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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735461/pneumonia-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae-vaccine
#1
REVIEW
Gyu-Lee Kim, Seung-Han Seon, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Pneumonia is an inflammatory disease of the lung, responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms. Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive bacterium with over 90 serotypes, is the most common causative agent. Moreover, comorbid factors including heart failure, renal disease, and pulmonary disease could increase the risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. Since the advent of the pneumococcal vaccine in the 1980s, the incidence of pneumonia has decreased significantly...
July 22, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735348/analysis-of-the-cd8-t-cell-anti-hiv-activity-in-heterologous-cell-co-cultures-reveals-the-benefit-of-multiple-hla-class-i-matches
#2
M Scott Killian, Fernando Teque, Ramu Sudhagoni
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can reduce the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by CD4(+) T cells by cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic mechanisms. To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I compatibility in anti-HIV responses, we co-cultured primary CD8(+) T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals, with panels of autologous and heterologous acutely HIV-1-infected primary CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, CD8(+) T cell anti-HIV activity was evaluated in more than 200 co-cultures...
July 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735327/genotyping-and-clinicoepidemiological-characterization-of-rotavirus-acute-gastroenteritis-in-egyptian-children
#3
Niveen Saudy, Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Ahmed Megahed, Mona F Foad, Aly F Mohamed
Group A rotavirus (RVA) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common cause of severe childhood diarrhea. The dominant circulating RVA genotypes in a given region may vary between and within the geographic regions and from year to year. Our cross-sectional study was designed to determine the burden of RVA genotypes among children with AGE admitted to referral Children Hospital at Egypt prior to implementation of the vaccine. Stool samples with clinico-epidemiological data were collected from 92 children ≤ 3 years-old with AGE...
January 2, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735242/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-larva-taenia-multiceps
#4
W H Li, N Z Zhang, L Yue, Y Yang, L Li, H B Yan, T T Li, Z G Qu, W Z Jia, B Q Fu
Taenia multiceps is an adult worm affiliated to Taeniidae family, Platyhelminthes phylum. The larvae of the parasite (Coenurus cerebralis) parasitic in the brain and spinal cord in domestic and wild ruminants or humans can led to a fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease. The aims of the present study were to define the transcriptome profiles of the larvae of T. multiceps by RNA-Seq approach, and to generate large functional gene datasets that could be used to predict the key molecular pathways linked to this cestode...
July 12, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735080/recombinant-truncated-e-protein-as-a-new-vaccine-candidate-against-nontypeable-h-influenzae-its-expression-and-immunogenic-evaluation
#5
Ava Behrouzi, Saeid Bouzari, Farzam Vaziri, Abolfazl Fateh, Parviz Afrough, Atefeh Davoudi Vijeh Motlagh, Seyed Davar Siadat
Protein E (PE) is a conserved entity observed in both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and encapsulated H. influenzae. This is a small surface lipoprotein, consisting of only 160 amino acids, involved in the adhesion of H. influenzae to various types of epithelial cells. A 384-bp-long fragment from NTHi PE was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. The recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and then purified by affinity purification on an Ni-NTA agarose matrix. BALB/c mice were immunized by subcutaneous injection with purified recombinant truncated PE mixed with an alum adjuvant...
July 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735059/too-young-to-be-vaccinated-hospitalizations-caused-by-varicella-among-children-in-the-first-year-of-life
#6
Ewelina Gowin, Jacek Wysocki, Michał Michalak, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the causes of hospitalization in the course of varicella in children during the first year of life. METHODS: We have analysed the medical documentation of 359 children hospitalized for varicella at the Infectious Diseases Ward in Children's Hospital in Poznan (Poland) between January 2007 and August 2015. RESULTS: In the study group there were 96 children younger than one year. The most common cause of hospitalization was respiratory infections, found in 31 (32%) children...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734965/enhanced-immunostimulatory-activity-of-in-silico-discovered-agonists-of-toll-like-receptor-2-tlr2
#7
M S Murgueitio, S Ebner, P Hörtnagl, C Rakers, R Bruckner, P Henneke, G Wolber, S Santos-Sierra
BACKGROUND: Emergent therapies in anticancer vaccination use Toll-like receptors (TLRs) agonists as dendritic cell (DC) vaccine adjuvants. DCs from the patient are isolated, stimulated with TLR agonists and tumor antigens ex vivo and then infused back into the patient. Although some TLR ligands have been tested in clinical trials, novel TLR agonists with improved immunomodulatory properties are essential to optimize treatment success. We report on the discovery of small-molecule TLR2 agonists, with favorable properties as synthetic adjuvants...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734743/adjuvantation-of-inactivated-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-vaccine-with-il-15-expressing-plasmid-improves-the-immune-response-in-guinea-pigs
#8
Vijay Nagaraj, Lijo John, Singaram Bharatiraja, Hosur Joyappa Dechamma, Golla Ramalinga Reddy
Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven footed animals. Vaccination using inactivated virus is followed to control the disease. As the immune response conferred by the inactivated vaccine is short lived, there is a need for an alternate vaccine with increased duration of immunity. Inclusion of adjuvant which enhances B and T cell responses is one of the strategies to increase the duration of immune responses of the vaccine. Interleukin 15 is one such a cytokine which improves the cell mediated immune response and also involved in the maintenance of memory T and B cells...
July 19, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734742/efficacy-of-a-nonadjuvanted-recombinant-felv-vaccine-and-two-inactivated-felv-vaccines-when-subject-to-consistent-virulent-felv-challenge-conditions
#9
Deborah A Grosenbaugh, Valérie Frances-Duvert, Shabnam Abedi, Bradley Feilmeier, Hongyu Ru, Hervé Poulet
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three FeLV vaccines, under identical conditions in a laboratory challenge model that closely mimics natural infection. Four groups of cats (n = 20 per group) were administered two doses of vaccine, 21 days apart, starting at 9-10 weeks of age (Purevax(®) FeLV, Versifel(®) FeLV, Nobivac(®) feline 2-FeLV, and a placebo). Cats were challenged 3 weeks later with a virulent, heterologous FeLV isolate. FeLV antigenemia was determined at weekly intervals from 3 to 15 weeks postchallenge...
July 19, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734520/management-of-refugees-and-international-adoptees
#10
REVIEW
Linda A Waggoner-Fountain
Refugee children and international adoptees have special medical considerations that must be addressed. Providers must be aware of the immigration history, where, and under what circumstances the child lived and migrated to the United States. Federal guidelines exist regarding which infections should be screened for, and how and when and which vaccines should be administered.
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734519/zika-virus-infection
#11
REVIEW
Debbie-Ann T Shirley, James P Nataro
In less than 2 years since entry into the Americas, we have witnessed the emergent spread of Zika virus into large subsets of immunologically naïve human populations and then encountered the devastating effects of microcephaly and brain anomalies that can arise from in utero infection with the virus. Diagnostic evaluation and management of affected infants continues to evolve as our understanding of Zika virus rapidly advances. The development of a safe and effective vaccine holds the potential to attenuate the spread of infection and limit the impact of congenital infection...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734518/influenza-a-global-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Rotrosen, Kathleen M Neuzil
Influenza is a common respiratory illness in children and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality on an annual basis. Inactivated and live influenza vaccines are approved for children and are safe and efficacious. The absolute effectiveness of vaccines varies by year and is influenced by several factors. The reason for recent reduced performance of live-attenuated influenza vaccines is poorly understood, and active research is ongoing. Vaccination programs are less common in tropical and subtropical countries, where unique logistical and feasibility challenges exist...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734513/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-infections-in-children-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Blandina T Mmbaga, Eric R Houpt
Diarrheal disease remains the second leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause and its importance stands to increase as rotavirus vaccine becomes used around the world. Cryptosporidium is particularly problematic in children younger than 2 years old and in the immunocompromised. Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal protozoan that is associated with diarrhea and, perhaps, growth faltering in impoverished settings. This review establishes the current prevalence of these infections in global settings and reviews current diagnosis and management approaches...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734512/the-burden-of-enteropathy-and-subclinical-infections
#14
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Rogawski, Richard L Guerrant
Environmental enteropathy is a chronic condition of the small intestine associated with increased intestinal permeability, mucosal inflammation, malabsorption, and systemic inflammation. It is commonly accompanied by enteric infections and is misleadingly considered a subclinical disease. Potential effects of enteric infections and enteropathy on vaccine responses, child growth, cognitive development, and even later life obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are increasingly being recognized. Herein, we review the evolving challenges to defining environmental enteropathy and enteric infections, current evidence for the magnitude and determinants of its burden, new assessment tools, and relevant interventions...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734511/the-burden-and-etiology-of-diarrheal-illness-in-developing-countries
#15
REVIEW
Karen L Kotloff
Reductions in mortality from diarrheal diseases among young children have occurred in recent decades; however, approximately 500,000 children continue to die each year. Moreover, similar reductions in disease incidence have not been seen, episodes that impact the growth and development of young children. Two recent studies, MAL-ED and GEMS, have more clearly defined the burden and cause of diarrhea among young children, identifying four leading pathogens: rotavirus, CryptosporidiumShigella, and heat stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734176/cancer-immunotherapy-moving-forward-with-peptide-t-cell-vaccines
#16
REVIEW
Takumi Kumai, Aaron Fan, Yasuaki Harabuchi, Esteban Celis
Recent advances in cancer immunology, such as the discovery of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have validated immune cells as potential key players for effective cancer treatment. The efficacy of these therapies seems to be codependent on a tumor-reactive T lymphocyte response. For many years, numerous attempts and strategies in developing vaccines to generate tumor-reactive T cells have yielded poor results in the clinic due to suboptimal immunogenicity and the inability to overcome an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734175/cd8-t-cell-programming-by-cytomegalovirus-vectors-applications-in-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-vaccination
#17
REVIEW
Klaus Früh, Louis Picker
Vectors based on cytomegalovirus (CMV) represent a novel vaccine platform that maintains high frequencies of non-exhausted effector memory T cells in both CMV sero-positive and sero-negative individuals. In non-human primate models, CMV vectored vaccines provide unprecedented protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Moreover, CMV vectors can be genetically altered to program highly diverse CD8+ T cell responses that differ in their epitope targeting including conventional, MHC-I restricted CD8+ T cells as well as unconventional CD8+ T cells restricted by MHC class II or non-polymorphic MHC-E...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734174/old-and-new-adjuvants
#18
REVIEW
Amy S McKee, Philippa Marrack
Adjuvants have been deliberately added to vaccines since the 1920's when alum was discovered to boost antibody responses, leading to better protection. The first adjuvants were discovered by accident and were used in the safer but less immunogenic subunit vaccines, supposedly by providing an antigen depot to extend antigen presentation. Since that time, much has been discovered about how these adjuvants impact cells at the tissue site to activate innate immune responses, mobilize dendritic cells and drive adaptive immunity...
July 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734139/%C3%AE-nfluenza-a-h3n2-genetic-variants-in-vaccinated-patients-in-northern-greece
#19
A Melidou, G Gioula, M Exindari, E Ioannou, K Gkolfinopoulou, T Georgakopoulou, S Tsiodras, A Papa
BACKGROUND: Influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominated during the influenza 2016/2017 season and showed extensive genetic diversification. A high vaccination failure rate was noticed during the 2016/17 season in Greece, especially among the elderly. OBJECTIVES: The scope of the study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of A(H3N2) circulating viruses and viruses detected in vaccinated patients. STUDY DESIGN: Virus samples originated from vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, obtained at the National Influenza Centre for northern Greece...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734013/cervical-cancer-in-africa-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-and-asia-regional-inequalities-and-changing-trends
#20
S Vaccarella, M Laversanne, J Ferlay, F Bray
The vast majority (86% or 453,000 cases) of the global burden of cervical cancer occurs in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia, where one in nine new cancer cases are of the cervix. Although the disease has become rare in high-resource settings (e.g. in North America, parts of Europe, Japan) that have historically invested in effective screening programmes, the patterns and trends are variable elsewhere. While favourable incidence trends have been recorded in many populations in Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean in the past decades, rising rates have been observed in sub-Saharan African countries, where high quality incidence series are available...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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