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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926408/serum-glycan-binding-igg-antibodies-in-hiv-1-infection-and-during-the-development-of-broadly-neutralizing-responses
#1
Cathrine Scheepers, Sudipa Chowdhury, W Shea Wright, Christopher T Campbell, Nigel J Garrett, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Salim S Abdool Karim, Penny L Moore, Jeffrey C Gildersleeve, Lynn Morris
BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 envelope is covered with glycans that provide structural integrity and protect conserved regions from host antibody responses. However, these glycans are often the target of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that emerge in some HIV infected individuals. We aimed to determine whether anti-glycan IgG antibodies are a general response to HIV-1 infection or specific to individuals who develop bNAbs. METHODS: IgG binding to glycans was assessed using arrays that contained 245 unique components including N-linked carbohydrates, glycolipids and Tn-peptides...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926063/methylglyoxal-attenuates-insulin-signaling-and-downregulates-the-enzymes-involved-in-cholesterol-biosynthesis
#2
Arati B Deshmukh, Shakuntala Bai, Aarthy T, Rubina S Kazi, Reema Banarjee, Rajeshwari Rathore, Vijayakumar Mv, Thulasiram Hv, Manoj Kumar Bhat, Kulkarni Mj
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl known to be elevated under the hyperglycemic conditions of diabetes and is implicated in the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, the current study investigates the role of MG in exacerbating insulin resistance at the insulin signaling level, as well as its effect on the global proteomic level. By using insulin sensitive rat muscle cells (L6) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the insulin receptor (IR) and a glucose transporter fused with green fluorescent protein (GLUT4-GFP), we have observed that MG impairs insulin signaling, inhibits GLUT4 translocation and reduces glucose uptake...
September 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925942/application-of-surface-protective-coating-to-enhance-environment-withstanding-property-of-the-mems-2d-wind-direction-and-wind-speed-sensor
#3
Kyu-Sik Shin, Dae-Sung Lee, Sang-Woo Song, Jae Pil Jung
In this study, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) two-dimensional (2D) wind direction and wind speed sensor consisting of a square heating source and four thermopiles was manufactured using the heat detection method. The heating source and thermopiles of the manufactured sensor must be exposed to air to detect wind speed and wind direction. Therefore, there are concerns that the sensor could be contaminated by deposition or adhesion of dust, sandy dust, snow, rain, and so forth, in the air, and that the membrane may be damaged by physical shock...
September 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925539/expression-and-functional-proteomic-analyses-of-osteocytes-from-xenopus-laevis-tested-under-mechanical-stress-conditions-preliminary-observations-on-an-appropriate-new-animal-model
#4
Jessika Bertacchini, Marta Benincasa, Marta Checchi, Francesco Cavani, Alberto Smargiassi, Marzia Ferretti, Carla Palumbo
Hitherto, the role of the osteocyte as transducer of mechanical stimuli into biological signals is far from settled. In this study, we used an appropriate model represented by the cortex of Xenopus laevis long bone diaphysis lacking (unlike the mammalian one) of vascular structures and containing only osteocytes inside the bone matrix. These structural features allow any change of protein profile that might be observed upon different experimental conditions, such as bone adaptation to stress/mechanical loading, to be ascribed specifically to osteocytes...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924365/effects-of-hypobaric-hypoxia-on-rat-retina-and-protective-response-of-resveratrol-to-the-stress
#5
Xiaorong Xin, Hong Dang, Xiaojing Zhao, Haohao Wang
High-altitude retinopathy represents retinal functional changes associated with environmental challenges imposed by hypobaric hypoxia, but the detailed cellular and molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. Our current investigation was to explore the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on the rat retina and determine whether resveratrol has a protective efficacy on the hypoxic damage to the retina. Experiment rats were randomly grouped as the control group, hypoxia group and resveratrol intervention group...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923495/crispr-cas9-engineering-of-adult-mouse-liver-demonstrates-that-the-dnajb1-prkaca-gene-fusion-is-sufficient-to-induce-tumors-resembling-fibrolamellar-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Lars H Engelholm, Anjum Riaz, Denise Serra, Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen, Jens V Johansen, Eric Santoni-Rugiu, Steen H Hansen, Francesco Niola, Morten Frödin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a primary liver cancer that predominantly affects young adults with no underlying liver disease. A somatic, 400 Kb deletion on chromosome 19 that fuses part of the DnaJ heat shock protein family (Hsp40) member B1 gene (DNAJB1) to the protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha gene (PRKACA) has been repeatedly identified in patients with FL-HCC. However, the DNAJB1-PRKACA gene fusion has not been shown to induce liver tumorigenesis...
September 15, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923065/the-heat-shock-response-in-neurons-and-astroglia-and-its-role-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca San Gil, Lezanne Ooi, Justin J Yerbury, Heath Ecroyd
Protein inclusions are a predominant molecular pathology found in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. Protein inclusions form in discrete areas of the brain characteristic to the type of neurodegenerative disease, and coincide with the death of neurons in that region (e.g. spinal cord motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). This suggests that the process of protein misfolding leading to inclusion formation is neurotoxic, and that cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms that maintain protein homeostasis (proteostasis) can, at times, be insufficient to prevent protein inclusion formation in the central nervous system...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922502/the-three-component-system-esrisr-regulates-a-cell-envelope-stress-response-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#8
Britta Kleine, Ava Chattopadhyay, Tino Polen, Daniela Pinto, Thorsten Mascher, Michael Bott, Melanie Brocker, Roland Freudl
When the cell envelope integrity is compromised, bacteria trigger signaling cascades resulting in the production of proteins that counteract these extracytoplasmic stresses. Here, we show that the two-component system EsrSR regulates a cell envelope stress response in the Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. The sensor kinase EsrS possesses an amino-terminal phage shock protein C (PspC) domain, a property that sets EsrSR apart from all other two-component systems characterized so far. An integral membrane protein, EsrI, whose gene is divergently transcribed to the esrSR gene locus and which interestingly also possesses a PspC domain, acts as an inhibitor of EsrSR under non-stress conditions...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919395/gastroprotective-effect-of-aucubin-against-ethanol-induced-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-mice
#9
Yang Yang, Bing Yin, Le Lv, Ziye Wang, Jiao He, Ziyang Chen, Xin Wen, Yongmin Zhang, Wenji Sun, Yang Li, Ye Zhao
AIMS: Aucubin, an iridoid glycoside, was isolated from seeds of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of aucubin against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were orally administrated with aucubin (20, 40 and 80mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. On the 3rd day, the mice of gastric mucosal injury were induced with 70% ethanol after the last administration of aucubin. Gastric tissue of mice were submitted for evaluating the severity of gastric mucosal injury...
September 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919035/development-of-a-fast-and-efficient-method-for-hepatitis-a-virus-concentration-from-green-onion
#10
Yan Zheng, Yuan Hu
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) can cause serious liver disease and even death. HAV outbreaks are associated with the consumption of raw or minimally processed produce, making it a major public health concern. Infections have occurred despite the fact that effective HAV vaccine has been available. Development of a rapid and sensitive HAV detection method is necessary for an investigation of an HAV outbreak. Detection of HAV is complicated by the lack of a reliable culture method. In addition, due to the low infectious dose of HAV, these methods must be very sensitive...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918740/methylglyoxal-and-small-heat-shock-proteins
#11
REVIEW
M V Sudnitsyna, N B Gusev
Methylglyoxal is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound formed during glucose metabolism and able to modify phospholipids, nucleic acids, and proteins belonging to the so-called dicarbonyl proteome. Small heat shock proteins participating in protection of the cell against different unfavorable conditions can be modified by methylglyoxal. The probability of methylglyoxal modification is increased in the case of distortion of glucose metabolism (diabetes), in the case of utilization of glycolysis as the main source of energy (malignancy), and/or at low rate of modified protein turnover...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918263/dna-nanotechnology-based-composite-type-gold-nanoparticle-immunostimulatory-dna-hydrogel-for-tumor-photothermal-immunotherapy
#12
Tomoya Yata, Yuki Takahashi, Mengmeng Tan, Hirotaka Nakatsuji, Shozo Ohtsuki, Tatsuya Murakami, Hiroshi Imahori, Yuka Umeki, Tomoki Shiomi, Yoshinobu Takakura, Makiya Nishikawa
Success of tumor photothermal immunotherapy requires a system that induces heat stress in cancer cells and enhances strong anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we designed a composite-type immunostimulatory DNA hydrogel consisting of a hexapod-like structured DNA (hexapodna) with CpG sequences and gold nanoparticles. Mixing of the properly designed hexapodna and oligodeoxynucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles resulted in the formation of composite-type gold nanoparticle-DNA hydrogels. Laser irradiation of the hydrogel resulted in the release of hexapodna, which efficiently stimulated immune cells to release proinflammatory cytokines...
September 9, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917999/the-two-component-response-regulator-vdskn7-plays-key-roles-in-microsclerotial-development-stress-resistance-and-virulence-of-verticillium-dahliae
#13
Chen Tang, Dianguang Xiong, Yulin Fang, Chengming Tian, Yonglin Wang
The fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt disease on various plant species resulting in devastating yield losses worldwide. The capacity of V. dahliae to colonize in host plant xylem and disseminate by microsclerotia has led to studies to evaluate genes associated with pathogenesis and microsclerotia formation. Here, we identified and characterized a V. dahliae homolog to Skn7, a two-component stress response regulator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results showed that melanized microsclerotia formation and conidiation were significantly inhibited in the VdSkn7 deletion mutants...
September 13, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917624/small-heat-shock-protein-27-an-effective-adjuvant-for-enhancement-of-hiv-1-nef-antigen-specific-immunity
#14
Alireza Milani, Azam Bolhassani, Sepideh Shahbazi, Fatemeh Motevalli, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Sepehr Soleymani
Novel vaccine modalities have been designed to improve the efficiency of vaccines against HIV infections. In this way, the HIV-1 Nef protein has been known as an attractive antigenic candidate in therapeutic vaccine development. Moreover, the endogenous adjuvants such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been suggested effectively to induce antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, different Nef DNA and protein constructs were produced in eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems, and their immunostimulatory properties were evaluated using small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and the HMGB1-derived peptide (Hp91) in a mouse model...
September 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916745/cadmium-effects-on-dna-and-protein-metabolism-in-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-revealed-by-proteomic-analyses
#15
Jie Meng, Wenxiong Wang, Li Li, Qi Yin, Guofan Zhang
Marine molluscs, including oysters, can concentrate high levels of cadmium (Cd) in their soft tissues, but the molecular mechanisms of Cd toxicity remain speculative. In this study, Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were exposed to Cd for 9 days and their gills were subjected to proteomic analysis, which were further confirmed with transcriptomic analysis. A total of 4,964 proteins was quantified and 515 differentially expressed proteins were identified in response to Cd exposure. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis revealed that excess Cd affected the DNA and protein metabolism...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915917/translocation-of-molecular-chaperones-to-the-titin-springs-is-common-in-skeletal-myopathy-patients-and-affects-sarcomere-function
#16
Andreas Unger, Lisa Beckendorf, Pierre Böhme, Rudolf Kley, Marion von Frieling-Salewsky, Hanns Lochmüller, Rolf Schröder, Dieter O Fürst, Matthias Vorgerd, Wolfgang A Linke
Myopathies encompass a wide variety of acquired and hereditary disorders. The pathomechanisms include structural and functional changes affecting, e.g., myofiber metabolism and contractile properties. In this study, we observed increased passive tension (PT) of skinned myofibers from patients with myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) caused by FLNC mutations (MFM-filaminopathy) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type-2A due to CAPN3 mutations (LGMD2A), compared to healthy control myofibers. Because the giant protein titin determines myofiber PT, we measured its molecular size and the titin-to-myosin ratio, but found no differences between myopathies and controls...
September 15, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915605/hsp90-inhibitor-17-dmag-exerts-anticancer-effects-against-gastric-cancer-cells-principally-by-altering-oxidant-antioxidant-balance
#17
Jeong Goo Kim, Sang Chul Lee, Ok-Hee Kim, Kee-Hwan Kim, Kyo Young Song, Sang Kuon Lee, Byung Jo Choi, Wonjun Jeong, Say-June Kim
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) stabilizes numerous oncoproteins and, therefore, its inhibition has emerged as a promising antineoplastic strategy for diverse malignancies. In this study, we determined the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action of a specific HSP90 inhibitor, 17-dimethylamino-ethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), in gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, SNU-1, and KATO-III), patient-derived tissues, and a mouse xenograft model. 17-DMAG exerted anticancer effects against gastric cancer cells, manifested by significantly decreased proliferation rates (P < 0...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915577/vorinostat-suppresses-hypoxia-signaling-by-modulating-nuclear-translocation-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha
#18
Chao Zhang, Chunzhang Yang, Michael J Feldman, Herui Wang, Ying Pang, Dominic M Maggio, Dongwang Zhu, Cody L Nesvick, Pauline Dmitriev, Petra Bullova, Prashant Chittiboina, Roscoe O Brady, Karel Pacak, Zhengping Zhuang
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) are a potent class of tumor-suppressive agents traditionally believed to exert their effects through loosening tightly-wound chromatin resulting in de-inhibition of various tumor suppressive genes. Recent literature however has shown altered intratumoral hypoxia signaling with HDACi administration not attributable to changes in chromatin structure. We sought to determine the precise mechanism of HDACi-mediated hypoxia signaling attenuation using vorinostat (SAHA), an FDA-approved class I/IIb/IV HDACi...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915448/the-composition-of-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-first-trimester-pregnant-women-influences-the-level-of-autophagy-and-stress-in-vaginal-epithelial-cells
#19
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Larry J Forney, G Maria Schneider, Karol Gliniewicz, Michael T France, Allison Boester, Mio Sawai, Jessica Scholl, Steven S Witkin
Epithelial cells lining the vagina are major components of genital tract immunity. The influence of the vaginal microbiome on properties of host epithelial cells is largely unexplored. We evaluated whether differences in the most abundant lactobacilli species or bacterial genera in the vagina of first trimester pregnant women were associated with variations in the extent of stress and autophagy in vaginal epithelial cells. Vaginal swabs from 154 first trimester pregnant women were analyzed for bacterial composition by amplification and sequencing of the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915397/alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-lemna-minor-by-exogenous-salicylic-acid
#20
Qianqian Lu, Tingting Zhang, Wei Zhang, Chunlei Su, Yaru Yang, Dan Hu, Qinsong Xu
Cadmium (Cd) is a significant environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous phenolic compound. The goal of this study was to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in duckweed (L. minor) upon exposure to 10μM CdCl2, 10μM CdCl2 plus 50μM SA, or 50μM SA for 7 days. Reversing the effects of Cd, SA decreased Cd accumulation in plants, improved accumulation of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, B, Mo) absorption, increased endogenous SA concentration, and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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