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error-related negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225372/spherical-soft-contact-lens-designs-and-peripheral-defocus-in-myopic-eyes
#1
Kelly E Moore, Julia S Benoit, David A Berntsen
PURPOSE: Peripheral retinal defocus has been implicated in myopia progression. The effect of commercially available spherical soft contact lenses (SCLs) on peripheral defocus of adult myopic eyes was investigated. METHODS: Twenty-five young adults with spherical equivalent (SE) refractions between -0.50D and -6.00D were enrolled. Cycloplegic autorefraction (right eye) was measured centrally and ±20°, ±30°, and ±40° from the line of sight along the horizontal meridian using an autorefractor...
March 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225010/beta-phase-synchronization-in-the-frontal-temporal-cerebellar-network-during-auditory-to-motor-rhythm-learning
#2
Kouki Edagawa, Masahiro Kawasaki
Rhythm is an essential element of dancing and music. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying how rhythm is learned, we recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data during a rhythm-reproducing task that asked participants to memorize an auditory stimulus and reproduce it via tapping. Based on the behavioral results, we divided the participants into Learning and No-learning groups. EEG analysis showed that error-related negativity (ERN) in the Learning group was larger than in the No-learning group. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG data showed that the beta power in right and left temporal area at the late learning stage was smaller than at the early learning stage in the Learning group...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224345/electrophysiological-endophenotypes-and-the-error-related-negativity-ern-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-family-study
#3
Ann Clawson, Mikle South, Scott A Baldwin, Michael J Larson
We examined the error-related negativity (ERN) as an endophenotype of ASD by comparing the ERN in families of ASD probands to control families. We hypothesized that ASD probands and families would display reduced-amplitude ERN relative to controls. Participants included 148 individuals within 39 families consisting of a mother, father, sibling, and proband. Robust ANOVAs revealed non-significant differences in ERN amplitude and behavioral performance among ASD probands relative to control youth. In subsequent multiple regression analyses group and kinship (proband, sibling, mother, father) did not significantly predict ΔERN (error minus correct ERN) or behavioral performance...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222807/validation-of-the-aging-perceptions-questionnaire-short-on-a-sample-of-community-dwelling-turkish-elderly-migrants
#4
Anne Slotman, Jane M Cramm, Anna P Nieboer
BACKGROUND: Aging perceptions have been found to be major contributors to health in old age. To quantitatively explore aging perceptions among elderly Turkish migrants, valid and reliable Turkish-language instruments are needed. The objective of the current study was to examine the construct validity and reliability of the Turkish-language version of the seven-dimension Aging Perceptions Questionnaire Short version (APQ-S) in a sample of community-dwelling elderly Turkish migrants in the Netherlands...
February 21, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218803/error-monitoring-and-empathy-explorations-within-a-neurophysiological-context
#5
Azhani Amiruddin, Simone N Fueggle, An T Nguyen, Gilles E Gignac, Karen L Clunies-Ross, Allison M Fox
Past literature has proposed that empathy consists of two components: cognitive and affective empathy. Error monitoring mechanisms indexed by the error-related negativity (ERN) have been associated with empathy. Studies have found that a larger ERN is associated with higher levels of empathy. We aimed to expand upon previous work by investigating how error monitoring relates to the independent theoretical domains of cognitive and affective empathy. Study 1 (N = 24) explored the relationship between error monitoring mechanisms and subcomponents of empathy using the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy and found no relationship...
February 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215469/depression-and-implicit-emotion-processing-an-eeg-study
#6
Andrey V Bocharov, Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov
OBJECTIVES: Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses and is associated with changes in emotion processing. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of depressive symptoms on EEG oscillatory dynamics accompanying implicit processing of angry and happy facial expressions in 46 healthy subjects. METHODS: The Beck Depression Inventory was used to assess the presence of depressive symptoms in normal subjects. During the experiment, they were told to categorize the gender of angry, neutral, or happy faces presented to them, while high-resolution EEG was recorded...
February 16, 2017: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211066/how-computational-methods-and-relativistic-effects-influence-the-study-of-chemical-reactions-involving-ru-no-complexes
#7
Renato Pereira Orenha, Régis Tadeu Santiago, Roberto Luiz Andrade Haiduke, Sérgio Emanuel Galembeck
Two treatments of relativistic effects, namely effective core potentials (ECP) and all-electron scalar relativistic effects (DKH2), are used to obtain geometries and chemical reaction energies for a series of ruthenium complexes in B3LYP/def2-TZVP calculations. Specifically, the reaction energies of reduction (A-F), isomerization (G-I), and Cl(-) negative trans influence in relation to NH3 (J-L) are considered. The ECP and DKH2 approaches provided geometric parameters close to experimental data and the same ordering for energy changes of reactions A-L...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205011/neural-control-of-blood-pressure-in-women-differences-according-to-age
#8
Ana B Peinado, Ronee E Harvey, Emma C Hart, Nisha Charkoudian, Timothy B Curry, Wayne T Nicholson, B Gunnar Wallin, Michael J Joyner, Jill N Barnes
PURPOSE: The blood pressure "error signal" represents the difference between an individual's mean diastolic blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressure at which 50% of cardiac cycles are associated with a muscle sympathetic nerve activity burst (the "T50"). In this study we evaluated whether T50 and the error signal related to the extent of change in blood pressure during autonomic blockade in young and older women, to study potential differences in sympathetic neural mechanisms regulating blood pressure before and after menopause...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198758/medication-reconciliation-failures-in-children-and-young-adults-with-chronic-disease-during-intensive-and-intermediate-care
#9
Danielle D DeCourcey, Melanie Silverman, Esther Chang, Al Ozonoff, Carolyn Stickney, Darla Pichoff, Alexandra Oldershaw, Jonathan A Finkelstein
OBJECTIVES: Although medication reconciliation has become standard during hospital admission, rates of unintentional medication discrepancies during intensive care of pediatric patients with chronic disease are unknown. Such discrepancies are an important cause of adverse drug events in adults with chronic illness and are associated with unintentional discontinuation of chronic medications. We sought to determine the rate, type, timing, and predictors of potentially harmful unintentional medication discrepancies in children and young adults with chronic disease...
February 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194104/electrophysiological-correlates-of-error-monitoring-and-feedback-processing-in-second-language-learning
#10
Sybrine Bultena, Claudia Danielmeier, Harold Bekkering, Kristin Lemhöfer
Humans monitor their behavior to optimize performance, which presumably relies on stable representations of correct responses. During second language (L2) learning, however, stable representations have yet to be formed while knowledge of the first language (L1) can interfere with learning, which in some cases results in persistent errors. In order to examine how correct L2 representations are stabilized, this study examined performance monitoring in the learning process of second language learners for a feature that conflicts with their first language...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193497/i-act-therefore-i-err-eeg-correlates-of-success-and-failure-in-a-virtual-throwing-game
#11
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
What are the neural responses to success and failure in a throwing task? To answer this question, we compared Event Related Potentials (ERPs) correlated with success and failure during a highly-ecological-virtual game. Participants played a tennis-like game in an immersive 3D virtual world, against a computer player, by controlling a virtual tennis racket with a force feedback robotic arm. Results showed that success, i.e. hitting the target, and failure, by missing the target, evoked ERP's that differ by peak, latencies, scalp signal distributions, sLORETA source estimation, and time-frequency patterns...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192769/disorganization-at-the-stage-of-schizophrenia-clinical-outcome-clinical-biological-study
#12
A Nestsiarovich, V Obyedkov, H Kandratsenka, M Siniauskaya, I Goloenko, N Waszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: According to the multidimensional model of schizophrenia, three basic psychopathological dimensions constitute its clinical structure: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and disorganization. The latter one is the newest and the least studied. Our aim was to discriminate disorganization in schizophrenia clinical picture and to identify its distinctive biological and socio-psychological particularities and associated genetic and environmental factors. METHODS: We used SAPS/SANS psychometrical scales, scales for the assessment of patient's compliance, insight, social functioning, life quality...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188559/identification-of-dyslipidemic-patients-attending-primary-care-clinics-using-electronic-medical-record-emr-data-from-the-canadian-primary-care-sentinel-surveillance-network-cpcssn-database
#13
Erfan Aref-Eshghi, Justin Oake, Marshall Godwin, Kris Aubrey-Bassler, Pauline Duke, Masoud Mahdavian, Shabnam Asghari
The objective of this study was to define the optimal algorithm to identify patients with dyslipidemia using electronic medical records (EMRs). EMRs of patients attending primary care clinics in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada during 2009-2010, were studied to determine the best algorithm for identification of dyslipidemia. Six algorithms containing three components, dyslipidemia ICD coding, lipid lowering medication use, and abnormal laboratory lipid levels, were tested against a gold standard, defined as the existence of any of the three criteria...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182526/hippocampal-processing-of-ambiguity-enhances-fear-memory
#14
Ugwechi Amadi, Seh Hong Lim, Elizabeth Liu, Michael V Baratta, Ki A Goosens
Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive events, pharmacological inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or optogenetic silencing of cornu ammonis 1 cells during aversive negative prediction errors prevented this enhancement of fear without affecting fear learning for predictable events...
February 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178963/immersive-high-fidelity-simulation-of-critically-ill-patients-to-study-cognitive-errors-a-pilot-study
#15
Shivesh Prakash, Shailesh Bihari, Penelope Need, Cyle Sprick, Lambert Schuwirth
BACKGROUND: The majority of human errors in healthcare originate from cognitive errors or biases. There is dearth of evidence around relative prevalence and significance of various cognitive errors amongst doctors in their first post-graduate year. This study was conducted with the objective of using high fidelity clinical simulation as a tool to study the relative occurrence of selected cognitive errors amongst doctors in their first post-graduate year. METHODS: Intern simulation sessions on acute clinical problems, conducted in year 2014, were reviewed by two independent assessors with expertise in critical care...
February 8, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176352/learning-processes-underlying-avoidance-of-negative-outcomes
#16
Marta Andreatta, Sebastian Michelmann, Paul Pauli, Johannes Hewig
Successful avoidance of a threatening event may negatively reinforce the behavior due to activation of brain structures involved in reward processing. Here, we further investigated the learning-related properties of avoidance using feedback-related negativity (FRN). The FRN is modulated by violations of an intended outcome (prediction error, PE), that is, the bigger the difference between intended and actual outcome, the larger the FRN amplitude is. Twenty-eight participants underwent an operant conditioning paradigm, in which a behavior (button press) allowed them to avoid a painful electric shock...
February 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174135/a-system-of-recurrent-neural-networks-for-modularising-parameterising-and-dynamic-analysis-of-cell-signalling-networks
#17
S Samarasinghe, H Ling
In this paper, we show how to extend our previously proposed novel continuous time Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) approach that retains the advantage of continuous dynamics offered by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) while enabling parameter estimation through adaptation, to larger signalling networks using a modular approach. Specifically, the signalling network is decomposed into several sub-models based on important temporal events in the network. Each sub-model is represented by the proposed RNN and trained using data generated from the corresponding ODE model...
February 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164612/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-interference-of-hemoglobin-lipids-and-bilirubin-on-the-measurement-of-plasma-advanced-oxidation-protein-products
#18
Lara P Cargnin, Bruna S Hausen, Etiane Tatsch, Manuela B Sangoi, Rafael N Moresco
BACKGROUND: The pre-analytical phase is the most vulnerable and contributes to the majority of errors in laboratory assays. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro interference of hemoglobin, lipids, and bilirubin on measurement of plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). METHODS: AOPPs were measured in a sample spiked with increasing concentrations of hemoglobin, Intralipid® 20% or bilirubin. Then, the relative deviation of the result from the nonspiked baseline value was calculated...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164277/event-related-potential-measures-of-executive-functioning-from-preschool-to-adolescence
#19
REVIEW
Michelle Downes, Joe Bathelt, Michelle De Haan
Executive functions are a collection of cognitive abilities necessary for behavioural control and regulation, and are important for school success. Executive deficits are common across acquired and developmental disorders in childhood and beyond. This review aims to summarize how studies using event-related potential (ERP) can provide insight into mechanisms underpinning how executive functions develop in children from preschool to adolescence. We specifically focus on ERP components that are considered to be well-established markers of executive functioning, including the ability to resist distraction (inhibition, N200), hold scenes in mind (visuospatial working memory, contralateral delay activity), attend to specific stimuli (information processing, P300), follow rules (response monitoring, error-related negativity [ERN], and error-related positivity [Pe]), and adjust to feedback (outcome monitoring, feedback-related negativity)...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162167/-change-of-white-matter-neuronal-integrity-associated-with-spatial-navigation-impairment-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
W P Li, F F Wang, J M Lu, S C Wu, W B Wu, R Y Liu, X Zhang, M Li, H Zhao, B Zhu, Y Xu, B Zhang
Objective: To analyze the correlation between white matter integrity and spatial navigation impairment in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A total of 27 MCI subjects and 24 healthy controls were enrolled from the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from May 2015 to February 2016, who underwent 3.0 T MRI scan and 2D-computer version spatial navigation test.DTI preprocessing and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed by PANDA.Two sample t-test and partial correlation coefficients were performed to investigate the correlation of white matter impairments and spatial navigation decline...
January 17, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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