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medial frontal negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301866/abnormal-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-acute-low-back-pain-revealed-by-resting-state-functional-mri
#1
Shan-Shan Zhang, Wen Wu, Jian-Ming Yang, Chu-Huai Wang
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging studies have revealed that low-back pain (LBP) alters spatiotemporal dynamics of the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in response to persistent noxious stimulus. This study aimed to investigate changes in spontaneous neural activity of various brain regions in acute LBP using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). DESIGN: Twelve healthy subjects underwent two separate resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans at health status as baseline and after intramuscular injection of hypertonic saline (0...
April 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294134/influence-of-familial-risk-for-depression-on-cortico-limbic-connectivity-during-implicit-emotional-processing
#2
Carolin Wackerhagen, Torsten Wüstenberg, Sebastian Mohnke, Susanne Erk, Ilya M Veer, Johann D Kruschwitz, Maria Garbusow, Lydia Romund, Kristina Otto, Janina I Schweiger, Heike Tost, Andreas Heinz, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Henrik Walter, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
Imbalances in cortico-limbic activity and functional connectivity (FC) supposedly underlie biased emotional processing and present putative intermediate phenotypes (IPs) for major depressive disorder (MDD). To prove the validity of these IPs, we assessed them in familial risk during implicit emotional processing. To provide comparable data to previous studies and additionally elucidate the implications of altered functional connectivity, amygdala FC was assessed across and between task conditions. In 70 healthy first-degree relatives of MDD patients and 70 controls, brain activity and seed-based amygdala FC were assessed during an angry and fearful faces matching task for fMRI...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288855/alterations-in-prefrontal-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-assessed-using-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Vicente Molina, Alba Lubeiro, Oscar Soto, Margarita Rodriguez, Aldara Álvarez, Rebeca Hernández, Rodrigo de Luis-García
BACKGROUND: Spatial and biological characteristics of structural frontal disconnectivity in schizophrenia remain incompletely understood. Simultaneous streamline count (SC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) analyses may yield relevant complementary information to this end. METHODS: Using 3T diffusion magnetic resonance imaging both SC and FA were calculated for the tracts linking lateral and medial subregions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) to cingulate, hippocampus, caudate and thalamus in 27 schizophrenia patients (14 first-episodes) and 27 controls...
March 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268177/prospective-relations-between-resting-state-connectivity-of-parietal-subdivisions-and-arithmetic-competence
#4
Gavin R Price, Darren J Yeo, Eric D Wilkey, Laurie E Cutting
The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266002/voxel-based-mapping-of-grey-matter-volume-and-glucose-metabolism-profiles-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
M-S Buhour, F Doidy, A Mondou, A Pélerin, L Carluer, F Eustache, F Viader, B Desgranges
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive disease of the nervous system involving both upper and lower motor neurons. The patterns of structural and metabolic brain alterations are still unclear. Several studies using anatomical MRI yielded a number of discrepancies in their results, and a few PET studies investigated the effect of ALS on cerebral glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was threefold: to highlight the patterns of grey matter (GM) atrophy, hypometabolism and hypermetabolism in patients with ALS, then to understand the neurobehavioral significance of hypermetabolism and, finally, to investigate the regional differences between the morphologic and functional changes in ALS patients, using a specially designed voxel-based method...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226306/task-dependent-modulation-of-amygdala-connectivity-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#6
Lora Minkova, Ronald Sladky, Georg S Kranz, Michael Woletz, Nicole Geissberger, Christoph Kraus, Rupert Lanzenberger, Christian Windischberger
Increased amygdala activation is consistently found in patients suffering from social anxiety disorder (SAD), a psychiatric condition characterized by an intense fear of social situations and scrutiny. Disruptions in the amygdalar-frontal network in SAD may explain the inability of frontal regions to appropriately down-regulate amygdalar hyper-activation. In this study, we measured 15 SAD patients and 15 healthy controls during an affective counting Stroop task with emotional faces to assess the interaction of affective stimuli with a cognitive task in SAD, as well as to investigate the causal interactions between the amygdala and the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) using dynamic causal modeling (DCM)...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223812/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-within-the-default-mode-network-and-the-salience-network-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-early-phase-schizophrenia
#7
Yingchan Wang, Weijun Tang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jianye Zhang, Daoying Geng, Kaida Jiang, Dianming Zhu, Zhenhua Song, Zeping Xiao, Dengtang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), particularly in the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), has been reported in schizophrenia, but little is known about the effects of antipsychotics on these networks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of atypical antipsychotics on DMN and SN and the relationship between these effects and symptom improvement in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 33 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with antipsychotics at Shanghai Mental Health Center...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197859/imaging-the-up-s-and-down-s-of-emotion-regulation-in-lifetime-depression
#8
Sina Radke, Felix Hoffstaedter, Leonie Löffler, Lydia Kogler, Frank Schneider, Jens Blechert, Birgit Derntl
Reappraisal is a particularly effective strategy for influencing emotional experiences, specifically for reducing the impact of negative stimuli. Although depression has repeatedly been linked to dysfunctional behavioral and neural emotion regulation, prefrontal and amygdala engagement seems to vary with clinical characteristics and the specific regulation strategy used. Whereas previous neuroimaging research has focused on down-regulating reactions to emotionally evocative scenes, the current study compared up- and down-regulation in response to angry facial expressions in patients with depression and healthy individuals...
February 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165888/voxel-based-morphometry-of-disgust-sensitivity
#9
Albert Wabnegger, Sonja Übel, Anne Schienle
BACKGROUND: Difficulties with the regulation of negative affect have been extensively studied in neuroimaging research. However, dysregulation of a specific emotion, disgust, has hardly been investigated. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify whether gray matter volume (GMV) of frontal regions is correlated with personality traits associated with general and disgust-specific emotion regulation difficulties. METHOD: We analyzed T1-weighted images of 49 females (mean age = 22...
February 6, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155138/cerebellar-neural-circuits-involving-executive-control-network-predict-response-to-group-cognitive-behavior-therapy-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#10
MinlanYuan, Yajing Meng, Yan Zhang, Xiaojing Nie, Zhengjia Ren, Hongru Zhu, Yuchen Li, Su Lui, Qiyong Gong, Changjian Qiu, Wei Zhang
Some intrinsic connectivity networks including the default mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN) may underlie social anxiety disorder (SAD). Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of SAD and several networks relevant to higher-order cognition, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas involved in DMN and ECN exhibit altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with cortical networks in SAD. Forty-six patients with SAD and 64 healthy controls (HC) were included and submitted to the baseline resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
February 2, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153978/grizzly-bear-ursus-arctos-horribilis-locomotion-forelimb-joint-mechanics-across-speed-in-the-sagittal-and-frontal-planes
#11
Catherine L Shine, Charles T Robbins, O Lynne Nelson, Craig P McGowan
The majority of terrestrial locomotion studies have focused on parasagittal motion and paid less attention to forces or movement in the frontal plane. Our previous research has shown that grizzly bears produce higher medial ground reaction forces (lateral pushing from the animal) than would be expected for an upright mammal, suggesting frontal plane movement may be an important aspect of their locomotion. To examine this, we conducted an inverse dynamics analysis in sagittal and frontal planes, using ground reaction forces and position data from three high speed cameras of four adult female grizzly bears...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128347/attention-bias-of-avoidant-individuals-to-attachment-emotion-pictures
#12
Ying Liu, Yi Ding, Luluzi Lu, Xu Chen
How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals' attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals' attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123082/amygdala-contributions-to-stimulus-reward-encoding-in-the-macaque-medial-and-orbital-frontal-cortex-during-learning
#13
Peter H Rudebeck, Joshua A Ripple, Andrew R Mitz, Bruno B Averbeck, Elisabeth A Murray
Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus-reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus-reward associations...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104637/cortical-thickness-of-native-tibetans-in-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#14
W Wei, X Wang, Q Gong, M Fan, J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-altitude environmental factors and genetic variants together could have exerted their effects on the human brain. The present study was designed to investigate the cerebral morphology in high-altitude native Tibetans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1-weighted brain images were obtained from 77 Tibetan adolescents on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (altitude, 2300-5300 m) and 80 matched Han controls living at sea level. Cortical thickness, curvature, and sulcus were analyzed by using FreeSurfer...
January 19, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057489/representations-of-modality-general-valence-for-videos-and-music-derived-from-fmri-data
#15
Jongwan Kim, Svetlana V Shinkareva, Douglas H Wedell
This study tested for neural representations of valence that are shared across visual and auditory modalities referred to as modality-general representations. On a given trial participants made either affective or semantic judgments of short silent videos or music samples. For each modality valence was manipulated at three levels, positive, neutral, and negative, while controlling for the level of arousal. Whole-brain crossmodal identification of affect indicated the presence of modality-general valence representations that distinguished 1) positive from negative trials (signed valence) and 2) valenced from non-valenced trials (unsigned valence)...
January 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057091/-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-study-of-brain-function-changes-after-tips-operation-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#16
C Liu, H B Wang, Y Q Yu, M Q Wang, G B Zhang, L Y Xu, J M Wu
Objective: To investigate the brain function changes in cirrhosis patients after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) performed and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was analyzed. Methods: From January 2014 to February 2016, a total of 96 cirrhotic patients from invasive technology department and infection department in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University were selected , the blood ammonia data of 96 cirrhotic patients with TIPS operation in four groups were collected after 1, 3, 6 and 12 month, and all subjects performed rs-fMRI scans...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045690/clinical-case-of-the-month-a-49-year-old-man-who-presents-with-left-sided-weakness-an-update-on-ischemic-stroke
#17
Najy Masri, Rikki Weems, Falon Brown, Ben Andres, Fred Lopez
A 49 year-old man with a past medical history significant for essential hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease status post percutaneous coronary intervention and stent placement in the right coronary artery in 2010 presented for evaluation of left hemiplegia. He was feeling well until three hours prior to presentation, at which time he fell while walking from his bedroom into the kitchen. After falling, he noticed that his left upper and lower extremities felt weak. He denied any symptoms preceding the fall or any loss of consciousness...
November 2016: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009087/distribution-and-characteristics-of-transactive-response-dna-binding-protein-43-kda-pathology-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#18
Shunsuke Koga, Monica Sanchez-Contreras, Keith A Josephs, Ryan J Uitti, Neill Graff-Radford, Jay A van Gerpen, William P Cheshire, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Rosa Rademakers, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the frequency of transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa pathology in PSP, the clinical features of patients with this pathology, and genetic risk factors for it. METHODS: Hippocampal sections were screened with immunohistochemistry for transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa in 945 PSP cases. A subset of 261 cases that were negative in hippocampus was screened in the amygdala. The density and disruption of this pathology, as well as regional tau burden, and clinical and genetic characteristics were analyzed...
February 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008071/distinct-patterns-of-cerebral-cortical-thinning-in-schizophrenia-a-neuroimaging-data-driven-approach
#19
Genichi Sugihara, Naoya Oishi, Shuraku Son, Manabu Kubota, Hidehiko Takahashi, Toshiya Murai
Schizophrenia is an etiologically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Although neuroimaging studies have revealed brain alterations in schizophrenia, most studies have assumed that the disorder is a single entity, neglecting the diversity of alterations observed in the disorder. The current study sought to explore the distinct patterns of altered cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals using a data-driven approach. Unsupervised clustering using self-organizing maps followed by a K-means algorithm was applied to regional cortical thickness data in 108 schizophrenia patients and 121 healthy controls...
December 22, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#20
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
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