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medial frontal negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126885/medial-frontal-cortex-response-to-unexpected-motivationally-salient-outcomes
#1
Heather E Soder, Geoffrey F Potts
The medial frontal cortex (MFC) plays a central role allocating resources to process salient information, in part by responding to prediction errors. While there is some recent debate, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) is thought to index a reward prediction error by signaling outcomes that are worse than expected. A recent study utilizing electric shock provided data inconsistent with these accounts and reported that the omission of both appetitive (money) and aversive outcomes (electric shocks) elicited a medial frontal negativity...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115706/seizure-susceptible-brain-regions-in-glioblastoma-identification-of-patients-at-risk
#2
Nuria Cayuela, Marta Simó, Carles Majós, X Rifà-Ros, Jaime Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Pablo Ripollés, Noemí Vidal, Julia Miró, Francisco Gil, Miguel Gil-Gil, Gerard Plans, Francesc Graus, Jordi Bruna
BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study was to identify which glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients have a higher risk to present seizures during follow-up. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM were reviewed (n=306), and classified in patients with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) seizures at onset. Group 2 was split into patients with seizures during follow-up (Group 2A) and patients who never had seizures (Group 2B). Anatomical location of GBM was identified and compared by voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (discovery set)...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077553/greater-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-reduced-frontal-cortical-volumes-among-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder
#3
Alvi H Islam, Arron W S Metcalfe, Bradley J MacIntosh, Daphne J Korczak, Benjamin I Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD. METHODS: We processed T1-weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018368/biclustered-independent-component-analysis-for-complex-biomarker-and-subtype-identification-from-structural-magnetic-resonance-images-in-schizophrenia
#4
Cota Navin Gupta, Eduardo Castro, Srinivas Rachkonda, Theo G M van Erp, Steven Potkin, Judith M Ford, Daniel Mathalon, Hyo Jong Lee, Bryon A Mueller, Douglas N Greve, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Andrew R Mayer, Julia Stephen, Rex E Jung, Juan Bustillo, Vince D Calhoun, Jessica A Turner
Clinical and cognitive symptoms domain-based subtyping in schizophrenia (Sz) has been critiqued due to the lack of neurobiological correlates and heterogeneity in symptom scores. We, therefore, present a novel data-driven framework using biclustered independent component analysis to detect subtypes from the reliable and stable gray matter concentration (GMC) of patients with Sz. The developed methodology consists of the following steps: source-based morphometry (SBM) decomposition, selection and sorting of two component loadings, subtype component reconstruction using group information-guided ICA (GIG-ICA)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983326/inter-trial-coherence-of-medial-frontal-theta-oscillations-linked-to-differential-feedback-processing-in-youth-and-young-adults-with-autism
#5
Stefon van Noordt, Jia Wu, Archana Venkataraman, Michael J Larson, Mikle South, Michael J Crowley
BACKGROUND: Impairment in prediction and appreciation for choice outcomes could contribute to several core symptoms of ASD. We examined electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations in 27 youth and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 22 IQ-matched neurotypical controls while they performed a chance-based reward prediction task. METHOD: We re-analyzed our previously published ERP data (Larson et al., 2011) and examined theta band oscillations (4-8 Hz) at frontal midline sites, within a timing window that overlaps with the feedback-related negativity (FRN)...
May 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971152/significant-correlation-between-openness-personality-in-normal-subjects-and-brain-myelin-mapping-with-t1-t2-weighted-mr-imaging
#6
Fumihiko Yasuno, Takashi Kudo, Akihide Yamamoto, Kiwamu Matsuoka, Masato Takahashi, Hidehiro Iida, Masafumi Ihara, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka, Toshifumi Kishimoto
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the myelination and the psychological trait of openness to experience in young cognitively normal volunteers using regional T1-weighted (T1w)/T2w ratios on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was hypothesized that axonal myelination would be related to openness, thus linking trait creativity and mental illness. METHODS: We recruited 37 healthy subjects and administered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess personality factors...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971010/structural-connectomics-of-anxious-arousal-in-early-adolescence-translating-clinical-and-ethological-findings
#7
Paul B Sharp, Eva H Telzer
Etiological explanations of clinical anxiety can be advanced through understanding the neural mechanisms associated with anxiety in youth prior to the emergence of psychopathology. In this vein, the present study sought to investigate how trait anxiety is related to features of the structural connectome in early adolescence. 40 adolescents (21 female, mean age = 13.49 years) underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging scan. We hypothesized that the strength of several a priori defined structural connections would vary with anxious arousal based on previous work in human clinical neuroscience and adult rodent optogenetics...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951165/neural-activity-associated-with-repetitive-simulation-of-episodic-counterfactual-thoughts
#8
Felipe De Brigard, Natasha Parikh, Gregory W Stewart, Karl K Szpunar, Daniel L Schacter
When people revisit past autobiographical events they often imagine alternative ways in which such events could have occurred. Often these episodic counterfactual thoughts (eCFT) are momentary and fleeting, but sometimes they are simulated frequently and repeatedly. However, little is known about the neural differences between frequently versus infrequently repeated eCFT. The current study explores this issue. In a three-session study, participants were asked to simulate alternative ways positive, negative, and neutral autobiographical memories could have occurred...
September 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946019/dynamic-range-in-bold-modulation-lifespan-aging-trajectories-and-association-with-performance
#9
Kristen M Kennedy, Maria A Boylan, Jenny R Rieck, Chris M Foster, Karen M Rodrigue
Alteration of dynamic range of modulation to cognitive difficulty has been proposed as a salient predictor of cognitive aging. Here, we examine in 171 adults (aged 20-94 years) the effects of age on dynamic modulation of blood oxygenation-level dependent activation to difficulty in parametrically increasing working memory (WM) load (0-, 2-, 3-, and 4-back conditions). First, we examined parametric increases and decreases in activation to increasing WM load (positive modulation effect and negative modulation effect)...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940207/affective-priming-and-cognitive-load-event-related-potentials-suggest-an-interplay-of-implicit-affect-misattribution-and-strategic-inhibition
#10
Henning Gibbons, Laura-Effi Seib-Pfeifer, Judith Koppehele-Gossel, Robert Schnuerch
Prior research suggests that the affective priming effect denoting prime-congruent evaluative judgments about neutral targets preceded by affective primes increases when the primes are processed less deeply. This has been taken as evidence for greater affect misattribution. However, no study so far has combined an experimental manipulation of the depth of prime processing with the benefits of ERPs. Forty-seven participants made like/dislike responses about Korean ideographs following 800-ms affective prime words while 64-channel EEG was recorded...
September 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935223/testing-the-effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-on-adult-conflict-related-theta-dynamics
#11
Jeremy Harper, Stephen M Malone, William G Iacono
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent alcohol use (AAU) is associated with brain anomalies, but less is known about long-term neurocognitive effects. Despite theoretical models linking AAU to diminished cognitive control, empirical work testing this relationship with specific cognitive control neural correlates (e.g., prefrontal theta-band EEG dynamics) remains scarce. A longitudinal twin design was used to test the hypothesis that greater AAU is associated with reduced conflict-related EEG theta-band dynamics in adulthood, and to examine the genetic/environmental etiology of this association...
November 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928072/orbitofrontal-epilepsy-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#12
Imane Samah Chibane, Olivier Boucher, François Dubeau, Thi Phuoc Yen Tran, Ismail Mohamed, Richard McLachlan, R Mark Sadler, Richard Desbiens, Lionel Carmant, Dang Khoa Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Orbitofrontal epilepsy (OFE) is less known and is poorly characterized in comparison with temporal lobe epilepsy, partly because it is rare and possibly because it is unrecognized and therefore underestimated. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to better characterize seizure semiology, presurgical findings, and surgical outcomes in patients with OFE. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all confidently established OFE cases from six Canadian epilepsy monitoring units between 1988 and 2014, and in the literature between 1972 and 2017...
September 16, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915082/a-combined-study-of-slc6a15-gene-polymorphism-and-the-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-first-episode-drug-naive-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Lijuan Wang, Zhifen Liu, Xiaohua Cao, Jianying Li, Aixia Zhang, Ning Sun, Chunxia Yang, Kerang Zhang
AIMS: The SLC6A15 gene has been identified as a novel candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of how the SLC6A15 gene affects functional brain activity of patients with MDD remains unknown. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effect of the SLC6A15 gene polymorphism, rs1545843, on resting-state brain function in MDD with the imaging genomic technology and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method...
September 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871288/error-specific-cognitive-control-alterations-in-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#14
James F Cavanagh, Alexandria Meyer, Greg Hajcak
BACKGROUND: Trait anxiety is reliably associated with enhanced neural responses following errors: meta analyses have described how the electrophysiological response to errors known as the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) is increased in anxious individuals, particularly in relation to worry. The ERN has been related to a broader class of control signals, particularly via a common theta band denominator, but it is unknown whether worry relates to these alternative medial frontal metrics...
July 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856095/localizing-value-of-electrical-source-imaging-frontal-lobe-malformations-of-cortical-development-and-negative-mri-related-epilepsies-are-the-best-candidates
#15
Chifaou Abdallah, Louis G Maillard, Estelle Rikir, Jacques Jonas, Anne Thiriaux, Martine Gavaret, Fabrice Bartolomei, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Laurent Koessler
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to prospectively assess the anatomical concordance of electric source localizations of interictal discharges with the epileptogenic zone (EZ) estimated by stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) according to different subgroups: the type of epilepsy, the presence of a structural MRI lesion, the aetiology and the depth of the EZ. METHODS: In a prospective multicentric observational study, we enrolled 85 consecutive patients undergoing pre-surgical SEEG investigation for focal drug-resistant epilepsy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855654/a-meta-analysis-of-voxel-based-brain-morphometry-studies-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#16
Yan Shi, Lizhou Chen, Taolin Chen, Lei Li, Jing Dai, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Gray matter (GM) anomalies may represent a critical pathology underlying obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the evidence regarding their clinical relevance is inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of patients with OSA to identify their brain abnormalities. A systematic search was conducted based on PRISMA guidelines, and a meta-analysis was performed using the anisotropic effect-size-based algorithms (ASE-SDM) to quantitatively estimate regional GM changes in patients with OSA...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845172/balance-deficit-and-brain-connectivity-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Sun Mi Kim, Gi Jung Hyun, Tae-Woon Jung, Young Don Son, In-Hee Cho, Baik Seok Kee, Doug Hyun Han
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess disturbances in postural and gait balance and functional connectivity within the brain regions controlling balance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Thirteen children with ADHD and 13 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Gait balance was assessed by the difference in the center of pressure (COP) between the left and right foot, as well as the difference in plantar pressure between the left and right foot during gait...
July 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763879/-study-of-fraction-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-on-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-adultperipheral-facial-paralysis
#18
Y J Zhu, G L Ma, T B Song, L Du, R C Guo, S L Sun, H Li, L G Sun
Objective: To analysis the change of brain functional activity in the left and right peripheral facial paralysis by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) of fraction amplitude of low frequency fluctuation(fALFF) measurement technique, and research the abnormal brain region with different side patients whether there are differences. Methods: A total of 43 patients with peripheral facial paralysis patients (patient groups, divided into left / right two subgroups) and 21 healthy volunteers (control group) in this study...
July 18, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755988/acute-affective-reactivity-and-quality-of-life-in-older-adults-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-functional-mri-study
#19
Ping Ren, Kathi L Heffner, Alanna Jacobs, Feng Lin
OBJECTIVES: Poor quality of life (QoL) is a major concern among older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Maladaptive affective regulation and its relevant frontal dysfunction that are often observed in older adults with MCI may provide an insight into the understanding of their QoL. METHODS: In this case-controlled study, participants (MCI patients, N = 18; healthy comparisons [HC], N = 21) completed cognitive tasks, and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) immediately before and after the tasks...
November 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740390/brain-regions-associated-with-anosognosia-for-memory-disturbance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Hiroshi Fujimoto, Teruyuki Matsuoka, Yuka Kato, Keisuke Shibata, Kaeko Nakamura, Kei Yamada, Jin Narumoto
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are frequently unaware of their cognitive symptoms and medical diagnosis. The term "anosognosia" is used to indicate a general lack of awareness of one's disease or disorder. The neural substrate underlying anosognosia in AD is unclear. Since anosognosia for memory disturbance might be an initial sign of AD, it is important to determine the neural correlates. This study was designed to investigate the characteristics and neural correlates of anosognosia for memory disturbance in patients with mild AD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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