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Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933655/immunological-diversity-in-phenotypes-of-chronic-lung-allograft-dysfunction-a-comprehensive-immunohistochemical-analysis
#1
Elly Vandermeulen, Elise Lammertyn, Stijn E Verleden, David Ruttens, Hannelore Bellon, Mario Ricciardi, Jana Somers, Ken R Bracke, Kathleen Van Den Eynde, Thomas Tousseyn, Guy G Brusselle, Erik K Verbeken, Johny Verschakelen, Marie-Paule Emonds, Dirk E Van Raemdonck, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos, Bart M Vanaudenaerde
Chronic rejection after organ transplantation is defined as a humoral- and cell-mediated immune response directed against the allograft. In lung transplantation, chronic rejection is nowadays clinically defined as a cause of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), consisting of different clinical phenotypes including restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). However, the differential role of humoral and cellular immunity is not investigated up to now. Explant lungs of patients with end-stage BOS (n = 19) and RAS (n = 18) were assessed for the presence of lymphoid (B and T cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, eosinophils, mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages) and compared to nontransplant control lung biopsies (n = 21)...
November 7, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933315/immunogenicity-of-self-tumor-associated-proteins-is-enhanced-through-protein-truncation
#2
Tim Kottke, Kevin G Shim, Vanesa Alonso-Camino, Shane Zaidi, Rosa Maria Diaz, Jose Pulido, Jill Thompson, Karishma R Rajani, Laura Evgin, Elizabeth Ilett, Hardev Pandha, Kevin Harrington, Peter Selby, Alan Melcher, Richard Vile
We showed previously that therapy with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) expressing tumor-associated proteins eradicates established tumors. We show here that when cellular cDNA were cloned into VSV which retained their own poly-A signal, viral species emerged in culture which had deleted the cellular poly-A signal and also contained a truncated form of the protein coding sequence. Typically, the truncation occurred such that a Tyrosine-encoding codon was converted into a STOP codon. We believe that the truncation of tumor-associated proteins expressed from VSV in this way occurred to preserve the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently...
2016: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933289/the-association-between-stress-measured-by-allostatic-load-score-and-physiologic-dysregulation-in-african-immigrants-the-africans-in-america-study
#3
Brianna A Bingham, Michelle T Duong, Madia Ricks, Lilian S Mabundo, Rafeal L Baker, Jean N Utumatwishima, Margaret Udahogora, David Berrigan, Anne E Sumner
INTRODUCTION: Allostatic load score (ALS) summarizes the physiological effect of stress on cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems. As immigration is stressful, ALS could be affected. OBJECTIVE: Associations between age of immigration, reason for immigration, and unhealthy assimilation behavior and ALS were determined in 238 African immigrants to the United States (age 40 ± 10, mean ± SD, range 21-64 years). METHODS: ALS was calculated using 10 variables from three domains; cardiovascular (SBP, DBP, cholesterol, triglyceride, homocysteine), metabolic [BMI, A1C, albumin, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)], and immunological [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)]...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933277/lectins-from-synadenium-carinatum-scll-and-artocarpus-heterophyllus-artinm-are-able-to-induce-beneficial-immunomodulatory-effects-in-a-murine-model-for-treatment-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#4
Eliézer L P Ramos, Silas S Santana, Murilo V Silva, Fernanda M Santiago, Tiago W P Mineo, José R Mineo
Infection by Toxoplasma gondii affects around one-third of world population and the treatment for patients presenting toxoplasmosis clinically manifested disease is mainly based by a combination of sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid. However, this therapeutic protocol is significantly toxic, causing relevant dose-related bone marrow damage. Thus, it is necessary to improve new approaches to investigate the usefulness of more effective and non-toxic agents for treatment of patients with toxoplasmosis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933174/a-case-of-hepatitis-c-associated-osteosclerosis-accelerated-bone-turnover-controlled-by-pulse-steroid-therapy
#5
Nobuhiro Miyamura, Shuhei Nishida, Mina Itasaka, Hirofumi Matsuda, Takeshi Ohtou, Yasuhiro Yamaguchi, Daisuke Inaba, Sadahiro Tamiya, Tetsuo Nakano
: Hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis (HCAO), a very rare disorder in which an extremely rapid bone turnover occurs and results in osteosclerosis, was acknowledged in 1990s as a new clinical entity with the unique bone disorder and definite link to chronic type C hepatitis, although the pathogenesis still remains unknown. Affected patients suffer from excruciating deep bone pains. We report the 19th case of HCAO with diagnosis confirmed by bone biopsy, and treated initially with a bisphosphonate, next with corticosteroids and finally with direct acting antivirals (DAA: sofosbuvir and ribavirin) for HCV infection...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932984/curcumin-suppressed-activation-of-dendritic-cells-via-jak-stat-socs-signal-in-mice-with-experimental-colitis
#6
Hai-Mei Zhao, Rong Xu, Xiao-Ying Huang, Shao-Min Cheng, Min-Fang Huang, Hai-Yang Yue, Xin Wang, Yong Zou, Ai-Ping Lu, Duan-Yong Liu
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role as initiators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and are regulated by the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway. As a potent anti-inflammatory compound, curcumin represents a viable treatment alternative or adjunctive therapy in the management of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanism of curcumin treated IBD on DCs is not completely understood. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of curcumin treated experimental colitis by observing activation of DCs via JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway in colitis mice...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932613/type-1-reaction-in-leprosy-patients-corresponds-with-a-decrease-in-pro-resolving-and-an-increase-in-pro-inflammatory-lipid-mediators
#7
Carlos A M Silva, Kristofor Webb, Barbara G Andre, Maria Angela de Mello Marques, Fernanda Marques de Carvalho, Cristiana Santos de Macedo, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, John T Belisle
BACKGROUND: Type 1 reaction (T1R) is an acute Th1 inflammatory episode in leprosy patients. While immunological responses associated with T1R have been investigated, the corresponding metabolic responses that could contribute to T1R pathology have received little attention. METHODS: Metabolomics-based analyses of sera from T1R (n=7) and T1R-free (n=9) patients were conducted via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Serum metabolites that significantly differed (p<0...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932612/legionella-longbeachae-is-immunologically-silent-and-highly-virulent-in-vivo
#8
Liliana M Massis, Mariana A Assis-Marques, Fernanda V S Castanheira, Yasmin J Capobianco, Andiamira C Balestra, Pedro Escoll, Rebecca E Wood, Graziele Z Manin, Vani M A Correa, José C Alves-Filho, Fernando Q Cunha, Carmen Buchrieser, Marcos C Borges, Hayley J Newton, Dario S Zamboni
BACKGROUND: Legionella longbeachae (Llo) and Legionella pneumophila (Lpn) are the most common pneumonia-causing agents of the genus. Although both species can be lethal to humans and are highly prevalent, little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of Llo infections. In murine models of infection, Lpn infection is self-limited whereas Llo infection is lethal. DESIGN/METHODS: We used mouse macrophages, human macrophages, human epithelial cells and mouse infections in vivo to evaluate multiple parameters of the infection...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932339/predictors-of-treatment-failure-on-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-among-adults-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-multicentre-retrospective-follow-up-study
#9
Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye, Mamo Wubshet, Tadesse Awoke, Kefyalew Addis Alene
BACKGROUND: The number of patients using second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased over time. In Ethiopia, 1.5% of HIV infected patients on ART are using a second-line regimen and little is known about its effect in this setting. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate and predictors of treatment failure on second-line ART among adults living with HIV in northwest Ethiopia. SETTING: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted at three tertiary hospitals in northwest Ethiopia from March to May 2015...
December 8, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932185/inferior-vena-cava-duodenal-drainage-in-pancreas-alone-transplantation-for-chronic-pancreatitis-a-case-report
#10
B H Choi, Y M Park, K H Yang, C W Chu, J H Ryu
Enteric drainage has been the main trend in solitary pancreas transplantation. Compared with bladder drainage, it does not cause metabolic or urologic complications, but there is no way to perform immunologic monitoring, except by graft pancreas biopsy. Additionally, although portal drainage of the graft vein is considered physiological drainage, it has more of a risk for surgical complications. To overcome these disadvantages, we successfully performed inferior vena cava (IVC)-duodenal drainage in pancreas alone transplantation...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932166/renal-allograft-failure-after-ipilimumab-therapy-for-metastatic-melanoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
A Jose, P Yiannoullou, S Bhutani, H Denley, M Morton, M Picton, A Summers, D van Dellen, T Augustine
Transplant recipients are at an increased risk of malignant melanoma, a result of chronic immunosuppression. Ipilimumab is a newer biological agent targeting T lymphocytes to potentiate an immune response against melanoma, and the use of this agent results in a new adverse effect profile that the clinician must be aware of while a patient is on therapy. We report the case of a male renal transplant recipient who developed graft failure while treated with ipilimumab and minimal immunosuppressive therapy for metastatic ocular melanoma, with biopsy evidence of glomerulonephritis and acute rejection...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932151/kidney-transplantation-with-ultralong-term-42-years-survival-of-a-100-year-old-graft
#12
E Nascimento, F M Lucas-Junior, R A Fabreti-Oliveira, B Vilela, E R F Tavora, J P L Silva, A Salomão-Filho
BACKGROUND: In kidney transplantation, long-term graft survival has improved over the last few decades. Study to understand ultralong-term graft survival with graft functioning is rare, but a few researchers have tried to explain the factors involved in long-term graft survival. In this report, we explore the predictive factors that can be involved in ultralong-term graft survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immunologic evaluations of the patients were performed using crossmatch (XM), serological, and high-resolution HLA typing for 8 loci...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932143/report-from-the-first-and-second-spanish-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-genotyping-workshops-external-quality-control-for-natural-killer-alloreactive-donor-selection-in-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
D Planelles, C Vilches, F González-Escribano, M Muro, R González-Fernández, F Sánchez, J Gonzalo Ocejo, A Eiras, J L Caro, E Palou, J A Campillo, M D de Juan, O Montes, A Balas, L Marín, A Torío, M Fernández-Arquero, C González-Roiz, A López-Vázquez, E Cisneros, C Abad-Molina, R López, M L Abad-Alastruey, C Serra, A M García-Alonso, J L Vicario
An important factor affecting the success in the setting of related haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the graft-versus-leukemia effect mediated by natural killer (NK) cells when the donor displays NK alloreactivity versus the recipient. NK cell function is regulated by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and it has been described that donor KIR genotype influences transplantation outcome. This has led to a requirement of laboratories to have a quality assurance program for validation and control of their KIR genotyping methods...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932139/de-novo-anti-hla-antibodies-after-heart-transplantation-are-associated-with-adverse-events-in-the-long-term-follow-up-of-cardiac-transplant-recipients
#14
E Solé-González, S Mirabet, V Brossa, L López-López, M Rivas-Lasarte, H Capellades-Olivella, A J Ginel-Iglesias, J Martorell-Pons, E Roig
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Long-term morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HTx) remain very high. Several reports have suggested that anti-HLA antibodies (anti-HLA-AB) detected after HTx might be associated with poor survival, but the implication of isolated anti-HLA-AB is still under debate. The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of de novo anti-HLA-AB and whether they are associated with adverse events after HTx. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the presence of anti-HLA-AB assessed by fluorimetry (Luminex) and quantified by a single-antigen bead assay in 119 HTx patients...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932138/potential-immunomodulatory-role-of-specific-anticytomegalovirus-intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-heart-recipients
#15
J Carbone, A Gallego, J Fernandez Yañez, I Sousa, E Sarmiento
BACKGROUND: Specific anticytomegalovirus (anti-CMV) intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has the potential to influence the immune response, but its complex mode of action has not been well evaluated. METHODS: An immunologic study of 6 CMV-seronegative heart transplant patients receiving anti-CMV prophylaxis with the use of ganciclovir and CMV-IVIG (150 mg/kg within 24 hours after transplantation and 100 mg/kg on days 2, 7, 14, 22, 35, 56, and 77 after transplantation) was performed in a single center...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932116/surgical-complications-in-en-bloc-renal-transplantation
#16
M A Moreno de la Higuera Díaz, N Calvo Romero, I Pérez-Flores, M Calvo Arévalo, B Rodríguez Cubillo, A Shabaka, V López de la Manzanara, Á Gómez Vegas, J Blázquez Izquierdo, A I Sánchez-Fructuoso
En bloc pediatric transplantation (EBPT) began with the aim of increasing the donor pool due to the existing high demand for donors. At its inception, it was considered a type of suboptimal transplantation due to its association with a high incidence of vascular, urologic, and immunologic complications. The main objective of this study was to update information on EBPT with the largest case series that exists on a worldwide scale. In a retrospective study, the results obtained from brain-dead donors (BDDs; n = 770) were compared to those of EBPT (n = 100) from January 1990 to December 2012...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932073/pyroptosis-gasdermin-mediated-programmed-necrotic-cell-death
#17
REVIEW
Jianjin Shi, Wenqing Gao, Feng Shao
Pyroptosis was long regarded as caspase-1-mediated monocyte death in response to certain bacterial insults. Caspase-1 is activated upon various infectious and immunological challenges through different inflammasomes. The discovery of caspase-11/4/5 function in sensing intracellular lipopolysaccharide expands the spectrum of pyroptosis mediators and also reveals that pyroptosis is not cell type specific. Recent studies identified the pyroptosis executioner, gasdermin D (GSDMD), a substrate of both caspase-1 and caspase-11/4/5...
December 5, 2016: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932046/stereotactic-ablative-body-radiosurgery-sabr-or-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt
#18
REVIEW
Michael R Folkert, Robert D Timmerman
While conventional treatment relies on protracted courses of therapy using relatively small dose-per-fraction sizes of 1.8-2Gy, there is substantial evidence gathered over decades that this may not be the optimal approach for all targetable disease. Stereotactic ablative body radiosurgery (SABR) or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a technique which uses precise targeting to deliver high doses of radiation capable of ablating tumors directly. In this review, we will discuss the justification for and techniques used to deliver ablative doses to improve treatment outcomes, interactions with biological and immunologic therapy, and special procedures to spare normal tissue, which have facilitated the expanding role for these techniques in the management of a wide range of malignant histologies and disease states...
December 5, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931833/hyperglycemia-tumorigenesis-and-chronic-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Shu-Chun Chang, Wei-Chung Vivian Yang
Hyperglycemia is the most prominent sign that characterizes diabetes. Hyperglycemia favors malignant cell growth by providing energy to cancer cells. Clinical studies also showed an increased risk of diabetes being associated with different types of cancers. In addition, poorly regulated glucose metabolism in diabetic patients is often found with increased levels of chronic inflammatory markers, e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and emerging evidence has highlighted activation of the immune response in the progression and development of cancer cells...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931829/primary-immunodeficiencies-associated-with-ebv-induced-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Mahsima Shabani, Kim E Nichols, Nima Rezaei
Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a subgroup of inherited immunological disorders that increase susceptibility to viral infections. Among the range of viral pathogens involved, EBV remains a major threat because of its high prevalence of infection among the adult population and its tendency to progress to life-threatening lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) and/or malignancy. The high mortality in immunodeficient patients with EBV-driven LPDs, despite institution of diverse and often intensive treatments, prompts the need to better study these PIDs to identify and understand the affected molecular pathways that increase susceptibility to EBV infection and progression...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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