Read by QxMD icon Read

medial frontal negativity

Gene-Jack Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri Kojori, Ruiliang Wang, Corinde E Wiers, Elisabeth C Caparelli, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: The control of food intake in environments with easy access to highly rewarding foods is challenging to most modern societies. The combination of sustained release (SR) naltrexone and SR bupropion (NB32) has been used in weight-loss and obesity management. However, the effects of NB32 on the brain circuits implicated in the regulation of food intake are unknown. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to evaluate the effects of NB32 on resting brain FC. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy women underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after 4-week treatment with NB32 (n = 16) or with placebo (n = 20)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Qi Zhu, Jiashuang Huang, Xijia Xu
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome, and its causes have not been well determined. The objective of this study was to investigate the alteration of brain functional connectivity between schizophrenia and healthy control, and present a practical solution for accurately identifying schizophrenia at single-subject level. METHODS: 24 schizophrenia patients and 21 matched healthy subjects were recruited to undergo the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning...
March 13, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Stephen M Fleming, Elisabeth J van der Putten, Nathaniel D Daw
Changing one's mind on the basis of new evidence is a hallmark of cognitive flexibility. To revise our confidence in a previous decision, we should use new evidence to update beliefs about choice accuracy. How this process unfolds in the human brain, however, remains unknown. Here we manipulated whether additional sensory evidence supports or negates a previous motion direction discrimination judgment while recording markers of neural activity in the human brain using fMRI. A signature of post-decision evidence (change in log-odds correct) was selectively observed in the activity of posterior medial frontal cortex...
March 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Michelle Achterberg, Anna C K van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A Crone
Middle childhood marks an important phase for developing and maintaining social relations. At the same time, this phase is marked by a gap in our knowledge of the genetic and environmental influences on brain responses to social feedback and their relation to behavioral aggression. In a large developmental twin sample (509 7- to 9-year-olds), the heritability and neural underpinnings of behavioral aggression following social evaluation were investigated, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral, or negative feedback to the participant's profile...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Nerisa Banaj, Federica Piras, Fabrizio Piras, Valentina Ciullo, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Battaglia, Donatella Pantoli, Giuseppe Ducci, Gianfranco Spalletta
The brain structural correlates of cognitive and psychopathological symptoms within the active phase in severely psychotic schizophrenic inpatients have been rarely investigated. Twenty-eight inpatients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of Schizophrenia (SZ), admitted for acute psychotic decompensation, were assessed through a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychopathological battery. All patients underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Increased psychotic severity was related to reduced grey matter volumes in the medial portion of the right superior frontal cortex, the superior orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally and to white matter volume reduction in the medial portion of the left superior frontal area...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Sungkean Kim, Ji Sun Kim, Min Jin Jin, Chang-Hwan Im, Seung-Hwan Lee
Background: Individuals who experience childhood trauma are vulnerable to various psychological and behavioral problems throughout their lifetime. This study aimed to investigate whether individuals with childhood trauma show altered frontal lobe activity during response inhibition tasks. Methods: In total, 157 healthy individuals were recruited and instructed to perform a Go/Nogo task during electroencephalography recording. Source activities of N2 and P3 of Nogo event-related potentials (ERP) were analyzed...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Mengyang He, Changzhu Qi, Yang Lu, Amanda Song, Saba Z Hayat, Xia Xu
Extensive studies have shown that a sports expert is superior to a sports novice in visually perceptual-cognitive processes of sports scene information, however the attentional and neural basis of it has not been thoroughly explored. The present study examined whether a sport expert has the attentional superiority on scene information relevant to his/her sport skill, and explored what factor drives this superiority. To address this problem, EEGs were recorded as participants passively viewed sport scenes (tennis vs...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Akinori Nakamura, Pablo Cuesta, Alberto Fernández, Yutaka Arahata, Kaori Iwata, Izumi Kuratsubo, Masahiko Bundo, Hideyuki Hattori, Takashi Sakurai, Koji Fukuda, Yukihiko Washimi, Hidetoshi Endo, Akinori Takeda, Kersten Diers, Ricardo Bajo, Fernando Maestú, Kengo Ito, Takashi Kato
Biomarkers useful for the predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease are needed. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are expected to provide potential biomarker candidates for evaluating the predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease. However, the physiological relevance of EEG/MEG signal changes and their role in pathophysiological processes such as amyloid-β deposition and neurodegeneration need to be elucidated. We evaluated 28 individuals with mild cognitive impairment and 38 cognitively normal individuals, all of whom were further classified into amyloid-β-positive mild cognitive impairment (n = 17, mean age 74...
March 7, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Robert West, Kira Bailey, Stephen Anderson
Feedback processing represents a fundamental component of adaptive decision-making. Extensive research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) has explored the medial frontal feedback negativity (FN), P3a, and P3b components in the context of feedback processing. Additionally, recent studies examining the neural correlates of feedback processing in a gambling task revealed transient and sustained ERP activity over the lateral frontal and posterior regions of the scalp. Consistent with the neuroimaging literature, source analysis has localized this ERP activity to the lateral and medial frontal cortex, as well as the temporal-occipital and medial occipital cortices...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
R Pang, R Guo, X Wu, F Hu, M Liu, L Zhang, Z Wang, K Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many studies have shown that insomnia is an independent factor in cognitive impairment, but the involved neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. We used regional homogeneity to explore the specific neurobiologic indicators of chronic insomnia disorder with mild cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with insomnia were divided into a group with and without cognitive impairment; we also included a control group ( n = 28)...
March 1, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Anne M Farrell, Joshua O S Goh, Brian J White
Emotional and economic incentives often conflict in decision environments. To make economically desirable decisions then, deliberative neural processes must be engaged to regulate automatic emotional reactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we evaluated how fixed wage (FW) incentives and performance-based (PB) financial incentives, in which pay is proportional to outcome, differentially regulate positive and negative emotional reactions to hypothetical colleagues that conflicted with the economics of available alternatives...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Alvi H Islam, Arron W S Metcalfe, Bradley J MacIntosh, Daphne J Korczak, Benjamin I Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and is associated with greater psychiatric illness severity, including suicidality. Obesity has been associated with frontal, temporal and subcortical volumetric reductions in adults with BD. We examined the neurostructural correlates of BMI in adolescents early in their course of BD. METHODS: We processed T 1 -weighted images of adolescents with BD and psychiatrically healthy controls using FreeSurfer to derive a priori region of interest (ROI) volumes/cortical thickness for the frontal lobe (FL), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as volumes for the amygdala and hippocampus...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Haobo Zhang, Perminder S Sachdev, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Yong He, Mingrui Xia, Nicole A Kochan, John D Crawford, Julian N Trollor, Henry Brodaty, Wei Wen
In previous studies, resting-state functional connectivity (FC) metrics of specific brain regions or networks based on prior hypotheses have been correlated with cognitive performance. Without constraining our analyses to specific regions or networks, we employed whole-brain voxel-based weighted degree (WD), a measure of local FC strength, to be correlated with three commonly used neuropsychological assessments of language, executive function and memory retrieval in both positive and negative directions in 67 cognitively healthy elderly adults...
February 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
James E Glazer, Nicholas J Kelley, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Vijay A Mittal, Robin Nusslock
Most reward-related electroencephalogram (EEG) studies focus exclusively on the feedback-related negativity (FRN, also known as feedback negativity or FN, medial-frontal negativity or MFN, feedback error-related negativity or fERN, and reward positivity or RewP). This component is usually measured approximately 200-300 ms post-feedback at a single electrode in the frontal-central area (e.g., Fz or FCz). The present review argues that this singular focus on the FRN fails to leverage EEG's greatest strength, its temporal resolution, by underutilizing the rich variety of event-related potential (ERP) and EEG time-frequency components encompassing the wider temporal heterogeneity of reward processing...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Helena Gásdal Karstensen, Martin Vestergaard, William F C Baaré, Arnold Skimminge, Bjarki Djurhuus, Bjarki Ellefsen, Norbert Brüggemann, Camilla Klausen, Anne-Mette Leffers, Niels Tommerup, Hartwig R Siebner
The human sense of smell is closely associated with morphological differences of the fronto-limbic system, specifically the piriform cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Still it is unclear whether cortical volume in the core olfactory areas and connected brain regions are shaped differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI) matched with sixteen normosmic controls...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Zhe-Ting Yang, Hua-Jun Chen, Qiu-Feng Chen, Hailong Lin
Objective: Patients with cirrhosis often exhibit cognitive deficits, particularly executive dysfunction, which is considered a predictor of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). We examined brain intrinsic networks associated with executive function to investigate the neural basis of this cognitive deficiency in cirrhosis. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients and 18 healthy controls. Seed-based correlation analysis was used to identify the three well-known networks associated with executive function, including executive control (ECN), default mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Vishwa Mohan, Chelsea S Sullivan, Jiami Guo, Sarah D Wade, Samarpan Majumder, Amit Agarwal, Eva S Anton, Brenda S Temple, Patricia F Maness
Neuron-glial related cell adhesion molecule NrCAM is a newly identified negative regulator of spine density that genetically interacts with Semaphorin3F (Sema3F), and is implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To investigate a role for NrCAM in spine pruning during the critical adolescent period when networks are established, we generated novel conditional, inducible NrCAM mutant mice (Nex1Cre-ERT2: NrCAMflox/flox). We demonstrate that NrCAM functions cell autonomously during adolescence in pyramidal neurons to restrict spine density in the visual (V1) and medial frontal cortex (MFC)...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Francesco Di Gregorio, Martin E Maier, Marco Steinhauser
Errors in human behavior elicit a cascade of brain activity related to performance monitoring and error detection. Whereas the early error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) has been assumed to reflect a fast mismatch or prediction error signal in the medial frontal cortex, the later error positivity (Pe) is viewed as a correlate of conscious error processing. A still open question is whether these components represent two independent systems of error monitoring that rely on different types of information to detect an error...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Rebecca K West, Mark E Maynard, J Leigh Leasure
Excessive alcohol intake is associated with a multitude of health risks, especially for women. Recent studies in animal models indicate that the female brain is more negatively affected by alcohol, compared to the male brain. Among other regions, excessive alcohol consumption damages the frontal cortex, an area important for many functions and decision making of daily life. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in female rats is selectively vulnerable to alcohol-induced damage...
January 30, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sarah Verena Mayer, Karsten Rauss, Gilles Pourtois, Aiste Jusyte, Michael Schönenberg
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a stable, lifelong pattern of disregard for and violation of others' rights. Disruptions in the representation of fairness norms may represent a key mechanism in the development and maintenance of this disorder. Here, we investigated fairness norm considerations and reactions to their violations. To examine electrophysiological correlates, we assessed the medial frontal negativity (MFN), an event-related potential previously linked to violations of social expectancy and norms...
February 3, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"