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Megan Sykes
The last 15 years or so have seen exciting progress in xenotransplantation, with porcine organ grafts surviving months or even years in non-human primates. These advances reflect the application of new scientific knowledge, improved immunosuppressive agents, and genetic engineering. The field has recently enjoyed a renaissance of interest and hope, largely due to the exponential increase in our capacity to genetically engineer porcine source animals. However, immune responses to xenografts are very powerful and widespread clinical application of xenotransplantation will depend on the ability to suppress these immune responses while preserving the capacity to protect both the recipient and the graft from infectious microorganisms...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Several studies reported that the majority of deaths in HIV-infected people are documented in their early antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow-ups. Early mortality refers to death of people on ART for follow up period of below 24 months due to any cause. The current study assessed predictors of early HIV mortality in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective analysis of 5299 patient records dating from June 2003- March 2015. To estimate survival time and compare the time to event among the different groups of patients, we used a Kaplan Meir curve and log-rank test...
2018: PloS One
Jessica Rauch, Philip Eisermann, Bernd Noack, Ute Mehlhoop, Birgit Muntau, Johannes Schäfer, Dennis Tappe
Typhus group rickettsiosis is caused by the vectorborne bacteria Rickettsia typhi and R. prowazekii. R. typhi, which causes murine typhus, the less severe endemic form of typhus, is transmitted by fleas; R. prowazekii, which causes the severe epidemic form of typhus, is transmitted by body lice. To examine the immunology of human infection with typhus group rickettsiae, we retrospectively reviewed clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory changes, and travel destinations of 28 patients who had typhus group rickettsiosis diagnosed by the German Reference Center for Tropical Pathogens, Hamburg, Germany, during 2010-2017...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rory D de Vries, Arwen F Altenburg, Nella J Nieuwkoop, Erwin de Bruin, Stella E van Trierum, Mark R Pronk, Mart M Lamers, Mathilde Richard, David F Nieuwenhuijse, Marion P G Koopmans, Joost H C M Kreijtz, Ron A M Fouchier, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Gerd Sutter, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses continue to circulate in poultry and wild birds and occasionally infect humans, sometimes with fatal outcome. Development of vaccines is a priority to prepare for potential pandemics, however complicated by antigenic variation of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin. We report the immunological profile induced by human immunization with Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin gene of H5N1 virus A/Vietnam/1194/04 (rMVA-H5)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
David Bleich, David H Wagner
Context: Immunotherapy trials to prevent type 1 diabetes have been unsuccessful for more than fifteen years. Understanding pitfalls and knowledge gaps in the immunology of type 1 diabetes should lead us in new directions that will yield better trial outcomes. A proposal is made for precision medicine trial design in future type 1 diabetes studies. Evidence Acquisition: High quality peer-reviewed basic science and clinical research trials for type 1 diabetes were used in this Perspectives article...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ksenya Kveler, Elina Starosvetsky, Amit Ziv-Kenet, Yuval Kalugny, Yuri Gorelik, Gali Shalev-Malul, Netta Aizenbud-Reshef, Tania Dubovik, Mayan Briller, John Campbell, Jan C Rieckmann, Nuaman Asbeh, Doron Rimar, Felix Meissner, Jeff Wiser, Shai S Shen-Orr
Cytokines are signaling molecules secreted and sensed by immune and other cell types, enabling dynamic intercellular communication. Although a vast amount of data on these interactions exists, this information is not compiled, integrated or easily searchable. Here we report immuneXpresso, a text-mining engine that structures and standardizes knowledge of immune intercellular communication. We applied immuneXpresso to PubMed to identify relationships between 340 cell types and 140 cytokines across thousands of diseases...
June 18, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Noordiana Nordin, Nor Azah Yusof, Son Radu, Roozbeh Hushiarian
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a common foodborne pathogen that contributes to a large proportion of public health problems globally, significantly affecting the rate of human mortality and morbidity. Conventional methods for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus such as culture-based methods, immunological assays, and molecular-based methods require complicated sample handling and are time-consuming, tedious, and costly. Recently, biosensors have proven to be a promising and comprehensive detection method with the advantages of fast detection, cost-effectiveness, and practicality...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Eirini Moysi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Leslie R De Armas, Louis E Gonzalez, David Ambrozak, Varghese George, David Huddleston, Rajendra Pahwa, Richard A Koup, Constantinos Petrovas, Savita Pahwa
HIV infection changes the lymph node (LN) tissue architecture, potentially impairing the immunologic response to antigenic challenge. The tissue-resident immune cell dynamics in virologically suppressed HIV+ patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are not clear. We obtained LN biopsies before and 10 to 14 days after trivalent seasonal influenza immunization from healthy controls (HCs) and HIV+ volunteers on cART to investigate CD4+ T follicular helper (Tfh) and B cell dynamics by flow cytometry and quantitative imaging analysis...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Aubhishek Zaman, Trever G Bivona
In lung cancer, genomics-driven comprehensive molecular profiling has identified novel chemically and immunologically addressable vulnerabilities, resulting in an increasing application of precision medicine by targeted inactivation of tumor oncogenes and immunogenic activation of host anti-tumor surveillance as modes of treatment. However, initially profound response of these targeted therapies is followed by relapse due to therapy-resistant residual disease states. Although distinct mechanisms and frameworks for therapy resistance have been proposed, accounting for and upfront prediction of resistance trajectories has been challenging...
May 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Aparna P Sajja, Aditya A Joshi, Heather L Teague, Amit K Dey, Nehal N Mehta
Preclinical and clinical research provide strong evidence that chronic, systemic inflammation plays a key role in development and progression of atherosclerosis. Indeed, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular events. Contemporary research has demonstrated plausible mechanistic links between immune cell dysfunction and cardiometabolic disease in psoriasis. In this review, we describe the role of potential common immunological mechanisms underlying both psoriasis and atherogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Marlies Elderman, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
Sex differences in peripheral immune responses are well recognized. This is associated with sex differences in many immunological diseases. As the intestinal microbiota is known to influence the immune system, such sex differences in immune responses may be a consequence of sex-specific microbiota. Therefore, this mini-review discusses sex differences in intestinal microbiota and the possible role of microbiota in shaping sexually dimorphic immunity. Sex differences in microbiota composition are clearly found in mice studies and also in human studies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Edward K Geissler, James A Hutchinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Lancet
Renier Brentjens, Marco L Davila
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
Maha Mohammed Abdel-Fattah, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha, Ahmed Mohamed Mansour
The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is considered a crucial regulator for physiological homeostasis and disease progression. We evaluated the protective effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activator xanthenone on experimental cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were divided into a sham control, a cerebral I/R control, a standard treatment (nimodipine, 10 mg/kg/day, 15 days, p.o.), three telmisartan treatments (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day, 15 days, p...
June 17, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Victor D Plat, Nora van Gaal, James A Covington, Matthew Neal, Tim G J de Meij, Donald L van der Peet, Babs Zonderhuis, Geert Kazemier, Nanne K H de Boer, Freek Daams
BACKGROUND: Esophagectomy or pancreaticoduodenectomy is the standard surgical approach for patients with tumors of the esophagus or pancreatic head. Postoperative mortality is strongly correlated with the occurrence of anastomotic leakage (AL). Delay in diagnosis leads to delay in treatment, which ratifies the need for development of novel and accurate non-invasive diagnostic tests for detection of AL. Urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) reflect the metabolic status of an individual, which is associated with a systemic immunological response...
June 15, 2018: Digestive Surgery
Wenjie Zhang, Ying Ding, Li Sun, Qing Hong, Yumei Sun, Liangliang Han, Mengting Zi, Yuekang Xu
Dendritic cells (DCs) contain heterogeneous populations, with classical DCs developed at steady state and monocyte-derived DCs mobilized under inflammatory conditions, although their total numbers in vivo are scares. To obtain enough quantity for immunological study or clinical application, we have previously established that bone marrow-derived DCs in the presence of Flt-3L (FL-DCs) or GM-CSF (GM-DCs) in vitro are equivalent to the steady state DCs and inflammatory DCs in vivo respectively. What difference, however, exists between these two most commonly used culture systems in DC functions and survival, and how does it correlate to the division of works by their corresponding counterparts in vivo remain ill-defined...
June 7, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Neil A R Gow, Tehmina Amin, Karen McArdle, Alistair J P Brown, Gordon D Brown, Adilia Warris, The Wtsa-Mmfi Consortium
The Wellcome Trust Strategic Award in Medical Mycology and Fungal Immunology is a unique investment that aimed to bolster capacity, training and research activity throughout the UK. This article summarises the rationale for collective collaboration of multiple institutions to achieve synergies and address a common medical problem.
June 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Jong-Seok Park, Youn-Mook Lim, Jae Baik, Jin-Oh Jeong, Sung-Jun An, Sung-In Jeong, Hui-Jeong Gwon, Myung-Seob Khil
β-Glucan can provide excellent environment to apply to drug carrier due to its immunological and anti-inflammatory effect. Minocycline hydrochloride (MH) has excellent oral bioavailability pharmacological properties. Specifically, MH is effectively absorbed into the gingiva for periodontal disease treatment. In this study, we attempt to develop MH loaded β-glucan hydrogel for periodontal disease treatment through radiation-crosslinking technique. In addition, MH loaded β-glucan hydrogels were tested for their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Anne F M Jansen, Ruud P H Raijmakers, Stephan P Keijmel, Renate G van der Molen, Gerald M Vervoort, Jos W M van der Meer, Marcel van Deuren, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers
Q fever infection can lead to chronic Q fever, a potentially lethal disease occurring in 1-5% of patients infected with Coxiella burnetii, characterized by the persistence of this intracellular bacterium. It usually presents as endocarditis, infected vascular aneurysms, or infected vascular prostheses. This systematic review of the literature discusses the various autoimmune syndromes and B-cell dyscrasias in acute and chronic Q fever patients, that may interfere with or impede recognition and diagnosis of Q fever...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Ioana Adriana Muntean, Ioana Corina Bocsan, Diana Deleanu
Wheat is the most commonly grown cereal. Immunological reaction to wheat may be IgE or T-cell- mediated. Asthma could be induced by inhaled flour or by exposure to allergens present in bakery products. In patients with IgE-mediated allergy to wheat proteins there is no specific therapy, except oral immunotherapy (OIT). There are few data regarding OIT with wheat protein in allergic patients. We present a case of a 32-yearold female patient, who worked for 5 years in wheat and bakery products industry, who developed an occupational asthma and chronic urticaria after flour inhalation or ingestion of foods that containit...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
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