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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898705/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-facial-trustworthiness-processing-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#1
Sara Santos, Inês Almeida, Bárbara Oliveiros, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865969/age-related-alterations-in-functional-connectivity-patterns-during-working-memory-encoding-of-emotional-items
#2
Maryam Ziaei, Alireza Salami, Jonas Persson
Previous findings indicate age-related differences in frontal-amygdala connectivity during emotional processing. However, direct evidence for age differences in brain functional activation and connectivity during emotional processing and concomitant behavioral implications is lacking. In the present study, we examined the impact of aging on the neural signature of selective attention to emotional information during working memory (WM) encoding. Participants completed an emotional WM task in which they were asked to attend to emotional targets and ignore irrelevant distractors...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864029/time-frequency-phase-synchrony-approaches-with-erps
#3
Selin Aviyente, Anne Tootell, Edward M Bernat
Time-frequency signal processing approaches are well-developed, and have been widely employed for the study of the energy distribution of event-related potential (ERP) data across time and frequency. Wavelet time-frequency transform (TFT) and Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions (TFD) are the most widely used in the field. While ERP TFT approaches have been most extensively developed for amplitude measures, reflecting the magnitude of regional neuronal activity, time-frequency phase-synchrony measures have gained increased utility in recent years for the assessment of functional connectivity...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859998/impact-of-alcohol-use-on-eeg-dynamics-of-response-inhibition-a-cotwin-control-analysis
#4
Jeremy Harper, Stephen M Malone, William G Iacono
Research indicates that alcohol misuse is associated with behavioral disinhibition, but the neurophysiological mechanisms governing this relationship remain largely unknown. Recent work suggests that successful inhibition and cognitive control involve electrophysiological theta-band dynamics, including medial frontal cortex (MFC) power enhancement and functional connectivity between the MFC and dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC) regions, which may be disrupted by alcohol misuse. In addition, research suggests that, compared to men, women are at heightened risk of experiencing the negative physical and neurocognitive correlates of drinking...
November 18, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858707/neural-basis-of-apathy-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#5
Hiroaki Kazui, Ryuichi Takahashi, Yuki Yamamoto, Kenji Yoshiyama, Hideki Kanemoto, Yukiko Suzuki, Shunsuke Sato, Shingo Azuma, Takashi Suehiro, Eku Shimosegawa, Kazunari Ishii, Toshihisa Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Although apathy is associated with damage to the frontal and temporal lobes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the crucial regions for apathy in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify brain regions associated with apathy in aMCI patients. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 98 aMCI patients who were entered in our dementia registry between March 1, 2009 and April 30, 2015 and who satisfied our criteria for aMCI...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857886/effects-of-outcome-on-the-covariance-between-risk-level-and-brain-activity-in-adolescents-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#6
Xin Qi, Yongxin Yang, Shouping Dai, Peihong Gao, Xin Du, Yang Zhang, Guijin Du, Xiaodong Li, Quan Zhang
Individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD) often have impaired risky decision-making abilities, and IGD-related functional changes have been observed during neuroimaging studies of decision-making tasks. However, it is still unclear how feedback (outcomes of decision-making) affects the subsequent risky decision-making in individuals with IGD. In this study, twenty-four adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the balloon analog risk task (BART) to evaluate the effects of prior outcomes on brain activity during subsequent risky decision-making in adolescents with IGD...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833549/impaired-white-matter-connections-of-the-limbic-system-networks-associated-with-impaired-emotional-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Xiaoshu Li, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Xiaohu Li, Kai Wang, Yongqiang Yu
Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776574/empathy-and-aversion-the-neural-signature-of-mentalizing-in-tourette-syndrome
#8
C M Eddy, A E Cavanna, P C Hansen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that adults with Tourette syndrome (TS) can respond unconventionally on tasks involving social cognition. We therefore hypothesized that these patients would exhibit different neural responses to healthy controls in response to emotionally salient expressions of human eyes. METHOD: Twenty-five adults with TS and 25 matched healthy controls were scanned using fMRI during the standard version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task which requires mental state judgements, and a novel comparison version requiring judgements about age...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729856/aberrant-brain-regional-homogeneity-and-functional-connectivity-in-middle-aged-t2dm-patients-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#9
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Jiuquan Zhang, Chaoyang Zhou, Minglong Liang, Xuntao Yin, Ping Wei, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with cognitive impairment. However, its neurological mechanism remains elusive. Combining regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses, the present study aimed to investigate brain functional alterations in middle-aged T2DM patients, which could provide complementary information for the neural substrates underlying T2DM-associated brain dysfunction. Twenty-five T2DM patients and 25 healthy controls were involved in neuropsychological testing and structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data acquisition...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720854/neural-correlates-of-judgments-of-learning-an-erp-study-on-metacognition
#10
Barbara C N Müller, Nike R H Tsalas, Hein T van Schie, Jörg Meinhardt, Joëlle Proust, Beate Sodian, Markus Paulus
Metacognitive assessment of performance has been revealed to be one of the most powerful predictors of human learning success and academic achievement. Yet, little is known about the functional nature of cognitive processes supporting judgments of learning (JOLs). The present study investigated the neural underpinnings of JOLs, using event-related brain potentials. Participants were presented with picture pairs and instructed to learn these pairs. After each pair, participants received a task cue, which instructed them to make a JOL (the likelihood of remembering the target when only presented with the cue) or to make a control judgment...
October 6, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704409/neural-mapping-of-guilt-a-quantitative-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#11
Anthony J Gifuni, Adam Kendal, Fabrice Jollant
Guilt is a self-conscious emotion associated with the negative appraisal of one's behavior. In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of guilt, but no meta-analyses have yet identified the most robust activation patterns. A systematic review of literature found 16 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with whole-brain analyses meeting the inclusion criteria, for a total of 325 participants and 135 foci of activation. A meta-analysis was then conducted using activation likelihood estimation...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699680/lateral-and-medial-prefrontal-contributions-to-emotion-generation-by-semantic-elaboration-during-episodic-encoding
#12
Takumi Kaneda, Yayoi Shigemune, Takashi Tsukiura
Memories for emotion-laden stimuli are remembered more accurately than those for neutral stimuli. Although this enhancement reflects stimulus-driven modulation of memory by emotions, functional neuroimaging evidence of the interacting mechanisms between emotions generated by intentional processes, such as semantic elaboration, and memory is scarce. The present fMRI study investigated how encoding-related activation is modulated by emotions generated during the process of semantic elaboration. During encoding with fMRI, healthy young adults viewed neutral (target) pictures either passively or with semantic elaboration...
October 3, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680692/therapy-for-adult-social-anxiety-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#13
Yuchen Li, Yajing Meng, Minlan Yuan, Ye Zhang, Zhengjia Ren, Yan Zhang, Hongru Zhu, Changjian Qiu, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature reporting neuroimaging in patients undergoing psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD). DATA SOURCES: Using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase, we searched for English-language studies published between January 2000 and February 2015 with terms related to SAD, therapy, and neuroimaging. DATA SOURCES: Twelve studies were included with a total of 295 subjects with SAD before and after therapy from January 2000 to February 2015...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660604/higher-adolescent-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-lower-regional-gray-and-white-matter-volumes-and-lower-levels-of-positive-emotionality
#14
James T Kennedy, Paul F Collins, Monica Luciana
Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622551/pilot-assessment-of-brain-metabolism-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-youths-using-accelerated-5d-echo-planar-j-resolved-spectroscopic-imaging
#15
Zohaib Iqbal, Neil E Wilson, Margaret A Keller, David E Michalik, Joseph A Church, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Jaime Deville, Raissa Souza, Mary-Lynn Brecht, M Albert Thomas
PURPOSE: To measure cerebral metabolite levels in perinatally HIV-infected youths and healthy controls using the accelerated five dimensional (5D) echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (EP-JRESI) sequence, which is capable of obtaining two dimensional (2D) J-resolved spectra from three spatial dimensions (3D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After acquisition and reconstruction of the 5D EP-JRESI data, T1-weighted MRIs were used to classify brain regions of interest for HIV patients and healthy controls: right frontal white (FW), medial frontal gray (FG), right basal ganglia (BG), right occipital white (OW), and medial occipital gray (OG)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620801/causal-dynamics-of-scalp-electroencephalography-oscillation-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#16
Noriaki Kanayama, Alberto Morandi, Kazuo Hiraki, Francesco Pavani
Rubber hand illusion (RHI) is an important phenomenon for the investigation of body ownership and self/other distinction. The illusion is promoted by the spatial and temporal contingencies of visual inputs near a fake hand and physical touches to the real hand. The neural basis of this phenomenon is not fully understood. We hypothesized that the RHI is associated with a fronto-parietal circuit, and the goal of this study was to determine the dynamics of neural oscillation associated with this phenomenon. We measured electroencephalography while delivering spatially congruent/incongruent visuo-tactile stimulations to fake and real hands...
September 12, 2016: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617874/visualization-of-tear-clearance-using-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-and-polymethylmethacrylate-particles
#17
Xiaodong Zheng, Masahiko Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki Kamao, Yuri Sakane, Tomoko Goto, Atsushi Shiraishi, Yuichi Ohashi
We previously reported 2 new methods, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and polymethylmethacrylate particles suspended in fluorescein solution (PPF), for the evaluation of tear clearance and rapid tear flow after blinking (tear Krehbiel flow). Here, we investigated age-related OCT tear clearance and tear film thickness (TFT) and the potential correlation of OCT tear clearance and PPF velocity indicative of tear Krehbiel flow. Normal subjects separated into young and older groups received 5 μL of saline solution into the lower conjunctival sac, and an image of the central lower eyelid tear meniscus was captured by AS-OCT immediately and 30 seconds after natural blinking...
November 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586410/erp-correlates-of-the-conflict-level-in-the-multi-response-stroop-task
#18
Adam Chuderski, Magdalena Senderecka, Patrycja Kałamała, Bartłomiej Kroczek, Michał Ociepka
This EEG study (N=33) examined event-related potentials associated with conflict between activated responses in the Stroop task, in order to examine the conflict monitoring theory of cognitive control, which predicts the strength of exerted control to be proportional to the detected level of conflict. However, existing research manipulated the sole presence/absence of conflict, but not its exact level. Here, by using a modified color-word task that allowed multiple correct responses for target colors, as well as multiple incorrect responses for distractor words, we manipulated the level of conflict among activated responses (and not only its presence)...
November 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579051/neural-modulation-in-aversive-emotion-processing-an-independent-component-analysis-study
#19
César Romero-Rebollar, Luis Jiménez-Ángeles, Eduardo Antonio Dragustinovis-Ruiz, Verónica Medina-Bañuelos
Emotional processing has an important role in social interaction. We report the findings about the Independent Component Analysis carried out on a fMRI set obtained with a paradigm of face emotional processing. The results showed that an independent component, mainly cerebellar-medial-frontal, had a positive modulation associated with fear processing. Also, another independent component, mainly parahippocampal-prefrontal, showed a negative modulation that could be associated with implicit reappraisal of emotional stimuli...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575853/the-neural-bases-of-the-learning-and-generalization-of-morphological-inflection
#20
Michael Nevat, Michael T Ullman, Zohar Eviatar, Tali Bitan
Affixal inflectional morphology has been intensively examined as a model of productive aspects of language. Nevertheless, little is known about the neurocognition of the learning and generalization of affixal inflection, or the influence of certain factors that may affect these processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we examined the neurocognition of the learning and generalization of plural inflections in an artificial language, as well as the influence of both affix type frequency (the proportion of words receiving a given affix) and affix predictability (based on phonological cues in the stem)...
August 26, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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