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Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222329/inflammatory-chemokines-and-their-receptors-in-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-splenic-cellular-sources-and-their-impact-on-trafficking-of-inflammatory-cells
#1
Neetu Singh, Shyam Sundar
Chemokines play an important role in determining cellular composition at inflammatory sites, and as such, influence disease outcome. In this study, we investigated the expression profile and splenic cellular source of various inflammatory chemokines and their receptors in human visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The expression of chemokines or their receptors was measured at the gene and protein level by employing real time qPCR and a cytometric bead array assay, respectively. In addition, the cellular source of chemokines and their receptors in the spleen was identified employing gene expression analyses in sequentially selected cell subsets...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222187/a-purified-maa-based-elisa-is-a-useful-tool-for-determining-anti-maa-antibody-titer-with-high-sensitivity
#2
Takasumi Shimomoto, Leonard B Collins, Xianwen Yi, Darcy W Holley, Zhenfa Zhang, Xu Tian, Koji Uchida, Chunguang Wang, Sohvi Hörkkö, Monte S Willis, Avram Gold, Scott J Bultman, Jun Nakamura
Atherosclerosis is widely accepted to be a chronic inflammatory disease, and the immunological response to the accumulation of LDL is believed to play a critical role in the development of this disease. 1,4-Dihydropyridine-type MAA-adducted LDL has been implicated in atherosclerosis. Here, we have demonstrated that pure MAA-modified residues can be chemically conjugated to large proteins without by-product contamination. Using this pure antigen, we established a purified MAA-ELISA, with which a marked increase in anti-MAA antibody titer was determined at a very early stage of atherosclerosis in 3-month ApoE-/- mice fed with a normal diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221870/bovine-leukemia-virus-and-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-are-not-associated-with-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-shedding-in-cattle
#3
Cristina Venegas-Vargas, Shannon D Manning, Paul M Coussens, Jonathan A Roussey, Paul Bartlett, Daniel Grooms
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leukosis in cattle, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in cattle. Both diseases are chronic in nature and can lead to the disruption of normal immunological or physiological processes. Cattle are the major reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), a cause of foodborne illness in humans. We tested the hypothesis that cattle infected with BLV or MAP are more likely to shed STEC...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220810/dengue-virus-ns1-protein-activates-immune-cells-via-tlr4-but-not-tlr2-or-tlr6
#4
Naphak Modhiran, Daniel Watterson, Antje Blumenthal, Alan G Baxter, Paul R Young, Katryn J Stacey
The secreted hexameric form of the dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has recently been shown to elicit inflammatory cytokine release and disrupt endothelial cell monolayer integrity. This suggests that circulating NS1 contributes to the vascular leak that plays a major role in the pathology of dengue haemorrhagic fever and shock. Pathways activated by NS1 are thus of great interest as potential therapeutic targets. Recent works have separately implicated both toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the TLR2/6 heterodimer in immune cell activation by NS1...
February 21, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220792/immunologic-treatment-failure-among-hiv-infected-adult-patients-in-jiangsu-province-china
#5
Tao Qiu, Ping Ding, Gengfeng Fu, Xiping Huan, Xiaoqin Xu, Zhi Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Haitao Yang, Jeff Mandel, Chongyi Wei, Willi McFarland, Hongjing Yan
The National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program was implemented in Jiangsu Province, China in 2005. We conducted a retrospective, open cohort study to determine treatment failure rates and associated risk factors. Data were obtained from the national web-based antiretroviral treatment database. WHO criteria were used to define immunologic treatment failure. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine treatment failure rates and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify risk factors. A total of 5,083 (87...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220766/immunological-biomarkers-and-long-term-graft-survival-prospective-follow-up-of-457-kidney-transplant-recipients
#6
Michał Ciszek, Krzysztof Mucha, Bartosz Foroncewicz, Dorota Żochowska, Maciej Kosieradzki, Tadeusz Grochowiecki, Magdalena Durlik, Andrzej Górski, Leszek Pączek
INTRODUCTION    Antibodies against donor`s human leukocyte antigens (HLA) play a significant role in the pathogenesis of antibody mediated rejection, although their role during the late post-transplant period is unknown. A non-HLA polymorphic antigenic system like major histocompatibility class I chain-related antigen A (MICA) might be another target for antibody responses involved in rejection. OBJECTIVES    We conducted a 7-year prospective study to determine the effect of positivity for anti-HLA and anti-MICA antibodies on kidney graft survival...
February 15, 2017: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220395/single-cell-sequencing-a-distinct-new-field
#7
REVIEW
Jian Wang, Yuanlin Song
Single cell sequencing (SCS) has become a new approach to study biological heterogeneity. The advancement in technologies for single cell isolation, amplification of genome/transcriptome and next-generation sequencing enables SCS to reveal the inherent properties of a single cell from the large scale of the genome, transcriptome or epigenome at high resolution. Recently, SCS has been widely applied in various clinical and research fields, such as cancer biology and oncology, immunology, microbiology, neurobiology and prenatal diagnosis...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220270/multiplex-assessment-of-serum-cytokine-and-chemokine-levels-in-idiopathic-morphea-and-vitamin-k1-induced-morphea
#8
Lori Ann Cox, Guy F Webster, Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez, Sergio A Jimenez
The levels of 63 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were measured in the serum of four patients with idiopathic morphea and of one patient with vitamin K1-induced morphea employing a multiplex assay to identify the role of inflammatory/immunologic events in their pathogenesis. Full-thickness skin biopsies of affected skin were analyzed by histopathology. Luminex assays for 63 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors were performed in the sera from four patients with idiopathic morphea and in two different samples of serum obtained in two separate occasions from one patient with vitamin K1-induced morphea...
February 20, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220254/hiv-1-persistent-viremia-is-frequently-followed-by-episodes-of-low-level-viremia
#9
Marek Widera, Miriam Dirks, Barbara Bleekmann, Robert Jablonka, Martin Däumer, Hauke Walter, Robert Ehret, Jens Verheyen, Stefan Esser
After the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma HIV-RNA levels should fall below the limit of detection (LOD) within 24 weeks. Hence, the prolonged decline of HIV-RNA after ART initiation is defined as persistent viremia (PV). In this retrospective study, we analyzed factors associated with PV. Next-generation sequencing of viral RNA/DNA was performed to study viral evolution and the emergence of drug-resistance mutations in HIV-infected patients with PV (n = 20). In addition, HIV-DNA species, immunological parameters, and clinical data of the patients were analyzed...
February 20, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220080/validation-of-a-method-for-the-assessment-of-urinary-neopterin-levels-to-monitor-health-status-in-non-human-primate-species
#10
Verena Behringer, Jeroen M G Stevens, Fabian H Leendertz, Gottfried Hohmann, Tobias Deschner
Determining individual health status is of great importance for a better understanding of life history trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and maintenance. However, existing immunological methods are invasive and therefore not suitable for investigating health status in wild populations. Thus, there is an urgent need for non-invasive methods to assess the immune status of animals. Neopterin is involved in the cell-mediated pathway of the immune response (Th1-type), secreted during the activation of monocytes and macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219994/coinfection-with-hymenolepis-nana-hymenolepis-diminuta-giardia-intestinalis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report-with-complex-immunologic-interactions
#11
Gladymar Pérez-Chacón, Leonor A Pocaterra, Elsy Rojas, Aurora Hernán, Juan Carlos Jiménez, Luz Núñez
We describe the case of a 43-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected man receiving combined antiretroviral therapy and coinfected with Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Giardia intestinalis, presenting as chronic diarrhea and critical weight loss. Immunological aspects of these interactions are reviewed.
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219826/hot-topics-in-reactive-oxygen-therapy-antimicrobial-and-immunological-mechanisms-safety-and-clinical-applications
#12
REVIEW
Matthew Dryden, Jonathan Cooke, Rami Salib, Rebecca Holding, Sylvia Pender, Jill Brooks
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), when combined with various delivery mechanisms, has the potential to become a powerful novel therapeutic agent against difficult-to-treat infections, especially those involving biofilm. It is important in the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis. ROS is rapidly active in vitro against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. ROS also has antifungal and antiviral properties. ROS prevents the formation of biofilms caused by a range of bacterial species in wounds and respiratory epithelium...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219801/ala-photodynamic-treatment-in-lichen-sclerosus-clinical-and-immunological-outcome-focusing-on-the-assesment-of-anti-nuclear-antibodies
#13
Anita Olejek, Iwona Gabriel, Anna Bilska-Janosik, Iwona Kozak-Darmas, Aleksandra Kawczyk-Krupka
BACKGROUND: Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a difficult to treat, often relapsing disease with unknown background. An autoimmune diseases coexist with LS. Over recent years photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be noninvasive and successful therapeutic approach for the effective treatment many conditions. However, the change of immune status of the patients based on ANA antibodies has not been yet reported. Our aim was to observe the clinical response followed by possible changes in autoimmune antibodies levels before and after PDT...
February 17, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219772/evidence-based-recommendations-on-the-management-of-extrahepatic-manifestations-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#14
REVIEW
Manuel Ramos-Casals, Anna Linda Zignego, Clodoveo Ferri, Pilar Brito-Zerón, Soledad Retamozo, Milvia Casato, Peter Lamprecht, Alessandra Mangia, David Saadoun, Athanasios G Tzioufas, Zobair M Younossi, Patrice Cacoub
∗The current therapeutic armamentarium against HCV has been recently expanded with an explosion of new molecules (DAAs) with high virological efficacy ∗The objective of this international consensus is to provide therapeutic recommendations for HCV patients with extrahepatic manifestations (EHM). ∗The use of non-antiviral therapeutic approaches should be evaluated according to the type of EHM and severity of the clinical presentation ∗B cell depletion with rituximab is the established biologic approach to cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) employed to date...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219205/-preparation-of-chaperone-antigen-peptide-vaccine-derived-from-human-gastric-cancer-stem-cells-and-its-immune-function
#15
Y Q Jiang, Q M Guo, X P Xu, J C Liang, Y Y He, S H An, F Su, C Y Li, C X Huang
Objective: To explore the method of extracting chaperone antigen peptide complexes from gastric cancer stem cells and its immune function. Methods: Gastric cancer stem cells and gastric cancer cells were screened by low temperature ultrasonic lysis. After salting out and dialysis, the lysate supernatant was processed with SDS-PAGE to analyze the expression of chaperone antigen peptide complexes, and then was separated and purified with CNBr-activated SepharoseTM 4B. Reverse high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were used to analyze the purity and nature of the acquired albumen...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219072/human-allergen-specific-igg-subclass-antibodies-measured-using-immunocap-technology
#16
Robert Movérare, Karin Blume, Peter Lind, René Crevel, Åsa Marknell DeWitt, Stella Cochrane
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of human IgG subclass antibody responses to various allergens has been hampered by a lack of reliable standardized assays. The aim here was to develop quantitative immunoassays for human IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 antibodies using ImmunoCAP® technology and to evaluate their application. METHODS: Enzyme conjugates with isotype-specific monoclonal antibodies and calibrators composed of purified myeloma paraproteins were developed for each assay and used together with other standardized assay reagents for the Phadia® 100 instrument...
February 21, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219062/the-impact-on-allergy-related-cells-of-a-birch-pollen-allergoid-with-and-without-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-in-comparison-with-the-native-equivalent
#17
Margitta Worm, Dennis Ernst, Markus Kraller, Magda Babina
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy and safety of allergoid immunotherapy have been demonstrated in clinical trials. However, simultaneous monitoring of the immunological changes by allergoids versus allergens in the cells of the same individual has not been extensively performed, and the impact of concurrent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligation has not been specified. METHODS: Three types of birch allergen were utilized: glutaraldehyde-treated allergoid (extract A), the same allergoid plus monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), i...
February 21, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218682/immune-mediated-therapies-for-liver-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Rajagopal N Aravalli, Clifford J Steer
In recent years, immunotherapy has gained renewed interest as an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumors. Its premise is based on harnessing the power of the host immune system to destroy tumor cells. Development of immune-mediated therapies, such as vaccines, adoptive transfer of autologous immune cells, and stimulation of host immunity by targeting tumor-evasive mechanisms have advanced cancer immunotherapy. In addition, studies on innate immunity and mechanisms of immune evasion have enhanced our understanding on the immunology of liver cancer...
February 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218426/dkk3-attenuates-the-cytotoxic-effect-of-natural-killer-cells-on-cd133-gastric-cancer-cells
#19
Pu Xia, Xiao-Yan Xu
Cancer stem cell (CSCs) has started a new era in cancer research. CD133 is a widely used marker for identification of CSCs. More and more studies showed that NK cells preferentially target cancer stem-like cells. However, the deeper mechanism of the susceptibility of cancer stem cells to NK cells remains unclear. In this study, we isolated CD133 positive population of a gastric cancer cell line, BGC823 cells, and cultured with NK cells. We found that CD133 could efficiently active NK cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217966/pathogenesis-of-diffuse-alveolar-hemorrhage-in-murine-lupus
#20
Haoyang Zhuang, Shuhong Han, Pui Y Lee, Ravil Khaybullin, Stepan Shumyak, Li Lu, Amina Chatha, Anan Afaneh, Yuan Zhang, Chao Xie, Dina Nacionales, Lyle Moldawer, Xin Qi, Li-Jun Yang, Westley H Reeves
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in lupus patients is >50% fatal. The cause is unknown. The pathogenesis of DAH in C57BL/6 mice with pristane-induced lupus, a model of human lupus-associated DAH, was examined. METHODS: Clinical/pathological and immunological manifestations DAH in pristane-lupus were compared with human DAH. Tissue distribution of pristane was examined by mass spectrometry. Cell types responsible for disease were determined by in vivo depletion using clodronate liposomes (CloLip) and anti-neutrophil monoclonal antibodies (GR1)...
February 19, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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