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error-related negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651172/simultaneous-determination-of-cis-permethrin-and-trans-permethrin-in-rat-plasma-and-brain-tissue-using-gas-chromatography-negative-chemical-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#1
Shirin Hooshfar, Darren R Gullick, Michael R Linzey, Tanzir Mortuza, Mona Hamdy Abdel Rahman, Clinton A Rogers, James V Bruckner, Catherine A White, Michael G Bartlett
A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of cis-permethrin (cis-PERM) and trans-permethrin (trans-PERM) in small volumes (100μL) of rat plasma and brain homogenate was developed, using a liquid-liquid extraction for sample preparation and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GCNCI-MS) for detection. Quantitation of trace levels of the insecticide in small volumes of biological samples is essential to support toxicokinetic studies in small animals. There are currently no validated methods in the literature for determining cis-PERM and trans- PERM in volumes as low as 100μL of rat plasma or brain homogenate...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634488/antiherding-in-financial-decision-increases-valuation-of-return-on-investment-an-event-related-potential-study
#2
Cuicui Wang, Jia Jin, João Paulo Vieito, Qingguo Ma
Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI) as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects' responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634459/cognitive-correlates-of-different-mentalizing-abilities-in-individuals-with-high-and-low-trait-schizotypy-findings-from-an-extreme-group-design
#3
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Simone Kotulla, Susanne Maier, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia have been studied to great extent, but studies involving samples of trait schizotypy yield ambiguous results. Executive functions like cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and agency are all prerequisites of mentalizing, and it is assumed that the impairment of these functions contributes to ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Whether these impairments influence the ToM performance of people with high trait schizotypy remains unclear. Although impaired self-agency has repeatedly been identified in people with schizotypy, its role in mentalizing is yet to be investigated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#4
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631968/improving-kindergarten-readiness-in-children-with-developmental-disabilities-changes-in-neural-correlates-of-response-monitoring
#5
Jennifer Martin McDermott, Katherine C Pears, Jacqueline Bruce, Hyoun K Kim, Leslie Roos, Karen L Yoerger, Philip A Fisher
Among children diagnosed with developmental delays, difficulties in self-regulation are prominent and have been linked to school readiness problems. The current study sought to examine the impact of the Kids in Transition to School (KITS) school readiness intervention program on self-regulation, with a specific focus on response monitoring skills, among children with developmental delays. Children (n = 20 in the KITS group and n = 21 in a services as usual group) were administered a flanker task during which event-related potential data were collected to examine group differences in response monitoring...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630655/neural-patterns-elicited-by-sentence-processing-uniquely-characterize-typical-development-sli-recovery-and-sli-persistence
#6
Eileen Haebig, Christine Weber, Laurence B Leonard, Patricia Deevy, J Bruce Tomblin
BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of work has examined language abilities in young children with specific language impairment (SLI); however, our understanding of the developmental trajectory of language impairment is limited. Along with studying the behavioral changes that occur across development, it is important to examine the neural indices of language processing for children with different language trajectories. The current study sought to examine behavioral and neural bases of language processing in adolescents showing three different trajectories: those with normal language development (NL), those exhibiting persistent SLI (SLI-Persistent), and those with a history of SLI who appear to have recovered (SLI-Recovered)...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629404/white-matter-lesions-characterise-brain-involvement-in-moderate-to-severe-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-but-cerebral-atrophy-does-not
#7
Catherine A Spilling, Paul W Jones, James W Dodd, Thomas R Barrick
BACKGROUND: Brain pathology is relatively unexplored in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study is a comprehensive investigation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes and how these relate to disease severity and cognitive function. METHODS: T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired for 31 stable COPD patients (FEV1 52.1% pred., PaO2 10.1 kPa) and 24 age, gender-matched controls. T1-weighted images were segmented into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tissue classes using a semi-automated procedure optimised for use with this cohort...
June 19, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628797/attenuated-error-related-potentials-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-executive-dysfunctions
#8
Caroline Seer, Max Joop, Florian Lange, Christian Lange, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Bruno Kopp
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunctions affect up to 50% of the patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Executive dysfunctions have been identified as negative prognostic factor and can affect quality of life in patients and their caregivers. Assessment of executive dysfunction may be impeded by the patients' motor impairments. Event-related potentials (ERP) have been proposed as a tool to overcome these assessment difficulties. The error(-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) is an ERP which can be recorded with minimal motor requirements for the patient...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624680/the-timing-of-spontaneous-detection-and-repair-of-naming-errors-in-aphasia
#9
Julia Schuchard, Erica L Middleton, Myrna F Schwartz
This study examined the timing of spontaneous self-monitoring in the naming responses of people with aphasia. Twelve people with aphasia completed a 615-item naming test twice, in separate sessions. Naming attempts were scored for accuracy and error type, and verbalizations indicating detection were coded as negation (e.g., "no, not that") or repair attempts (i.e., a changed naming attempt). Focusing on phonological and semantic errors, we measured the timing of the errors and of the utterances that provided evidence of detection...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621460/older-adults-display-diminished-error-processing-and-response-in-a-continuous-tracking-task
#10
Francisco L Colino, Harvey Howse, Angela Norton, Robert Trska, Anthony Pluta, Stephen J C Luehr, Todd C Handy, Olave E Krigolson
Advancing age is often accompanied by a decline in motor control that results in a decreased ability to successfully perform motor tasks. While there are multiple factors that contribute to age-related deficits in motor control, one unexplored possibility is that age-related deficits in our ability to evaluate motor output result in an increase in motor errors. In line with this, previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that motor errors evoked an error-related negativity (ERN)-a component of the human ERP associated with error evaluation originating within the human medial-frontal cortex...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621433/stability-and-reliability-of-error-related-electromyography-over-the-corrugator-supercilii-with-increasing-trials
#11
Nathaniel Elkins-Brown, Blair Saunders, Frank He, Michael Inzlicht
Electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (cEMG), the primary facial muscle involved in negative emotions, is increased during the commission of errors on speeded reaction-time tasks. In the present paper, data from two previously published studies were reanalyzed to investigate the reliability and stability of error-related, correct-related, and difference cEMG across increasing numbers of trials. For a modified go/no-go and a flanker task, we found that error-related cEMG was highly stable and reliable in 14 trials, and correct-related cEMG between 56 and 82 trials, respectively...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618354/canadian-drivers-attitudes-regarding-preventative-responses-to-driving-while-impaired-by-alcohol
#12
Ward Vanlaar, Louise Nadeau, Anna McKiernan, Marisela M Hing, Marie Claude Ouimet, Thomas G Brown
BACKGROUND: In many jurisdictions, a risk assessment following a first driving while impaired (DWI) offence is used to guide administrative decision making regarding driver relicensing. Decision error in this process has important consequences for public security on one hand, and the social and economic well being of drivers on the other. Decision theory posits that consideration of the costs and benefits of decision error is needed, and in the public health context, this should include community attitudes...
June 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616716/retinal-microstructures-are-altered-in-patients-with-idiopathic-infantile-nystagmus
#13
Jinu Han, Taekjune Lee, Jong Bok Lee, Sueng-Han Han
PURPOSE: To compare segmented retinal layer thicknesses between patients with idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) and controls. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study included 66 patients with IIN and 66 age-matched controls. The retinal layers were examined using spectral domain optical coherence tomography with autosegmentation. Central foveal thickness (CFT), outer nuclear layer (ONL), and outer segment length (OSL) thickness were measured at the fovea center...
June 14, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606471/impact-of-anxiety-symptoms-and-problematic-alcohol-use-on-error-related-brain-activity
#14
Stephanie M Gorka, K Luan Phan
Anxiety disorders are associated with enhanced defensive reactivity to errors, measured via the error-related negativity (ERN). There is some evidence to suggest that problematic alcohol use is also associated with an enhanced ERN; although prior studies have been almost exclusively in men and have yet to examine the potential interactive effects of anxiety and alcohol abuse symptoms. The aim of the current study was to address the gaps in this literature by examining the unique and interactive effects of anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use on the ERN in a sample of 79 heterogeneous internalizing disorder patients...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604327/effects-of-exogenous-human-insulin-dose-adjustment-on-body-mass-index-in-adult-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-at-kalafong-hospital-pretoria-south-africa-2009-2014
#15
Tohlang Solomon A Sehloho, Danie G Van Zyl
BACKGROUND: To maintain fasting blood glucose levels within near to the normal range in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), frequent insulin dose adjustments may be required with short-, intermediate- and long-acting insulin formulations. Patients on human insulin generally experience weight gain over time, regardless of the level of glycaemic control achieved. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of human insulin, adjusted quarterly to achieve glycaemic control, on body mass index (BMI), and establish dose regimens that achieve optimal glycaemic control without increasing BMI in patients with type 1 DM at the Kalafong Diabetes Clinic in Pretoria, South Africa...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601965/event-related-potentials-reflect-impaired-temporal-interval-learning-following-haloperidol-administration
#16
Sarah E Forster, Patrick Zirnheld, Anantha Shekhar, Stuart R Steinhauer, Brian F O'Donnell, William P Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Signals carried by the mesencephalic dopamine system and conveyed to anterior cingulate cortex are critically implicated in probabilistic reward learning and performance monitoring. A common evaluative mechanism purportedly subserves both functions, giving rise to homologous medial frontal negativities in feedback- and response-locked event-related brain potentials (the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the error-related negativity (ERN), respectively), reflecting dopamine-dependent prediction error signals to unexpectedly negative events...
June 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595729/diagnostic-value-of-a-simplified-pfeiffer-questionnaire-for-polypathological-patients
#17
M Bernabeu-Wittel, D Nieto Martín, L Moreno-Gaviño, M Ollero-Baturone
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the correlation, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values of each question on the Pfeiffer questionnaire (SPMSQ) compared with the full questionnaire for polypathological patients (PPPs). METHODS: Multicentre cross-sectional study. An SPMSQ score is considered pathological if 3 or more errors are recorded. For each question and combination of 2 questions, we calculated the correlation (kappa index), sensitivity, specificity and predictive values compared with the full SPMSQ...
June 5, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595574/limitations-of-pulmonary-embolism-icd-10-codes-in-emergency-department-administrative-data-let-the-buyer-beware
#18
Kristin Burles, Grant Innes, Kevin Senior, Eddy Lang, Andrew McRae
BACKGROUND: Administrative data is a useful tool for research and quality improvement; however, validity of research findings based on these data depends on their reliability. Diagnoses assigned by physicians are subsequently converted by nosologists to ICD-10 codes (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision). Several groups have reported ICD-9 coding errors in inpatient data that have implications for research, quality improvement, and policymaking, but few have assessed ICD-10 code validity in ambulatory care databases...
June 8, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588535/understanding-why-children-commit-scale-errors-scale-error-and-its-relation-to-action-planning-and-inhibitory-control-and-the-concept-of-size
#19
Mikako Ishibashi, Yusuke Moriguchi
Scale error is a phenomenon where young children attempt to perform inappropriate actions on miniature object without considering the actual size of the object. The present study examined two hypotheses on what factors contribute to the occurrence of scale errors, focusing on the following possible factors: action planning and inhibitory control, and concept of size. Thus, we hypothesize that scale errors derived from either immaturity of their action planning and inhibitory control abilities or understanding of size concepts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584707/rituals-decrease-the-neural-response-to-performance-failure
#20
Nicholas M Hobson, Devin Bonk, Michael Inzlicht
Rituals are found in all types of performance domains, from high-stakes athletics and military to the daily morning preparations of the working family. Yet despite their ubiquity and widespread importance for humans, we know very little of ritual's causal basis and how (if at all) they facilitate goal-directed performance. Here, in a fully pre-registered pre/post experimental design, we examine a candidate proximal mechanism, the error-related negativity (ERN), in testing the prediction that ritual modulates neural performance-monitoring...
2017: PeerJ
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