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medial frontal negativity

Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Barbara C N Müller, Nike R H Tsalas, Hein T van Schie, Jörg Meinhardt, Joëlle Proust, Beate Sodian, Markus Paulus
Metacognitive assessment of performance has been revealed to be one of the most powerful predictors of human learning success and academic achievement. Yet, little is known about the functional nature of cognitive processes supporting judgments of learning (JOLs). The present study investigated the neural underpinnings of JOLs, using event-related brain potentials. Participants were presented with picture pairs and instructed to learn these pairs. After each pair, participants received a task cue, which instructed them to make a JOL (the likelihood of remembering the target when only presented with the cue) or to make a control judgment...
October 6, 2016: Brain Research
Anthony J Gifuni, Adam Kendal, Fabrice Jollant
Guilt is a self-conscious emotion associated with the negative appraisal of one's behavior. In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of guilt, but no meta-analyses have yet identified the most robust activation patterns. A systematic review of literature found 16 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with whole-brain analyses meeting the inclusion criteria, for a total of 325 participants and 135 foci of activation. A meta-analysis was then conducted using activation likelihood estimation...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Takumi Kaneda, Yayoi Shigemune, Takashi Tsukiura
Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration...
October 3, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yuchen Li, Yajing Meng, Minlan Yuan, Ye Zhang, Zhengjia Ren, Yan Zhang, Hongru Zhu, Changjian Qiu, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature reporting neuroimaging in patients undergoing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). DATA SOURCES: Using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase, we searched for English-language studies published between January 2000 and February 2015 with terms related to SAD, therapy, and neuroimaging. DATA SOURCES: Twelve studies were included with a total of 295 subjects with SAD before and after therapy from January 2000 to February 2015...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
James T Kennedy, Paul F Collins, Monica Luciana
Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Zohaib Iqbal, Neil E Wilson, Margaret A Keller, David E Michalik, Joseph A Church, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Jaime Deville, Raissa Souza, Mary-Lynn Brecht, M Albert Thomas
PURPOSE: To measure cerebral metabolite levels in perinatally HIV-infected youths and healthy controls using the accelerated five dimensional (5D) echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (EP-JRESI) sequence, which is capable of obtaining two dimensional (2D) J-resolved spectra from three spatial dimensions (3D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After acquisition and reconstruction of the 5D EP-JRESI data, T1-weighted MRIs were used to classify brain regions of interest for HIV patients and healthy controls: right frontal white (FW), medial frontal gray (FG), right basal ganglia (BG), right occipital white (OW), and medial occipital gray (OG)...
2016: PloS One
Noriaki Kanayama, Alberto Morandi, Kazuo Hiraki, Francesco Pavani
Rubber hand illusion (RHI) is an important phenomenon for the investigation of body ownership and self/other distinction. The illusion is promoted by the spatial and temporal contingencies of visual inputs near a fake hand and physical touches to the real hand. The neural basis of this phenomenon is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the RHI is associated with a fronto-parietal circuit, and the goal of this study was to determine the dynamics of neural oscillation associated with this phenomenon. We measured electroencephalography while delivering spatially congruent/incongruent visuo-tactile stimulations to fake and real hands...
September 12, 2016: Brain Topography
Xiaodong Zheng, Masahiko Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Kamao, Yuri Sakane, Tomoko Goto, Atsushi Shiraishi, Yuichi Ohashi
We previously reported 2 new methods, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and polymethylmethacrylate particles suspended in fluorescein solution (PPF), for the evaluation of tear clearance and rapid tear flow after blinking (tear Krehbiel flow). Here, we investigated age-related OCT tear clearance and tear film thickness (TFT) and the potential correlation of OCT tear clearance and PPF velocity indicative of tear Krehbiel flow. Normal subjects separated into young and older groups received 5 μL of saline solution into the lower conjunctival sac, and an image of the central lower eyelid tear meniscus was captured by AS-OCT immediately and 30 seconds after natural blinking...
November 2016: Cornea
Adam Chuderski, Magdalena Senderecka, Patrycja Kałamała, Bartłomiej Kroczek, Michał Ociepka
This EEG study (N=33) examined event-related potentials associated with conflict between activated responses in the Stroop task, in order to examine the conflict monitoring theory of cognitive control, which predicts the strength of exerted control to be proportional to the detected level of conflict. However, existing research manipulated the sole presence/absence of conflict, but not its exact level. Here, by using a modified color-word task that allowed multiple correct responses for target colors, as well as multiple incorrect responses for distractor words, we manipulated the level of conflict among activated responses (and not only its presence)...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
César Romero-Rebollar, Luis Jiménez-Ángeles, Eduardo Antonio Dragustinovis-Ruiz, Verónica Medina-Bañuelos
Emotional processing has an important role in social interaction. We report the findings about the Independent Component Analysis carried out on a fMRI set obtained with a paradigm of face emotional processing. The results showed that an independent component, mainly cerebellar-medial-frontal, had a positive modulation associated with fear processing. Also, another independent component, mainly parahippocampal-prefrontal, showed a negative modulation that could be associated with implicit reappraisal of emotional stimuli...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Michael Nevat, Michael T Ullman, Zohar Eviatar, Tali Bitan
Affixal inflectional morphology has been intensively examined as a model of productive aspects of language. Nevertheless, little is known about the neurocognition of the learning and generalization of affixal inflection, or the influence of certain factors that may affect these processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we examined the neurocognition of the learning and generalization of plural inflections in an artificial language, as well as the influence of both affix type frequency (the proportion of words receiving a given affix) and affix predictability (based on phonological cues in the stem)...
August 26, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Fraser Milton, Pippa Bealing, Kathryn L Carpenter, Abdelmalek Bennattayallah, Andy J Wills
The idea that there are multiple learning systems has become increasingly influential in recent years with many studies providing evidence that there is both a quick, similarity-based, or feature-based system and a more effortful, rule-based system. A smaller number of imaging studies have also examined whether neurally dissociable learning systems are detectable. We further investigate this by employing for the first time in an imaging study a combined positive and negative patterning procedure originally developed by Shanks and Darby [Shanks, D...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Andrey V Bocharov, Valeriya B Kuznetsova
INTRODUCTION: Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown changes in the activity of medial prefrontal, medial temporal, and occipital regions in major depressive disorder patients during recall of autobiographical memories. Electrophysiological underpinning of these changes is not known. It is also not clear whether they are a part of the clinical picture or appear at preclinical stages in individuals predisposed to depression. METHOD: In this study, the effect of depressive symptoms, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), on oscillatory dynamics accompanying retrieval of emotionally positive and negative autobiographical memories was investigated in a nonclinical sample using electroencephalographic event-related spectral power and connectivity measures...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Ford Burles, Edward Slone, Giuseppe Iaria
The retrosplenial complex is a region within the posterior cingulate cortex implicated in spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the functional specialization of this large and anatomically heterogeneous region using fMRI and resting-state functional connectivity combined with a spatial task with distinct phases of spatial 'updating' (i.e., integrating and maintaining object locations in memory during spatial displacement) and 'orienting' (i.e., recalling unseen locations from current position in space)...
August 23, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Juan R Bustillo, Thomas Jones, Hongji Chen, Nicholas Lemke, Christopher Abbott, Clifford Qualls, Shannon Stromberg, Jose Canive, Charles Gasparovic
Glutamine plus glutamate (Glx), as well as N-acetylaspartate compounds (NAAc, N-acetylaspartate plus N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate), a marker of neuronal viability, can be quantified with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). We used (1)H-MRS imaging to assess Glx and NAAc, as well as total-choline (glycerophospho-choline plus phospho-choline), myo-inositol and total-creatine (creatine plus phosphocreatine) from an axial supraventricular slab of gray matter (GM, medial-frontal and medial-parietal) and white matter (WM, bilateral-frontal and bilateral-parietal) voxels...
August 22, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Andre S Nilsen, Ines Blix, Siri Leknes, Øivind Ekeberg, Laila Skogstad, Tor Endestad, Bjørn C Østberg, Trond Heir
Most studies of neuro-functional patterns in trauma-exposed individuals have been conducted considerable time after the traumatic event. Hence little is known about neuro-functional processing shortly after trauma-exposure. We investigated brain activity patterns in response to trauma reminders as well as neutral and negative stimuli in individuals who had recently (within 3 weeks) been involved in a road traffic accident (RTA). Twenty-three RTA survivors and 17 non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HCs) underwent functional MRI while viewing Trauma-specific, Negative, and Neutral pictures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Leodante da Costa, Benjamin T Dunkley, Allison Bethune, Amanda Robertson, Anne Keller, Elizabeth W Pang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurocognitive deficits are common among survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, even among those with good outcomes and no structural lesions. This study aims to probe the neurophysiological underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction among patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms using magnetoencephalography (MEG). METHODS: Thirteen patients who had undergone uncomplicated coiling for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and 13 matched controls were enrolled...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Philip R Baldwin, Kenia Velasquez, Harold G Koenig, Ramiro Salas, Peter A Boelens
Depression is a global health concern and when rooted in childhood adversity is particularly difficult to treat. In a previous study, we found that healing prayer was effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Subjects suffering with depression according to HAM-D scores underwent task-based brain functional MRI (fMRI) prior to and after a 6-week prayer intervention, and depression symptoms were assessed at both time points and at a 12-month follow-up. Average HAM-D scores decreased from 21.6±3.0 prior to the intervention to 4...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Joanna L Walker, Leslie Robinson-Bostom, Shoshana Landow
A 77-year-old woman born in the Dominican Republic presented with fullness of the glabella and medial eyebrows for 1 year followed by alopecia of the lateral eyebrows and frontal hairline. She stated that although she had a high hairline at baseline, it had receded in the past year. She had also noted central scalp hair thinning that started 6 years earlier. She denied all styling practices that used traction or chemical processes, although she admitted to hair dye and blow dryer use. She reported "acne" in the central face for decades and darkening of the skin on the lateral face for several years...
2016: Skinmed
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