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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643237/small-airway-absorption-and-microdosimetry-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-particles-after-deposition
#1
P Worth Longest, Michael Hindle
PURPOSE: To predict the cellular-level epithelial absorbed dose from deposited inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) particles in a model of an expanding and contracting small airway segment for different particle forms. METHODS: A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model of drug dissolution, absorption and clearance occurring in the surface liquid of a representative small airway generation (G13) was developed and used to evaluate epithelial dose for the same deposited drug mass of conventional microparticles, nanoaggregates and a true nanoaerosol...
June 22, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636625/comparison-study-of-exhaust-plume-impingement-effects-of-small-mono-and-bipropellant-thrusters-using-parallelized-dsmc-method
#2
Kyun Ho Lee
A space propulsion system is important for the normal mission operations of a spacecraft by adjusting its attitude and maneuver. Generally, a mono- and a bipropellant thruster have been mainly used for low thrust liquid rocket engines. But as the plume gas expelled from these small thrusters diffuses freely in a vacuum space along all directions, unwanted effects due to the plume collision onto the spacecraft surfaces can dramatically cause a deterioration of the function and performance of a spacecraft. Thus, aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the major differences of the plume gas impingement effects quantitatively between the small mono- and bipropellant thrusters using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631213/the-constitutive-protease-release-by-primary-human-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells
#3
Maria Honnemyr, Øystein Bruserud, Annette K Brenner
INTRODUCTION: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells show constitutive release of matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors. We now investigated this constitutive release of protease/protease regulators associated with carcinogenesis (ADAM12, uPA, cystatin B), angiogenesis (serpin E1, uPA, CD147), cancer cell migration (uPA, cystatin C), coagulation (ADAM TS13, serpin C1), inflammation (fetuin A, caspase 1, cystatin C), monocytic differentiation (CFD) or regulation of hematopoiesis (neutrophil elastase)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623038/perfusion-kinetics-in-human-brain-tumor-with-dce-mri-derived-model-and-cfd-analysis
#4
A Bhandari, A Bansal, A Singh, N Sinha
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Among the strategies that are used for cancer treatment, the effectiveness of chemotherapy is often hindered by factors such as irregular and non-uniform uptake of drugs inside tumor. Thus, accurate prediction of drug transport and deposition inside tumor is crucial for increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic treatment. In this study, a computational model of human brain tumor is developed that incorporates dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data into a voxelized porous media model...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614744/effects-of-aeration-on-matrix-temperature-by-infrared-thermal-imager-and-computational-fluid-dynamics-during-sludge-bio-drying
#5
Dawei Yu, Min Yang, Lu Qi, Mengmeng Liu, Yawei Wang, Yuansong Wei
The effect of aeration on the pile matrix temperature was investigated using thermocouples and Infrared Thermal Imager (IRI) for temperature sensing, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for modelling of temperature variation during aeration in a full-scale sludge biodrying plant. With aeration saving of 20%, the improved strategy speeded up biodrying from 21 days to 14 days, while achieving similar drying effect. A persistent thermocouple recorded the one-dimensional (1D) total temperature variation of all aeration strategies...
June 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609457/robustness-of-common-hemodynamic-indicators-with-respect-to-numerical-resolution-in-38-middle-cerebral-artery-aneurysms
#6
Øyvind Evju, Jose M Pozo, Alejandro F Frangi, Kent-Andre Mardal
BACKGROUND: Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to compute the hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms has received much attention in the last decade. The usability of these methods depends on the quality of the computations, highlighted in recent discussions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the convergence of common hemodynamic indicators with respect to numerical resolution. METHODS: 38 middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms were studied at two different resolutions (one comparable to most studies, and one finer)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608962/image-based-computational-fluid-dynamics-in-the-lung-virtual-reality-or-new-clinical-practice
#7
REVIEW
Kelly S Burrowes, Jan De Backer, Haribalan Kumar
The development and implementation of personalized medicine is paramount to improving the efficiency and efficacy of patient care. In the respiratory system, function is largely dictated by the choreographed movement of air and blood to the gas exchange surface. The passage of air begins in the upper airways, either via the mouth or nose, and terminates at the alveolar interface, while blood flows from the heart to the alveoli and back again. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a well-established tool for predicting fluid flows and pressure distributions within complex systems...
June 13, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603412/in-vitro-dose-comparison-of-respimat-%C3%A2-inhaler-with-dry-powder-inhalers-for-copd-maintenance-therapy
#8
Anna-Maria Ciciliani, Peter Langguth, Herbert Wachtel
BACKGROUND: Combining in vitro mouth-throat deposition measurements, cascade impactor data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, four different inhalers were compared which are indicated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. METHODS: The Respimat inhaler, the Breezhaler, the Genuair, and the Ellipta were coupled to the idealized Alberta throat model. The modeled dose to the lung (mDTL) was collected downstream of the Alberta throat model using either a filter or a next generation impactor (NGI)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594889/use-of-the-fda-nozzle-model-to-illustrate-validation-techniques-in-computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-simulations
#9
Prasanna Hariharan, Gavin A D'Souza, Marc Horner, Tina M Morrison, Richard A Malinauskas, Matthew R Myers
A "credible" computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has the potential to provide a meaningful evaluation of safety in medical devices. One major challenge in establishing "model credibility" is to determine the required degree of similarity between the model and experimental results for the model to be considered sufficiently validated. This study proposes a "threshold-based" validation approach that provides a well-defined acceptance criteria, which is a function of how close the simulation and experimental results are to the safety threshold, for establishing the model validity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591683/a-quantitative-risk-assessment-system-qr-as-evaluating-operation-safety-of-organic-rankine-cycle-using-flammable-mixture-working-fluid
#10
Hua Tian, Xueying Wang, Gequn Shu, Mingqiang Wu, Nanhua Yan, Xiaonan Ma
Mixture of hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide shows excellent cycle performance in Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) used for engine waste heat recovery, but the unavoidable leakage in practical application is a threat for safety due to its flammability. In this work, a quantitative risk assessment system (QR-AS) is established aiming at providing a general method of risk assessment for flammable working fluid leakage. The QR-AS covers three main aspects: analysis of concentration distribution based on CFD simulations, explosive risk assessment based on the TNT equivalent method and risk mitigation based on evaluation results...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577904/merging-computational-fluid-dynamics-and-4d-flow-mri-using-proper-orthogonal-decomposition-and-ridge-regression
#11
Ali Bakhshinejad, Ahmadreza Baghaie, Alireza Vali, David Saloner, Vitaliy L Rayz, Roshan M D'Souza
Time resolved phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging 4D-PCMR (also called 4D Flow MRI) data while capable of non-invasively measuring blood velocities, can be affected by acquisition noise, flow artifacts, and resolution limits. In this paper, we present a novel method for merging 4D Flow MRI with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to address these limitations and to reconstruct de-noised, divergence-free high-resolution flow-fields. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to construct the orthonormal basis of the local sampling of the space of all possible solutions to the flow equations both at the low-resolution level of the 4D Flow MRI grid and the high-level resolution of the CFD mesh...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576640/tumor-progression-effects-on-drug-vector-access-to-tumor-associated-capillary-bed
#12
Vaidotas Kiseliovas, Miljan Milosevic, Milos Kojic, Linas Mazutis, Megumi Kai, Yan Ting Liu, Kenji Yokoi, Mauro Ferrari, Arturas Ziemys
Over the last decade, the benefits of drug vectors to treat cancer have been well recognized. However, drug delivery and vector distribution differences in tumor-associated capillary bed at different stages of disease progression are not well understood. To obtain further insights into drug vector distribution changes in vasculature during tumor progression, we combined intra-vital imaging of metastatic tumors in mice, microfluidics-based artificial tumor capillary models, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576622/haemodynamic-effects-of-stent-diameter-and-compaction-ratio-on-flow-diversion-treatment-of-intracranial-aneurysms-a-numerical-study-of-a-successful-and-an-unsuccessful-case
#13
Mingzi Zhang, Yujie Li, Xi Zhao, David I Verrelli, Winston Chong, Makoto Ohta, Yi Qian
BACKGROUND: Compacting a flow-diverting (FD) stent is an emerging technique to create a denser configuration of wires across the aneurysm ostium. However, quantitative analyses of post-stenting haemodynamics affected by the compaction level of different stent sizes remain inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To compare the aneurysmal haemodynamic alterations after virtual FD treatments with different device diameters at different compaction ratios. METHODS: We virtually implanted three sizes of FD stent, with each size deployed at four compaction ratios, into two patient aneurysms previously treated with the Silk+FD-one successful case and the other unsuccessful...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576263/numerical-analysis-of-ammonia-homogenization-for-selective-catalytic-reduction-application
#14
Jakov Baleta, Matija Martinjak, Milan Vujanović, Klaus Pachler, Jin Wang, Neven Duić
Selective catalytic reduction based on urea water solution as ammonia precursor is a promising method for the NOx abatement form exhaust gasses of mobile diesel engine units. It consists of injecting the urea-water solution in the hot flue gas stream and reaction of its products with the NOx over the catalyst surface. During this process flue gas enthalpy is used for the urea-water droplet heating and for the evaporation of water content. After water evaporates, thermolysis of urea occurs, during which ammonia, a known NOx reductant, and isocyanic acid are generated...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574647/robust-non-dimensional-estimators-to-assess-the-nasal-airflow-in-health-and-disease
#15
E Sanmiguel-Rojas, M A Burgos, C Del Pino, M A Sevilla-García, F Esteban-Ortega
There are significant variations of both human nose shapes and airflow patterns inside nasal cavities, so it is difficult to provide a comprehensive medical identification using a universal template for what otolaryngologists consider normal breathing at rest. In addition, airflow patterns present even more random characteristics in diseased nasal cavities. In order to give a medical assessment to differentiate the nasal cavities in health and disease, we propose two non-dimensional estimators obtained from both medical images and computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
June 2, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573970/uncertainty-quantification-of-wall-shear-stress-in-intracranial-aneurysms-using-a-data-driven-statistical-model-of-systemic-blood-flow-variability
#16
Ali Sarrami-Foroushani, Toni Lassila, Ali Gooya, Arjan J Geers, Alejandro F Frangi
Adverse wall shear stress (WSS) patterns are known to play a key role in the localisation, formation, and progression of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Complex region-specific and time-varying aneurysmal WSS patterns depend both on vascular morphology as well as on variable systemic flow conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been proposed for characterising WSS patterns in IAs; however, CFD simulations often rely on deterministic boundary conditions that are not representative of the actual variations in blood flow...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571875/structure-and-flow-calculation-of-cake-layer-on-microfiltration-membranes
#17
Yadong Yu, Zhen Yang, Yuanyuan Duan
Submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBR) are widely used in wastewater treatment. The permeability of a membrane declines rapidly because of the formation of a cake layer on the membrane surface. In this paper, a multiple staining protocol was conducted to probe the four major foulants in the cake layer formed on a filtration membrane. Fluorescent images of the foulants were obtained using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The three dimensional structure of the cake layer was reconstructed, and the internal flow was calculated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571870/numerical-simulation-study-on-air-quality-in-aircraft-cabins
#18
Yingjie Zhao, Bingrong Dai, Qi Yu, Haiqing Si, Gang Yu
Air pollution is one of the main factors that affect the air quality in aircraft cabins, and the use of different air supply modes could influence the distribution of air pollutants in cabins. Based on the traditional ceiling air supply mode used on the B737NG, this study investigated another 3 different kinds of air supply modes for comparison: luggage rack air supply mode, joint mode combining ceiling and luggage rack air supply, and joint mode combining ceiling and individual air supply. Under the above 4 air supply modes, the air velocity, temperature and distribution of air pollutants in a cabin full of passengers were studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and carbon dioxide (CO2) and formaldehyde were selected as 2 kinds of representative air pollutants...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558914/numerical-investigation-of-the-early-flight-phase-in-ski-jumping
#19
N Gardan, A Schneider, G Polidori, H Trenchard, J M Seigneur, F Beaumont, F Fourchet, R Taiar
The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553011/computational-fluid-dynamics-discrete-element-method-cfd-dem-study-of-mass-transfer-mechanisms-in-riser-flow
#20
Álvaro E Carlos Varas, E A J F Peters, J A M Kuipers
We report a computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulation study on the interplay between mass transfer and a heterogeneous catalyzed chemical reaction in cocurrent gas-particle flows as encountered in risers. Slip velocity, axial gas dispersion, gas bypassing, and particle mixing phenomena have been evaluated under riser flow conditions to study the complex system behavior in detail. The most important factors are found to be directly related to particle cluster formation. Low air-to-solids flux ratios lead to more heterogeneous systems, where the cluster formation is more pronounced and mass transfer more influenced...
May 17, 2017: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
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