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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743094/a-personalized-medicine-approach-to-the-design-of-dry-powder-inhalers-selecting-the-optimal-amount-of-bypass
#1
Thomas Kopsch, Darragh Murnane, Digby Symons
In dry powder inhalers (DPIs) the patient's inhalation manoeuvre strongly influences the release of drug. Drug release from a DPI may also be influenced by the size of any air bypass incorporated in the device. If the amount of bypass is high less air flows through the entrainment geometry and the release rate is lower. In this study we propose to reduce the intra- and inter-patient variations of drug release by controlling the amount of air bypass in a DPI. A fast computational method is proposed that can predict how much bypass is needed for a specified drug delivery rate for a particular patient...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742031/patient-specific-left-ventricular-flow-simulations-from-transthoracic-echocardiography-robustness-evaluation-and-validation-against-ultrasound-doppler-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
David Larsson, Jeannette H Spuhler, Sven Petersson, Tim Nordenfur, Massimiliano Colarieti-Tosti, Johan Hoffman, Reidar Winter, Matilda Larsson
The combination of medical imaging with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has enabled the study of 3D blood flow on a patient-specific level. However, with models based on gated high-resolution data, the study of transient flows, and any model implementation into routine cardiac care, is challenging. The present paper presents a novel pathway for patient-specific CFD modelling of the left ventricle (LV), using 4D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as input modality. To evaluate the clinical usability, two sub-studies were performed...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735415/cfd-simulation-of-aerosol-delivery-to-a-human-lung-via-surface-acoustic-wave-nebulization
#3
Morteza Yousefi, Oveis Pourmehran, Mofid Gorji-Bandpy, Kiao Inthavong, Leslie Yeo, Jiyuan Tu
Administration of drug in the form of particles through inhalation is generally preferable in the treatment of respiratory disorders. Conventional inhalation therapy devices such as inhalers and nebulizers, nevertheless, suffer from low delivery efficiencies, wherein only a small fraction of the inhaled drug reaches the lower respiratory tract. This is primarily because these devices are not able to produce a sufficiently fine drug mist that has aerodynamic diameters on the order of a few microns. This study employs computational fluid dynamics to investigate the transport and deposition of the drug particles produced by a new aerosolization technique driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) into an in silico lung model geometrically reconstructed using computed tomography scanning...
July 22, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728785/operative-strategies-to-reduce-cerebral-embolic-events-during-on-and-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-a-stratified-prospective-randomized-trial
#4
Michael E Halkos, Aaron Anderson, Jose Nilo G Binongo, Anthony Stringer, Yi Lasanajak, Vinod H Thourani, Omar M Lattouf, Robert A Guyton, Kim T Baio, Eric Sarin, William B Keeling, N Renee Cook, Katherine Carssow, Alexis Neill, Kathryn E Glas, John D Puskas
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of different aortic clamping strategies on the incidence of cerebral embolic events during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 142 patients with low-grade aortic disease (epiaortic ultrasound grade I/II) undergoing primary isolated CABG were studied. Those undergoing off-pump CABG were randomized to a partial clamp (n = 36) or clampless facilitating device (CFD; n = 36) strategy. Those undergoing on-pump CABG were randomized to a single-clamp (n = 34) or double-clamp (n = 36) strategy...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718049/good-things-in-small-packages-an-innovative-delivery-approach-for-inhaled-insulin
#5
James B Fink, Lisa Molloy, John S Patton, Valdecir Castor Galindo-Filho, Jacqueline de Melo Barcelar, Luciana Alcoforado, Simone Cristina Soares Brandão, Armèle Dornelas de Andrade
PURPOSE: The design development of a small, hand held, battery operated, breath actuated inhaler as a drug/device platform for inhaled insulin posed a number of technical challenges. Our goal was to optimize lung deposition and distribution with aerosol generators producing 3-6 μm particle size distribution. METHODS: In silico modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and in vitro testing of device components were assessed using an Alberta idealized adult airway (Copley, UK) to optimize mouthpiece and aerosol path design for dose delivered distal to the trachea...
July 17, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717801/mimicking-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-3d-printed-microfluidic-in-vitro-vascular-model-based-on-computed-tomography-angiography-data
#6
Pedro F Costa, Hugo J Albers, John E A Linssen, Heleen H T Middelkamp, Linda van der Hout, Robert Passier, Albert van den Berg, Jos Malda, Andries D van der Meer
Arterial thrombosis is the main instigating factor of heart attacks and strokes, which result in over 14 million deaths worldwide every year. The mechanism of thrombosis involves factors from the blood and the vessel wall, and it also relies strongly on 3D vessel geometry and local blood flow patterns. Microfluidic chip-based vascular models allow controlled in vitro studies of the interaction between vessel wall and blood in thrombosis, but until now, they could not fully recapitulate the 3D geometry and blood flow patterns of real-life healthy or diseased arteries...
July 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716447/elevated-wall-shear-stress-in-aortic-type-b-dissection-may-relate-to-retrograde-aortic-type-a-dissection-a-computational-fluid-dynamics-pilot-study
#7
A Osswald, C Karmonik, J R Anderson, F Rengier, M Karck, J Engelke, K Kallenbach, D Kotelis, S Partovi, D Böckler, A Ruhparwar
OBJECTIVE: Retrograde aortic type A dissection (RTAD) is a known complication in patients with aortic type B dissection. The purpose of this computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was to identify haemodynamic risk factors for the occurrence of RTAD. METHODS: Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) images of 10 patients with type B dissections, who subsequently developed a RTAD, were retrospectively analysed together with patients constituting a control group (n = 10) where no further vascular events after the initial type B dissection occurred...
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715329/phased-array-imaging-of-complex-geometry-composite-components
#8
Alex J Brath, Francesco Simonetti, Francesco Simonetti
Progress in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the availability of new composite materials are driving major advances in the design of aerospace engine components which now have highly complex geometries optimized to maximize system performance. However, shape complexity poses significant challenges to traditional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods whose sensitivity and selectivity rapidly decrease as surface curvature increases. Additionally, new aerospace materials typically exhibit an intricate microstructure that further complicates the inspection...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712996/optimization-of-de-esterified-tragacanth-microcapsules-by-computational-fluid-dynamic-and-the-taguchi-design-with-purpose-of-the-cell-encapsulation
#9
Azin Alvandimanesh, Komail Sadrjavadi, Mona Akbari, Ali Fattahi
This work presents the development of the new De-Esterified Tragacanth (DET) microcapsules (MCs). Co-flow extrusion method was applied for producing the MCs; the processing parameters were optimized by the Taguchi design to obtain the smallest and the most spherical MCs. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling was accomplished to show the formation of droplets at different airflows, and finally, βTC3 pancreatic cells were encapsulated in the MCs. The optimum MCs had 214.58μm size and 60.75% sphericality...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711588/a-framework-for-computational-fluid-dynamic-analyses-of-patient-specific-stented-coronary-arteries-from-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#10
Susanna Migliori, Claudio Chiastra, Marco Bologna, Eros Montin, Gabriele Dubini, Cristina Aurigemma, Roberto Fedele, Francesco Burzotta, Luca Mainardi, Francesco Migliavacca
The clinical challenge of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is highly dependent on the recognition of the coronary anatomy of each individual. The classic imaging modality used for PCI is angiography, but advanced imaging techniques that are routinely performed during PCI, like optical coherence tomography (OCT), may provide detailed knowledge of the pre-intervention vessel anatomy as well as the post-procedural assessment of the specific stent-to-vessel interactions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an emerging investigational tool in the setting of optimization of PCI results...
July 12, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706344/a-new-model-of-cavern-diameter-based-on-a-validated-cfd-study-on-stirring-of-a-highly-shear-thinning-fluid
#11
Anna Story, Zdzisław Jaworski
Results of numerical simulations of momentum transfer for a highly shear-thinning fluid (0.2% Carbopol) in a stirred tank equipped with a Prochem Maxflo T type impeller are presented. The simulation results were validated using LDA data and both tangential and axial force measurements in the laminar and early transitional flow range. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental results of the local fluid velocity components was found. From the predicted and experimental values of both tangential and axial forces, the power number, Po, and thrust number, Th, were also calculated...
2017: Chemické Zvesti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706287/association-of-wall-shear-stress-with-intracranial-aneurysm-rupture-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Geng Zhou, Yueqi Zhu, Yanling Yin, Ming Su, Minghua Li
To evaluate the relationship between wall shear stress (WSS) magnitude and cerebral aneurysm rupture and provide new insight into the disparate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) findings concerning the role of WSS in intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. A systematic electronic database (PubMed, Medline, Springer, and EBSCO) search was conducted for all accessible published articles up to July 1, 2016, with no restriction on the publication year. Abstracts, full-text manuscripts, and the reference lists of retrieved articles were analyzed...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698087/computational-fluid-dynamics-simulation-of-hemodynamic-alterations-in-sigmoid-sinus-diverticulum-and-ipsilateral-upstream-sinus-stenosis-after-stent-implantation-in-patients-with-pulsatile-tinnitus
#13
Yanjing Han, Qingqing Yang, Zeran Yang, Jun Xia, Tianhao Su, Long Jin, Aike Qiao, Jianan Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between upstream venous sinus stenosis and pulsatile tinnitus (PT), and to assess the correlation with diverticulum growth and the effectiveness of stent implantation METHODS: A patient-specific geometric models were constructed using computed tomography venography images from a patient with PT with sigmoid sinus diverticulum(SSD) and upstream transverse sinus stenosis, in whom stenting of the upstream sinus stenosis alone achieved complete remission of PT...
July 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696705/surface-design-of-separators-for-oil-water-separation-with-high-separation-capacity-and-mechanical-stability
#14
Yong Taek Lim, Nara Han, Wooree Jang, Wooyoung Jung, Min Oh, Seung Whan Han, Hye Young Koo, Won San Choi
A convection heat treatment that can replace existing chemical oxidation methods was developed for the preparation of hierarchically oxidized Cu meshes with various surface morphologies, representing a very simple and green route that does not involve toxic chemicals. Three types of Cu meshes [bumpy-like (BL) and short and long needle-like (NL) structures] exhibited similar separation efficiencies of 95-99% over 20 separation cycles, as indicated by their similar water contact angles (WCAs) (147-150°). However, these Cu meshes exhibited different flux behaviours...
July 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695927/a-3d-printed-mini-hydrocyclone-for-high-throughput-particle-separation-application-to-primary-harvesting-of-microalgae
#15
Maira Shakeel Syed, Mehdi Rafeie, Rita Henderson, Dries Vandamme, Mohsen Asadnia, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
The separation of micro-sized particles in a continuous flow is crucial part of many industrial processes, from biopharmaceutical manufacturing to water treatment. Conventional separation techniques such as centrifugation and membrane filtration are largely limited by factors such as clogging, processing time and operation efficiency. Microfluidic based techniques have been gaining great attention in recent years as efficient and powerful approaches for particle-liquid separation. Yet the production of such systems using standard micro-fabrication techniques is proven to be tedious, costly and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult...
July 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693993/probing-the-interaction-of-cephalosporin-antibiotic-ceftazidime-with-human-serum-albumin-a-biophysical-investigation
#16
Mohammad Khursheed Siddiqi, Parvez Alam, Sumit Kumar Chaturvedi, Saima Nusrat, Mohammad Rehan Ajmal, Ali Saber Abdelhameed, Rizwan Hasan Khan
The fate of drug administered to a living organism depends on drug's pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacological behavior. Serum albumins (proteins in blood plasma of human) act as a carrier molecule to deliver the drug at specific site. In the present study, we have explored the mechanism of interaction between cephalosporin antibiotic - ceftazidime (CFD) and human serum albumin (HSA) by spectroscopic and molecular docking studies. Quenching of HSA fluorescence by CFD inferred that it binds to HSA through static quenching mechanism; with binding affinity in order of 10(4)M(-1)...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689482/a-semiautomated-method-for-measuring-the-3-dimensional-fabric-to-renal-artery-distances-to-determine-endograft-position-after-endovascular-aneurysm-repair
#17
Richte C L Schuurmann, Simon P Overeem, Kenneth Ouriel, Cornelis H Slump, William D Jordan, Bart E Muhs, Jean-Paul P M de Vries
PURPOSE: To report a methodology for 3-dimensional (3D) assessment of the stent-graft deployment accuracy after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS: A methodology was developed and validated to calculate the 3D distances between the endograft fabric and the renal arteries over the curve of the aorta. The shortest distance between one of the renal arteries and the fabric (SFD) and the distance from the contralateral renal artery to the fabric (CFD) were determined on the first postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan of 81 elective EVAR patients...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Endovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684363/investigation-of-multiphase-multicomponent-aerosol-flow-dictating-pmdi-spacer-interactions
#18
Saurabh Sarkar, S Prasad Peri, Bodhisattwa Chaudhuri
The use of Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) for the treatment of asthma and other chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is frequently associated with breath-actuation synchronization problems and poor pulmonary delivery, particularly amongst the pediatric and geriatric population groups. Spacers, or Valved Holding Chambers (VHCs), are frequently used to address these problems. However, the performance of spacers with different pMDIs is also highly variable and needs to be investigated. The purpose of the current study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which can characterize multiphase multicomponent aerosol flow issuing from a commercial suspension-based pMDI into a spacer...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679888/cfd-modelling-of-local-hemodynamics-in-intracranial-aneurysms-harboring-arterial-branches
#19
Vladimir Krylov, Elena Grigoryeva, Daria Dolotova, Evgenia Blagosklonova, Andrey Gavrilov
The main cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage is an intracranial aneurysm's rupture. The choice of treatment approach is exceptionally difficult in cases of aneurysms with additional branches on the aneurysm's dome or neck. The impact of the arterial branches on local hemodynamics is still unclear and controversial question. At the same time, up-to-date methods of image processing and mathematical modeling provide a way to investigate the hemodynamic environment of aneurysms. The paper discusses hemodynamic aspects of aneurysms harboring arterial branch through the use of patient-specific 3D models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673664/on-the-choice-of-outlet-boundary-conditions-for-patient-specific-analysis-of-aortic-flow-using-computational-fluid-dynamics
#20
S Pirola, Z Cheng, O A Jarral, D P O'Regan, J R Pepper, T Athanasiou, X Y Xu
Boundary conditions (BCs) are an essential part in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of blood flow in large arteries. Although several studies have investigated the influence of BCs on predicted flow patterns and hemodynamic wall parameters in various arterial models, there is a lack of comprehensive assessment of outlet BCs for patient-specific analysis of aortic flow. In this study, five different sets of outlet BCs were tested and compared using a subject-specific model of a normal aorta. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) was performed on the same subject and velocity profiles extracted from the in vivo measurements were used as the inlet boundary condition...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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