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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656546/a-guide-to-il-1-family-cytokines-in-adjuvanticity
#1
REVIEW
Natalia Muñoz-Wolf, Ed C Lavelle
Growing awareness of the multiplicity of roles for the IL-1 family in immune regulation has prompted research exploring these cytokines in the context of vaccine-induced immunity. While tightly regulated, cytokines of the IL-1 family are normally released in response to cellular stress and in combination with other danger/damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), triggering potent local and systemic immune responses. In the context of infection or autoimmunity, engagement of IL-1 family receptors links robust innate responses to adaptive immunity...
April 15, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656425/atypical-aluminium-patch-tests-in-children-with-persistent-itching-postvaccinal-nodules
#2
Nadia Raison-Peyron, Nathalie Genillier-Foin, Didier Bessis, Brigitte Milpied
Persistent itching nodules related to aluminium-adsorbed vaccines are well known in children with frequent positive patch tests to aluminium when tested. We report two cases of children with persistent postvaccination nodules who presented with atypical eruptions after aluminium patch tests.
April 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656320/the-role-of-mesothelin-as-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-target-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-a-comprehensive-review
#3
Federico Nichetti, Antonio Marra, Francesca Corti, Alessandro Guidi, Alessandra Raimondi, Natalie Prinzi, Filippo de Braud, Sara Pusceddu
Mesothelin is a tumor differentiation antigen, which is highly expressed in several solid neoplasms, including pancreatic cancer. Its selective expression on malignant cells and on only a limited number of healthy tissues has made it an interesting candidate for investigation as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and as a therapeutic target. Based on a strong preclinical rationale, a number of therapeutic agents targeting mesothelin have entered clinical trials, including immunotoxins, monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, cancer vaccines, and adoptive T cell therapies with chimeric antigen receptors...
April 14, 2018: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#4
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656236/advancing-systems-immunology-through-data-driven-statistical-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Linda E Fong, Andrés R Muñoz-Rojas, Kathryn Miller-Jensen
Systems biology provides an effective approach to decipher, predict, and ultimately manipulate the complex and inter-connected networks that regulate the immune system. Advances in high-throughput, multiplexed experimental techniques have increased the availability of proteomic and transcriptomic immunological datasets, and as a result, have also accelerated the development of new data-driven computational algorithms to extract biological insight from these data. This review highlights how data-driven statistical models have been used to characterize immune cell subsets and their functions, to map the signaling and intercellular networks that regulate immune responses, and to connect immune cell states to disease outcomes to generate hypotheses for novel therapeutic strategies...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656235/effective-cancer-immunotherapy-in-mice-by-polyic-imiquimod-complexes-and-engineered-magnetic-nanoparticles
#6
Ana Isabel Bocanegra Gondan, Ane Ruiz-de-Angulo, Aintzane Zabaleta, Nina Gómez Blanco, Beatriz Macarena Cobaleda-Siles, María Jesús García-Granda, Daniel Padro, Jordi Llop, Blanca Arnaiz, María Gato, David Escors, Juan C Mareque-Rivas
Encouraging results are emerging from systems that exploit Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling, nanotechnology, checkpoint inhibition and molecular imaging for cancer immunotherapy. A major remaining challenge is developing effective, durable and tumour-specific immune responses without systemic toxicity. Here, we report a simple and versatile system based on synergistic activation of immune responses and direct cancer cell killing by combined TLR ligation using polyIC as TLR3 and imiquimod (R837) as TLR7 agonist, in combination with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and phospholipid micelles loaded with zinc-doped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656196/a-fast-and-robust-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-determining-methylpentose-hexose-hexosamine-and-hexonic-acid-in-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-hydrolysates
#7
Zhen Long, Jia Li, Zhimou Guo, Zhaoqi Zhan, Yueqi Li, Yutian Wang, Changkun Li, Feng Ji, Lixiao Li, Taohong Huang
The conventional UV/Vis spectroscopy methods recommended by the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) for determining hexosamine, hexonic acid and methylpentose in pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) hydrolates are time-consuming due to derivatization process (typically, an analysis cycle is more than 4 h) and improvements of selectivity and precision of the methods are in demand. In this study, a new approach based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) was optimized to overcome the drawbacks of the EP methods for simultaneous determination of methylpentose, hexose, hexosamine and hexonic acid in PPSV hydrolysates...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656136/streptococcous-gallolyticus-subsp-pasteurianus-meningitis-complicated-by-venous-sinus-thrombosis-a-case-report
#8
Martin Wardle, Andre Mu, Steven Y C Tong
We describe a case of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp pasteurianus meningitis, unusually occurring in a splenectomised patient and complicated by cerebral venous thrombosis. Following presentation with meningism and diagnosis and management of S. gallolyticus meningitis, the patient represented with a further four days of fevers and subsequently developed left sided paresthesias. Cerebral imaging revealed venous thrombus in the right frontal cortical veins and left sigmoid sinus. The patient recovered following four weeks of intravenous ceftriaxone and anticoagulation with enoxaparin and then warfarin...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656135/two-cases-of-disseminated-infection-following-live-organism-anti-cancer-vaccine-administration-in-cancer-patients
#9
James D Denham, Dae Hyun Lee, Manuel Castro, Shuchi Pandya, Sadaf Aslam, Sowmya Nanjappa, John N Greene
Vaccines containing live attenuated bacterial or viral organisms are currently being investigated as potential therapy for locally advanced or metastatic cancers. However, the use of such live organisms in an immunocompromised population, such as patients who recently or are currently receiving chemotherapy, raises the concern that these organisms can themselves disseminate and cause frank infection. We report a hereunto unreported phenomenon of anti-cancer vaccines (containing live attenuated organisms) leading to frank, disseminated infection...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656089/microbiology-catches-the-cryo-em-bug
#10
REVIEW
Lesley A Earl, Veronica Falconieri, Sriram Subramaniam
Over the past few years, the advances in technology and methods that have revolutionized cryo-EM are allowing for key insights in a variety of areas in biology, and microbiology is no exception. A wide range of important macromolecular assemblies in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as intact viruses, have now become accessible to investigation by new methods in 3D electron microscopy. We focus here on selected examples that illustrate this breadth, and review the application of methods in single particle cryo-EM and cryo-electron tomography to progress in the structural biology of CRISPR systems, visualization of small molecule drugs in membrane proteins, in situ visualization of bacterial nanomachines, and the analysis of antigen-antibody interactions to drive vaccine design...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656063/updates-on-antibody-functions-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-their-relevance-for-developing-a-vaccine-against-tuberculosis
#11
REVIEW
Jacqueline M Achkar, Rafael Prados-Rosales
A more effective vaccine to control tuberculosis (TB), a major global public health problem, is urgently needed. Current vaccine candidates focus predominantly on eliciting cell-mediated immunity but other arms of the immune system also contribute to protection against TB. We review here recent studies that enhance our current knowledge of antibody-mediated functions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings, which contribute to the increasing evidence that antibodies have a protective role against TB, include demonstrations that firstly distinct human antibody Fc glycosylation patterns, found in latent M...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655633/vaccine-technology-vi-innovative-and-integrated-approaches-in-vaccine-development
#12
EDITORIAL
Laura A Palomares, Tarit K Mukhopadhyay, Yvonne Genzel, Linda H L Lua, Manon M J Cox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655632/ag85a-specific-cd4-t-cell-lines-derived-after-boosting-bcg-vaccinated-cattle-with-ad5-85a-possess-both-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#13
Hannah J Metcalfe, Lucia Biffar, Sabine Steinbach, Efrain Guzman, Tim Connelley, Ivan Morrison, H Martin Vordermeier, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos
There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655631/detection-of-rotavirus-before-and-after-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-and-vaccine-effectiveness-among-children-in-mainland-tanzania
#14
Bhavin Jani, Adolfine Hokororo, Jackson Mchomvu, Margaret M Cortese, Christopher Kamugisha, Delphinius Mujuni, Dotto Kallovya, Umesh D Parashar, Jason M Mwenda, DaFrossa Lyimo, Antonia Materu, Kakuri Frank Omari, Mark Waziri, Theresia Laswai, Hamisi Juma, Josephine Mlay, Juliana Dogani, Eugenia Stephen, Mwanisha Seugendo, Uyanjo Nkumbi, Anna Lyakurwa, Anivera Matojo, Elice Bendera, Jonathan Senyota, Veronica Msingwa, Yohana Fungo, Fausta Michael, Amina Mpamba, Alfred Chambo, Happy Cholobi, Faraja Lyamuya, Inviollatha Chami, Esther Mchome, Amina Mohamed Mshana, Edward Mushi, Uforo Mariki, Ronica Chard, Deborah Tuju, Nuswe Ambokile, Fatuma Lukwale, Furaha Kyessi, Asha Khamis, Innocent Michael, Doreen Macha, Angelina Saguti
BACKGROUND: Monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced in Tanzania in January 2013 under the Reach Every Child initiative, to be given at ages 6 and 10 weeks. We used the sentinel hospital rotavirus surveillance system to examine the rotavirus detection rate before and after vaccine introduction and estimate vaccine effectiveness. METHODS: Before vaccine introduction, rotavirus surveillance was established at two mainland hospitals; children admitted for acute diarrhea were eligible for enrollment and stools were tested for rotavirus antigen...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655630/is-varicella-vaccination-associated-with-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke-a-population-based-cohort-study
#15
Shannon E MacDonald, Douglas C Dover, Michael D Hill, Adam Kirton, Kimberley A Simmonds, Lawrence W Svenson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Varicella disease is a risk factor for pediatric Arterial Ischemic Stroke (AIS). Isolated case reports have emerged suggesting that varicella vaccination may also pose a risk for AIS. METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study assessed the risk of AIS in children who received a varicella-containing vaccine, as compared to those who did not. The study cohort consisted of children born between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2013, in the Canadian province of Alberta, where all routine childhood vaccinations are publicly-funded, and recorded in a central immunization repository...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655629/intramuscular-vaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-human-herpes-simplex-vaccine-vc2-stimulates-a-transcriptional-profile-of-vaginal-th17-and-regulatory-tr1-responses
#16
Brent A Stanfield, Paul J F Rider, John Caskey, Fabio Del Piero, Konstantin G Kousoulas
Herpes simplex virus is a common causative agent of oral and genital diseases. Novel vaccines and therapeutics are needed to combat herpes infections especially after the failure of subunit vaccines in human clinical trials. We have shown that the live-attenuated HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain is unable to establish latency in vaccinated animals and produces a robust immune response capable of completely protecting mice against lethal vaginal HSV-1 or HSV-2 infections. The guinea pig represents the best small animal model of genital HSV-2 disease...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655628/trends-in-diarrhea-hospitalizations-among-infants-at-three-hospitals-in-tanzania-before-and-after-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction
#17
Faraja Lyamuya, Fausta Michael, Bhavin Jani, Yohana Fungo, Alfred Chambo, Inviolatha Chami, Regina Bulali, Amina Mpamba, Happy Cholobi, Dotto Kallovya, Christopher Kamugisha, Jason M Mwenda, Margaret M Cortese
BACKGROUND: The Tanzania Ministry of Health introduced monovalent human rotavirus vaccine in January 2013, to be administered at ages 6 and 10 weeks. Data suggest there was high vaccine uptake. We used hospital ward registers from 3 hospitals to examine trends in diarrhea hospitalizations among infants before and after vaccine introduction. METHODS: Ward registers from Dodoma Regional Referral Hospital (Central Tanzania), and two hospitals in Mbeya (Southwest area), Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital and Mbalizi Hospital, were used to tally admissions for diarrhea among children by age group, month and year...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655627/lipopolysaccharide-specific-memory-b-cell-responses-to-an-attenuated-live-cholera-vaccine-are-associated-with-protection-against-vibrio-cholerae-infection
#18
Douglas J Haney, Michael D Lock, Marc Gurwith, Jakub K Simon, Glenn Ishioka, Mitchell B Cohen, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Caroline E Lyon, Wilbur H Chen, Marcelo B Sztein, Myron M Levine, Jason B Harris
BACKGROUND: The single-dose live attenuated vaccine CVD 103-HgR protects against experimental Vibrio cholerae infection in cholera-naïve adults for at least 6 months after vaccination. While vaccine-induced vibriocidal seroconversion is associated with protection, vibriocidal titers decline rapidly from their peak 1-2 weeks after vaccination. Although vaccine-induced memory B cells (MBCs) might mediate sustained protection in individuals without detectable circulating antibodies, it is unknown whether oral cholera vaccination induces a MBC response...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655626/a-toddler-pcv-booster-dose-following-3-infancy-priming-doses-increases-circulating-serotype-specific-igg-levels-but-does-not-increase-protection-against-carriage
#19
Ron Dagan, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Birgit Simell, David Greenberg, Nurith Porat, Helena Käyhty, Noga Givon-Lavi
BACKGROUND: We compared PCV7 serological response and protection against carriage in infants receiving 3 doses (2, 4, 6 months; 3+0 schedule) to those receiving a booster (12 months; 3+1). METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled study, conducted between 2005 and 2008, before PCVs were implemented in Israel. Healthy infants were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 3+1, 3+0 and 0+2 (control group; 12, 18 months doses). Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained at all visits...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655625/an-improved-conjugate-vaccine-technology-induction-of-antibody-responses-to-the-tumor-vasculature
#20
Elisabeth J M Huijbers, Judy R van Beijnum, Chung T Lê, Sofya Langman, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska, Kevin H Mayo, Arjan W Griffioen
The induction of an antibody response against self-antigens requires a conjugate vaccine technology, where the self-antigen is conjugated to a foreign protein sequence, and the co-application of a potent adjuvant. The choice of this foreign sequence is crucial as a very strong antibody response towards it may compromise the anti-self immune response. Here, we aimed to optimize the conjugate design for application of vaccination against the tumor vasculature, using two different approaches. First, the immunogenicity of the previously employed bacterial thioredoxin (TRX) was reduced by using a truncated from (TRXtr)...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
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