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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781581/brain-correlates-of-continuous-pain-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-as-measured-by-pulsed-arterial-spin-labeling
#1
Yvonne C Lee, Alexander Fine, Ekaterina Protsenko, Elena Massarotti, Robert R Edwards, Ishtiaq Mawla, Vitaly Napadow, Marco L Loggia
OBJECTIVE: Central nervous system pathways involving pain modulation shape the pain experience in patients with chronic pain. Our objectives were to understand the mechanisms underlying pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and identify brain signals that may serve as imaging markers for developing targeted treatments for RA pain. METHODS: Subjects with RA and matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, using pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL)...
May 21, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779085/progressive-grey-matter-volume-changes-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-over-6-weeks-of-antipsychotic-treatment-and-their-relationship-to-clinical-improvement
#2
Xiao Zhang, Yuyanan Zhang, Jinmin Liao, Sisi Jiang, Jun Yan, Weihua Yue, Dai Zhang, Hao Yan
Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have identified widespread and progressive grey matter volume (GMV) reductions in schizophrenia, especially in the frontal lobe. In this study, we found a progressive GMV decrease in the rostral medial frontal cortex (rMFC, including the anterior cingulate cortex) in the patient group during a 6-week follow-up of 40 patients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls well-matched for age, gender, and education. The higher baseline GMV in the rMFC predicted better improvement in the positive score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and this might be related to the improved reality-monitoring...
May 19, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769833/effects-of-knee-alignments-and-toe-clip-on-frontal-plane-knee-biomechanics-in-cycling
#3
Guangping Shen, Songning Zhang, Hunter J Bennett, James C Martin, Scott E Crouter, Eugene C Fitzhugh
Effects of knee alignment on the internal knee abduction moment (KAM) in walking have been widely studied. The KAM is closely associated with the development of medial knee osteoarthritis. Despite the importance of knee alignment, no studies have explored its effects on knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of knee alignment and use of a toe clip on the knee frontal plane biomechanics during stationary cycling. A total of 32 participants (11 varus, 11 neutral, and 10 valgus alignment) performed five trials in each of six cycling conditions: pedaling at 80 rpm and 0...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765312/associations-between-daily-mood-states-and-brain-gray-matter-volume-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-task-based-activity-in-healthy-adults
#4
Elmira Ismaylova, Jessica Di Sante, Jean-Philippe Gouin, Florence B Pomares, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Linda Booij
Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755374/altered-amygdala-resting-state-functional-connectivity-and-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorder
#5
Ye-Ha Jung, Jung E Shin, Yoonji I Lee, Joon H Jang, Hang J Jo, Soo-Hee Choi
Background: The amygdala plays a key role in emotional hyperreactivity in response to social threat in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FCN) of the left and right amygdala with various brain regions and functional lateralization in patients with SAD. Methods: A total of 36 patients with SAD and 42 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at rest. Using the left and right amygdala as seed regions, we compared the strength of the rs-FCN in the patient and control groups...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753306/distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-reading-arabic-vs-verbal-numbers-an-erp-study
#6
Alice Mado Proverbio, Marco Bianco, Francesco de Benedetto
In this EEG/ERP study, 16 volunteers were asked to compare the numerical equality of 360 pairs of multi-digit numbers presented in Arabic or verbal format. Behavioural data showed faster and more accurate responses for digit targets, with a right hand/left hemisphere advantage only for verbal numerals. Occipito-temporal N1, peaking at approximately 180 ms, was strongly left-lateralized during verbal number processing and bilateral during digit processing. A LORETA (low resolution electromagnetic tomography) source reconstruction performed at the N1 latency stage (155-185 ms) revealed greater brain activation during coding of Arabic than of verbal stimuli...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736883/abnormalities-of-regional-homogeneity-and-its-correlation-with-clinical-symptoms-in-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia
#7
Xiaoxin Zhao, Jingjing Yao, Yiding Lv, Xinyue Zhang, Chongyang Han, Lijun Chen, Fangfang Ren, Zhuma Jin, Yuan Li, Yuxiu Sui
Several resting-state neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormal regional homogeneity (ReHo) in chronic schizophrenia; however, little work has been conducted to investigate naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). Even less investigated is the association between ReHo measures and clinical symptom severity in naïve patients with FES. The current study evaluated ReHo alterations in whole brain, and assessed the correlations between ReHo measures and clinical variables in naïve patients with FES...
May 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719202/utilizing-time-frequency-amplitude-and-phase-synchrony-measure-to-assess-feedback-processing-in-a-gambling-task
#8
Adreanna T M Watts, Anne V Tootell, Spencer T Fix, Selin Aviyente, Edward M Bernat
The neurophysiological mechanisms involved in the evaluation of performance feedback have been widely studied in the ERP literature over the past twenty years, but understanding has been limited by the use of traditional time-domain amplitude analytic approaches. Gambling outcome valence has been identified as an important factor modulating event-related potential (ERP) components, most notably the feedback negativity (FN). Recent work employing time-frequency analysis has shown that processes indexed by the FN are confounded in the time-domain and can be better represented as separable feedback-related processes in the theta (3-7 Hz) and delta (0-3 Hz) frequency bands...
April 29, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702084/medial-frontal-theta-dissociates-unsuccessful-from-successful-avoidance-and-is-modulated-by-lack-of-perseverance
#9
Stefon J R van Noordt, Jia Wu, Caleb Thomas, Michael W Schlund, Linda C Mayes, Michael J Crowley
Medial frontal activity in the EEG is enhanced following negative feedback and varies in relation to important dimensions of impulsivity. In 22 undergraduate students (Mage = 18.92 years, range 18-22 years), we employed a probabilistic negative reinforcement learning paradigm in which participant's choices to avoid were followed by cues indicating successful or unsuccessful avoidance of an impending aversive noise. Our results showed that medial frontal theta power was significantly enhanced to a cue that signaled avoidance was unsuccessful...
April 24, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699465/alterations-of-brain-grey-matter-density-and-olfactory-bulb-volume-in-patients-with-olfactory-loss-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Pengfei Han, Nicole Winkler, Cornelia Hummel, Antje Hähner, Johannes Gerber, Thomas Hummel
Olfactory loss and traumatic brain injury (TBI) both lead to anatomical brain alterations in humans. Little research has been done on the structural brain changes for TBI patients with olfactory loss. Using voxel-based morphometry, the grey matter (GM) density was examined for twenty-two TBI patients with hyposmia, twenty-four TBI patients with anosmia, and twenty-two age-matched controls. Olfactory bulb (OB) volumes were measured by manual segmentation of acquired T2 weighted coronal slices using a standardized protocol...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678935/atrophy-patterns-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-with-and-without-cortical-superficial-siderosis
#11
Joonho Kim, Han Kyu Na, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Hee Jin Kim, Sang Won Seo, Joon-Kyung Seong, Duk L Na
OBJECTIVE: To investigate differential atrophy patterns based on the presence of cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) and the role of cSS in predicting amyloid positivity in memory clinic patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 44 cognitively impaired patients with probable CAA who underwent 3-dimensional, T1-weighted MRIs (cSS+, n = 27; cSS-, n = 17). Amyloid-positive patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 56) and amyloid-negative cognitively normal participants (n = 34) were recruited as controls...
April 20, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662779/finite-element-analysis-of-biomechanical-effects-of-total-ankle-arthroplasty-on-the-foot
#12
Yan Wang, Zengyong Li, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Cheng-Kung Cheng, Ming Zhang
Background: Total ankle arthroplasty is gaining popularity as an alternation to ankle arthrodesis for end-stage ankle arthritis. Owing to the complex anatomical characteristics of the ankle joint, total ankle arthroplasty has higher failure rates. Biomechanical exploration of the effects of total ankle arthroplasty on the foot and ankle is imperative for the precaution of postoperative complications. The objectives of this study are (1) to investigate the biomechanical differences of the foot and ankle between the foot with total ankle arthroplasty and the intact foot and (2) to investigate the performance of the three-component ankle prosthesis...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#13
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649562/carrying-the-past-to-the-future-distinct-brain-networks-underlie-individual-differences-in-human-spatial-working-memory-capacity
#14
Siwei Liu, Jia-Hou Poh, Huili Koh, Eric Kwun-Kei Ng, Yng Miin Loke, Joseph Kai Wei Lim, Joanna Su Xian Chong, Juan Zhou
Spatial working memory (SWM) relies on the interplay of anatomically separated and interconnected large-scale brain networks. EEG studies often observe load-associated sustained negative activity during SWM retention. Yet, whether and how such sustained negative activity in retention relates to network-specific functional activation/deactivation and relates to individual differences in SWM capacity remain to be elucidated. To cover these gaps, we recorded concurrent EEG-fMRI data in 70 healthy young adults during the Sternberg delayed-match-to-sample SWM task with three memory load levels...
April 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620428/dietary-dopamine-depletion-blunts-reward-network-sensitivity-to-face-trustworthiness
#15
Leslie A Zebrowitz, Jasmine Boshyan, Noreen Ward, Luke Hanlin, Jutta M Wolf, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Research demonstrating responsiveness of the neural reward network to face trustworthiness has not assessed whether the effects are mediated by dopaminergic function. We filled this gap in the literature by investigating whether dietary dopamine depletion would blunt the sensitivity of neural activation to faces varying in trustworthiness across reward regions as well as the sensitivity of behavioral responses to those faces. As prolactin release is negatively regulated by dopamine, peripheral prolactin levels confirmed the efficacy of our manipulation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615948/higher-status-honesty-is-worth-more-the-effect-of-social-status-on-honesty-evaluation
#16
Philip R Blue, Jie Hu, Xiaolin Zhou
Promises are crucial for maintaining trust in social hierarchies. It is well known that not all promises are kept; yet the effect of social status on responses to promises being kept or broken is far from understood, as are the neural processes underlying this effect. Here we manipulated participants' social status before measuring their investment behavior as Investor in iterated Trust Game (TG). Participants decided how much to invest in their partners, who acted as Trustees in TG, after being informed that their partners of higher or lower social status either promised to return half of the multiplied sum (4 × invested amount), did not promise, or had no opportunity to promise...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606878/aberrant-regional-brain-activities-in-alcohol-dependence-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#17
Xianzhu Tu, Juanjuan Wang, Xuming Liu, Jiyong Zheng
Objective: Whether moderate alcohol consumption has health benefits remains controversial, but the harmful effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior and brain function are well recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol-induced regional brain activities and their relationships with behavioral factors. Subjects and methods: A total of 29 alcohol-dependent subjects (9 females and 20 males) and 29 status-matched healthy controls (11 females and 18 males) were recruited...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581708/study-of-the-influence-of-age-in-18-f-fdg-pet-images-using-a-data-driven-approach-and-its-evaluation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Jiehui Jiang, Yiwu Sun, Hucheng Zhou, Shaoping Li, Zhemin Huang, Ping Wu, Kuangyu Shi, Chuantao Zuo, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
Objectives: 18 F-FDG PET scan is one of the most frequently used neural imaging scans. However, the influence of age has proven to be the greatest interfering factor for many clinical dementia diagnoses when analyzing18 F-FDG PET images, since radiologists encounter difficulties when deciding whether the abnormalities in specific regions correlate with normal aging, disease, or both. In the present paper, the authors aimed to define specific brain regions and determine an age-correction mathematical model...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560309/enhanced-temporal-variability-of-amygdala-frontal-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Jing-Li Yue, Peng Li, Le Shi, Xiao Lin, Hong-Qiang Sun, Lin Lu
Background: The "dysconnectivity hypothesis" was proposed 20 years ago. It characterized schizophrenia as a disorder with dysfunctional connectivity across a large range of distributed brain areas. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data have supported this theory. Previous studies revealed that the amygdala might be responsible for the emotion regulation-related symptoms of schizophrenia. However, conventional methods oversimplified brain activities by assuming that it remained static throughout the entire scan duration, which may explain why inconsistent results have been reported for the same brain region...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535451/effect-of-combined-naltrexone-and-bupropion-therapy-on-the-brain-s-functional-connectivity
#20
Gene-Jack Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri Kojori, Ruiliang Wang, Corinde E Wiers, Elisabeth C Caparelli, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: The control of food intake in environments with easy access to highly rewarding foods is challenging to most modern societies. The combination of sustained release (SR) naltrexone and SR bupropion (NB32) has been used in weight-loss and obesity management. However, the effects of NB32 on the brain circuits implicated in the regulation of food intake are unknown. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to evaluate the effects of NB32 on resting brain FC. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy women underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after 4-week treatment with NB32 (n = 16) or with placebo (n = 20)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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