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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818658/cue-dependent-inhibition-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
Zachary W Adams, Michael Meinzer, Howard Mandel, Joshua Voltin, Blaine Caughron, Floyd R Sallee, Mark Hamner, Zhewu Wang
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common among military veterans, but the comorbidity of these two psychiatric disorders remains largely unstudied. Evaluating response inhibition and cue-dependent learning as behavioral and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying ADHD/PTSD can inform etiological models and development of tailored interventions. METHOD: A cued go/no-go task evaluated response inhibition in 160 adult males...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818147/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-fatal-accidents-in-aviation-medicine
#2
Tanja Laukkala, Robert Bor, Bruce Budowle, Antti Sajantila, Pooshan Navathe, Markku Sainio, Alpo Vuorio
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interfere with functioning and/or development. ADHD occurs in about 2.5% of adults. ADHD can be an excluding medical condition among pilots due to the risk of attentional degradation and therefore impact on flight safety. Diagnosis of ADHD is complex, which complicates aeromedical assessment. This study highlights fatal accident cases among pilots with ADHD and discusses protocols to detect its presence to help to assess its importance to flight safety...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816509/shp465-mixed-amphetamine-salts-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#3
Matthew Brams, Ann C Childress, Michael Greenbaum, Ming Yu, Brian Yan, Margo Jaffee, Brigitte Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of SHP465 mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This randomized, double-blind dose-optimization study enrolled children and adolescents (6-17 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision ADHD criteria and having baseline ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥28...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803577/auditory-brainstem-response-abr-profiling-tests-as-diagnostic-support-for-schizophrenia-and-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#4
Eva Juselius Baghdassarian, Maria Nilsson Markhed, Eva Lindström, Björn M Nilsson, Tommy Lewander
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performances of two auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as potential biomarkers and diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively, in an investigator-initiated blinded study design. METHOD: Male and female patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and adult ADHD (n=24) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic criteria and healthy controls (n=58) comprised the analysis set (n=108) of the total number of study participants (n=119)...
August 14, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803030/neurofeedback-sham-neurofeedback-and-cognitive-behavioural-group-therapy-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-triple-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Michael Schönenberg, Eva Wiedemann, Alexander Schneidt, Jonathan Scheeff, Alexander Logemann, Philipp M Keune, Martin Hautzinger
BACKGROUND: Many studies suggest that electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback might be beneficial in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, numbers of well controlled studies are low and neurofeedback techniques are regarded as highly controversial. The present trial examined the efficacy (compared with sham neurofeedback) and efficiency (compared with meta-cognitive therapy) of a standard EEG neurofeedback protocol in adults with ADHD. METHODS: We did a concurrent, triple-blind, randomised, controlled trial using authorised deception in adults with ADHD from one centre (University of Tübingen) in Tübingen, Germany...
August 9, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800718/sex-differences-in-the-meaning-of-parent-and-teacher-ratings-of-adhd-behaviors-an-observational-study
#6
Brenda J Meyer, Jim Stevenson, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: To test explanations for the underrecognition of female ADHD by examining differences in adult ratings of boys and girls matched for levels of directly observed ADHD behaviors. METHOD: In a secondary analysis of a population-based sample, 3- to 4-year-olds ( n = 153, 79 male) and 8- to 9-year-olds ( n = 144, 75 male) were grouped according to levels of directly observed ADHD behaviors (low/moderate/high). Groups were then compared with parent/teacher ADHD ratings...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800716/co-occurrence-of-asd-and-adhd-traits-in-an-adult-population
#7
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
OBJECTIVE: ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits found in the general population. Clinical and genetic studies suggest that ADHD and ASD often co-occur and share genetic susceptibility. The aim of this study was to examine co-occurrence of ADHD and ASD traits in the general population. METHOD: In total, 334 participants were recruited from a population-based sample. Four questionnaires assessing current and retrospective ADHD and ASD traits were administered online: the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Symptom Checklist, the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25), the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800281/attentional-lapses-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-blank-rather-than-wandering-thoughts
#8
Charlotte Van den Driessche, Mikaël Bastian, Hugo Peyre, Coline Stordeur, Éric Acquaviva, Sara Bahadori, Richard Delorme, Jérôme Sackur
People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties sustaining their attention on external tasks. Such attentional lapses have often been characterized as the simple opposite of external sustained attention, but the different types of attentional lapses, and the subjective experiences to which they correspond, remain unspecified. In this study, we showed that unmedicated children (ages 6-12) with ADHD, when probed during a standard go/no-go task, reported more mind blanking (a mental state characterized by the absence of reportable content) than did control participants...
August 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780281/is-adult-onset-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-frequent-in-clinical-practice
#9
Régis Lopez, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Cédric Galera, Yves Dauvilliers
Recent population-based longitudinal studies concluded that most adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms would not have a childhood history of ADHD, leading to the concept of adult-onset ADHD. In a large, well-characterized clinical population of 446 adults with a primary complaint of ADHD, we reported a low frequency of adult-onset ADHD (6.9%), being a primary isolated condition in 2.8%. They had less severe symptoms and tendencies for higher hypersomnolence disorder comorbidity than patients with typical childhood-onset ADHD...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774571/activation-of-neonatal-microglia-can-be-influenced-by-other-neural-cells
#10
Alexandra Turano, Jennifer H Lawrence, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During development, microglial progenitor cells migrate into the brain from the periphery, a process critical to the maturation of the developing brain. Although they perform functions similar to mature, adult microglia, immature microglia are distinct from mature microglia. Activation of immature microglia, via an early-life immune challenge, can lead to persistent changes in microglial function, resulting in long-term neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Early-life immune activation is associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and cerebral palsy - disorders with known or suspected immune etiologies, and strong sex biases for males...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770370/exploring-deficient-emotion-regulation-in-adult-adhd-electrophysiological-evidence
#11
Anna Shushakova, Patricia Ohrmann, Anya Pedersen
Emotional dysregulation (ED) is being increasingly recognized as a core feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the pathophysiological underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we provide meaningful electrophysiological evidence of ED in adult patients with ADHD (n = 39) compared to healthy controls (n = 40) by exploring the electrophysiological correlates of the emotion regulation strategies reappraisal, distraction, and expressive suppression. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during passive viewing of neutral and negative images, as well as during emotion regulation...
August 2, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764867/effect-of-tobacco-smoking-on-frontal-cortical-thickness-development-a-longitudinal-study-in-a-mixed-cohort-of-adhd-affected-and-unaffected-youth
#12
Sophie E A Akkermans, Daan van Rooij, Nanda Rommelse, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Maarten Mennes, Jan K Buitelaar
Smoking rates are particularly high during adolescence and young adulthood, when the brain is still undergoing significant developmental changes. Cross-sectional studies have revealed altered brain structure in smokers, such as thinner frontal cortical areas. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of becoming nicotine-dependent, and has also been associated with abnormalities in frontal gray matter structure. The present study examines the relationships between smoking, cortical thickness and ADHD symptoms in a longitudinal design that compares adolescent and young adult smokers (n=44; 35 ADHD-affected) and non-smokers (n=45; 32 ADHD-affected) on frontal cortical thickness...
July 29, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763482/attention-impairments-and-adhd-symptoms-in-adult-narcoleptic-patients-with-and-without-hypocretin-deficiency
#13
Marco Filardi, Fabio Pizza, Lorenzo Tonetti, Elena Antelmi, Vincenzo Natale, Giuseppe Plazzi
BACKGROUND: Attentional complaints are common in narcolepsy patients and can overlap with daytime sleepiness features. Few studies attempted to characterize attentional domains in narcolepsy leading to controversial results. We aimed to assess the impact of hypocretin deficiency on attentional functioning by comparing performances on the attention network test (ANT) of narcoleptic patients with hypocretin deficiency (narcolepsy type 1-NT1) versus patients without hypocretin deficiency (narcolepsy type 2-NT2) and healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760535/a-randomized-phase-i-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-alcohol-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-an-extended-release-orally-disintegrating-tablet-formulation-of-amphetamine-in-healthy-adults
#14
Jeffrey H Newcorn, Jeffrey G Stark, Sherilyn Adcock, Russ McMahen, Carolyn Sikes
PURPOSE: There is a strong association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol abuse, yet no studies have systematically assessed the effect of alcohol on the pharmacokinetics of psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMP) in vivo. This study evaluated the effects of alcohol on the rate and extent of absorption of Adzenys™ XR-ODT*, a new extended-release orally disintegrating AMP tablet (AMP XR-ODT) for ADHD. METHODS: A Phase I single-dose, open-label study was conducted in 32 healthy adults...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760090/the-impact-of-emotional-lability-symptoms-during-childhood-in-adults-with-adhd
#15
Laura Gisbert, Vanesa Richarte, Montserrat Corrales, Pol Ibáñez, Rosa Bosch, Miquel Casas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether emotional lability (EL) in adult ADHD patients can already be identified during their childhood and the extent to which this childhood symptomatology can predict EL in adulthood. METHOD: Seven hundred eighteen adults with ADHD were examined. EL in adulthood was assessed using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). According to Conners' definition of EL, seven items from the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to determine this symptomatology in childhood...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755620/does-the-increasing-placebo-response-impact-outcomes-of-adult-and-pediatric-adhd-clinical-trials-data-from-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-2000-2009
#16
Arif Khan, Kaysee Fahl Mar, Walter A Brown
In a study of recent antidepressant clinical trial data, it was found placebo response had grown significantly over time and that contrary to expectations, trial outcome measures and success rate were not impacted. The aim of this paper was to evaluate if this trend of increasing placebo response and stable outcome measures could be seen in clinical trial data for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a different psychiatric condition with susceptibility to placebo response. For this reason, we evaluated efficacy data reported in the FDA Medical and Statistical reviews for 10 ADHD medication programs (4917 patients, 17 trials, 29 treatment arms)...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750278/neuropsychological-deficits-in-adults-age-60-and-above-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
L B Thorell, Y Holst, H Chistiansen, J J S Kooij, D Bijlenga, D Sjöwall
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological deficits are of major importance in ADHD, yet no previous studies have assessed clinically referred samples of older adults. The authors compared older adults with ADHD (60-75years) with both younger adults with ADHD (18-45years) and older healthy controls with regard to various neuropsychological deficits. METHODS: Well-established tests were used to investigate working memory, inhibition, switching, planning, fluency, and speed of processing...
June 27, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749829/the-presence-of-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-may-be-associated-with-interpersonal-sensitivity-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#18
Ahmet Koyuncu, Fahri Çelebi, Erhan Ertekin, Çağdaş Ö Memiş, Raşit Tükel
The goal of this study was to evaluate a possible association between childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and interpersonal sensitivity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). The study involved 125 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of SAD. To evaluate childhood ADHD, the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was used. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and clinical rating scales were completed...
July 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748725/recent-trends-in-the-prescribing-of-adhd-medications-in-canadian-primary-care
#19
Rachael Morkem, Scott Patten, John Queenan, David Barber
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and incidence of ADHD medication prescribing, by age and gender, from 2005 to 2015 in Canadian primary care. METHOD: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the prescribing of ADHD medications between 2005 and 2015 using electronic medical record data. Yearly prevalence and incidence of ADHD medication prescribing were calculated for preschoolers (up to 5 years old), school-aged children (6-17 years old), and adults (18-65 years old) along with a description of the types of ADHD medications prescribed between 2005 and 2015...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745107/effectiveness-of-psychotherapy-in-adult-adhd-what-do-patients-think-results-of-the-compas-study
#20
Vivien Groß, Caroline Lücke, Erika Graf, Alexandra P Lam, Swantje Matthies, Patricia Borel, Esther Sobanski, Michael Rösler, Wolfgang Retz, Christian Jacob, Michael Colla, Michael Huss, Thomas Jans, Bernhard Kis, Mona Abdel-Hamid, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Alexandra Philipsen
OBJECTIVE: In the multicenter study Comparison of Methylphenidate and Psychotherapy in Adult ADHD (COMPAS), the efficacy of treatments has been primarily evaluated by observer-rated symptom change. Here, we additionally analyzed the patients' subjective evaluation of therapy effects. METHOD: COMPAS compared ADHD-specific group therapy with unspecific clinical management with/without concomitant pharmacotherapy in a four-armed design. Evaluation through the patients' retrospective perspective was performed after 1 year (post-treatment) and after another 1...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
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