients 18-60 years of age who met the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) for ADHD...
January 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164728/adhd-and-sct-symptomatology-in-relation-to-college-students-use-of-self-regulated-learning-strategies
#17
Christopher R Shelton, William E Addison, Cynthia M Hartung
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the relation between self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies and ADHD and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology. METHOD: Participants were 303 college students, aged 18 to 25 ( M = 20.04, SD = 1.45), from a Midwestern university who completed the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV), and a shortened, generalized version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). RESULTS: Among college students, inattention symptomatology was consistently predictive of deficits in use of value, expectancy, and self-regulation strategies, while SCT symptomatology was only predictive of deficits in the use of self-regulation strategies...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162841/adherence-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-during-the-transition-to-college
#18
Megan R Schaefer, Alana Resmini Rawlinson, Scott T Wagoner, Steven K Shapiro, Jan Kavookjian, Wendy N Gray
PURPOSE: The present study explores the medication self-management experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during their transition to young adulthood in college. METHODS: Participants were college freshmen with ADHD prescribed daily medication for their condition. Ten individual interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview script. Measures related to ADHD medication management were also completed. Qualitative data were analyzed via directed content analysis and quantitative data via descriptive statistics...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162086/adult-adhd-is-associated-with-gambling-severity-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-treatment-seeking-problem-gamblers
#19
Laura Brandt, Gabriele Fischer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is as follows: (a) exploring retrospective childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology in treatment-seeking gamblers, (b) providing detailed characteristics of the association between pathological gambling (PG) and ADHD, and (c) identifying risk factors for a history of ADHD. METHOD: Eighty problem gamblers (20% female) were examined using a standardized interview (PG: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.; DSM-IV] criteria, Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey; ADHD: Wender Utah Rating Scale- deutsche Kurzform, Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale; comorbidities: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159610/brain-imaging-genetics-in-adhd-and-beyond-mapping-pathways-from-gene-to-disorder-at-different-levels-of-complexity
#20
REVIEW
Marieke Klein, Marten Onnink, Marjolein van Donkelaar, Thomas Wolfers, Benjamin Harich, Yan Shi, Janneke Dammers, Alejandro Arias-Va Squez, Martine Hoogman, Barbara Franke
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and often persistent neurodevelopmental disorder. Beyond gene-finding, neurobiological parameters, such as brain structure, connectivity, and function, have been used to link genetic variation to ADHD symptomatology. We performed a systematic review of brain imaging genetics studies involving 62 ADHD candidate genes in childhood and adult ADHD cohorts. Fifty-one eligible research articles described studies of 13 ADHD candidate genes. Almost exclusively, single genetic variants were studied, mostly focussing on dopamine-related genes...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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