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error-related negativity

Valerio Avitabile, Andrea Camia
Maps of aboveground forest biomass based on different input data and modelling approaches have been recently produced for Europe, opening up the possibility for several applications and products not obtainable by summary statistics. However, the accuracy assessment of the existing maps is limited by the lack of reference data consistent over the study region and representative of the maps cells. Here, we used harmonized forest biomass data for 26 European countries derived by National Forest Inventories using a common biomass definition and estimator to assess four biomass maps...
February 1, 2018: Forest Ecology and Management
Lucy D Vanes, Elias Mouchlianitis, Tracy Collier, Bruno B Averbeck, Sukhi S Shergill
BACKGROUND: The significant proportion of schizophrenia patients refractory to treatment, primarily directed at the dopamine system, suggests that multiple mechanisms may underlie psychotic symptoms. Reinforcement learning tasks have been employed in schizophrenia to assess dopaminergic functioning and reward processing, but these have not directly compared groups of treatment-refractory and non-refractory patients. METHODS: In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), 21 patients with non-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (NTR), and 24 healthy controls (HC) performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task, utilizing emotionally valenced face stimuli which elicit a social bias toward happy faces...
February 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Philipp Schommers, Daniel Gillor, Marcus Hentrich, Christoph Wyen, Timo Wolf, Mark Oette, Alexander Zoufaly, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Johannes R Bogner, Marcus Müller, Stefan Esser, Alisa Schleicher, Bjöern Jensen, Albrecht Stoehr, Georg Behrens, Alexander Schultze, Jan Siehl, Jan Thoden, Ninon Taylor, Christian Hoffmann
Outcome of HIV-infected patients with AIDS-related lymphomas has improved during recent years. However, data on incidence, risk factors, and outcome of relapses in AIDS-related lymphomas after achieving complete remission are still limited. This prospective observational multicenter study includes HIV-infected patients with biopsy- or cytology proven malignant lymphomas since 2005. Data on HIV infection and lymphoma characteristics, treatment and outcome were recorded. For this analysis, AIDS-related lymphomas patients in complete remission were analyzed in terms of their relapse-free survival and potential risk factors for relapses...
February 8, 2018: Haematologica
Miaomiao Han, Zhirong Guo, Haifeng Liu, Qinghua Li
Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) is a method used for the nondestructive assay of radioactive wastes. In TGS, the actual irregular edge voxels are regarded as regular cubic voxels in the traditional treatment method. In this study, in order to improve the performance of TGS, a novel edge treatment method is proposed that considers the actual shapes of these voxels. The two different edge voxel treatment methods were compared by computing the pixel-level relative errors and normalized mean square errors (NMSEs) between the reconstructed transmission images and the ideal images...
February 6, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Qiuling Wang, Qijin He, Guangsheng Zhou
In the context of climate warming, the varying soil moisture caused by precipitation pattern change will affect the applicability of stomatal conductance models, thereby affecting the simulation accuracy of carbon-nitrogen-water cycles in ecosystems. We studied the applicability of four common stomatal conductance models including Jarvis, Ball-Woodrow-Berry (BWB), Ball-Berry-Leuning (BBL) and unified stomatal optimization (USO) models based on summer maize leaf gas exchange data from a soil moisture consecutive decrease manipulation experiment...
February 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Saurab Sharma, Pascal Thibault, J Haxby Abbott, Mark P Jensen
Background: Pain catastrophizing is an exaggerated negative cognitive response related to pain. It is commonly assessed using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Translation and validation of the scale in a new language would facilitate cross-cultural comparisons of the role that pain catastrophizing plays in patient function. Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the PCS into Nepali (Nepali version of PCS [PCS-NP]) and evaluate its clinimetric properties...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Mengye Lyu, Markus Barth, Victor B Xie, Yilong Liu, Xin Ma, Yanqiu Feng, Ed X Wu
PURPOSE: To improve simultaneous multislice (SMS) EPI by robust Nyquist ghost correction in both coil sensitivity calibration and SMS reconstruction. METHODS: To derive coil sensitivity and slice-dependent phase difference map between positive- and negative-echo images, single-band EPI reference data are fully sampled with EPI parameters matched to SMS acquisition. First, the reference data are organized into positive- and negative-echo virtual channels where missing data are estimated using low-rank-based simultaneous autocalibrating and k-space estimation (SAKE) at small matrix size...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad, Tahereh Rahimi, Tahmineh Farajkhoda, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Siamak Mohebi
Background: Despite the important role of feelings in health care seeking behavior (HCSB), this subject has not yet been adequately investigated. HCSB-related feelings begin with the onset of disease symptoms and persist in different forms after treatment. The aim of current study was to explore the feelings that women of reproductive age experience when they seek health care. Methods: In this deductive, qualitative content analysis, participants were selected by purposeful sampling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 17 women of reproductive age and 5 health care staffs in Qom, Iran were carried out until data saturation was achieved...
2018: Health Promotion Perspectives
Saul N Weingart, Coral L Atoria, David Pfister, David Classen, Aileen Killen, Elizabeth Fortier, Andrew S Epstein, Christopher Anderson, Allison Lipitz-Snyderman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with medical errors and iatrogenic injuries during an initial course of cancer-directed treatment. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study of 400 patients 18 years or older undergoing an initial course of treatment for breast, colorectal, or lung cancer at a comprehensive cancer center, we abstracted patient, disease, and treatment-related variables from the electronic medical record. We examined adverse events (AEs) and preventable AEs by risk factor using the χ or Fisher exact tests...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Daniela Becker, Johannes Grapendorf, Hannah Greving, Kai Sassenberg
BACKGROUND: Many people use the Internet for health-related information search, which is known to help regulate their emotional state. However, not much is known yet about how Web-based information search together with negative emotional states (ie, threat of cancer diagnosis) relate to preventive medical treatment decisions (ie, colonoscopy intentions). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how frequency of health-related Internet use together with perceived threat of a possible (bowel) cancer diagnosis influences intentions to get a colonoscopy...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
John R Nofsinger, Fernando M Patterson, Corey A Shank
We examine the relation between testosterone, cortisol, and financial decisions in a sample of naïve investors. We find that testosterone level is positively related to excess risk-taking, whereas cortisol level is negatively related to excess risk-taking (correlation coefficient [r]: 0.75 and -0.21, respectively). Additionally, we find support for the dual-hormone hypothesis in a financial context. Specifically, the testosterone-to-cortisol ratio is significantly related to loss aversion. Individuals with a higher ratio are 3...
January 27, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Ariana E Anderson, Steven P Reise, Stephen R Marder, Maxwell Mansolf, Carol Han, Robert M Bilder
Objective: Total scale scores derived by summing ratings from the 30-item PANSS are commonly used in clinical trial research to measure overall symptom severity, and percentage reductions in the total scores are sometimes used to document the efficacy of treatment. Acknowledging that some patients may have substantial changes in PANSS total scores but still be sufficiently symptomatic to warrant diagnosis, ratings on a subset of 8 items, referred to here as the "Remission set," are sometimes used to determine if patients' symptoms no longer satisfy diagnostic criteria...
December 1, 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Francesco Di Gregorio, Martin E Maier, Marco Steinhauser
Errors in human behavior elicit a cascade of brain activity related to performance monitoring and error detection. Whereas the early error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) has been assumed to reflect a fast mismatch or prediction error signal in the medial frontal cortex, the later error positivity (Pe) is viewed as a correlate of conscious error processing. A still open question is whether these components represent two independent systems of error monitoring that rely on different types of information to detect an error...
January 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Jemma Bray, Neil Brewer, Kate Cameron, Reginald D V Nixon
How well children remember negative events is not fully understood. Previous research has failed to simultaneously test memory and perceptions of memory for both negative and positive events. Children (n = 38, 7-17 years) recruited from a hospital following accidental injury were tested for their memory of an injury-producing accident (negative event) and a positive event (unexpectedly receiving a $50 gift voucher). Objective accuracy of memory, memory quality characteristics (e.g., how coherently the event was recalled), children's judgments of their memory (meta-cognitive), and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms were assessed 2 months post-injury...
January 2018: Behavior Therapy
S Dell-Kuster, R A Droeser, J Schäfer, V Gloy, H Ewald, S Schandelmaier, L G Hemkens, H C Bucher, J Young, R Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Multiple surgical procedures in a single patient are relatively common and lead to dependent (clustered) data. This dependency needs to be accounted for in study design and data analysis. A systematic review was performed to assess how clustered data were handled in inguinal hernia trials. The impact of ignoring clustered data was estimated using simulations. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were reviewed systematically for RCTs published between 2004 and 2013, including patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral inguinal hernia repair...
February 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Rebecca J Houston, Nicolas J Schlienz
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are one of the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and represent a significant public health concern. Substantial research has identified key processes related to reinforcement and cognition for the development and maintenance of SUDs, and these processes represent viable treatment targets for psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. Research on SUD treatments has suggested that most approaches are comparable in effectiveness. As a result, recent work has focused on delineating the underlying mechanisms of behavior change that drive SUD treatment outcome...
January 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Satoshi Kainuma, Toshihiro Funatsu, Haruhiko Kondoh, Takenori Yokota, Shusaku Maeda, Yasuhiro Shudo, Hajime Matsue, Masami Nishino, Takashi Daimon, Koichi Toda, Yoshiki Sawa, Kazuhiro Taniguchi
OBJECTIVES: The effects of restrictive mitral annuloplasty (RMA) on subvalvular geometry remains unknown. We evaluated changes in left ventricular (LV) function, severity of mitral regurgitation (MR), and leaflet tethering parameters after RMA and clarified their associations. METHODS: In 44 patients with clinically relevant functional MR who underwent RMA, distances between papillary muscle (PM) tips and anterior mitral annulus (PM tethering distance), leaflet angles relative to lines connecting annuli, and interpapillary muscle distance (IPMD) were serially quantified...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Yaping Huang, Haijun Yang, Xuemei Qi, Reza Malekian, Olivia Pfeiffer, Zhixiong Li
The selection of seismic attributes is a key process in reservoir prediction because the prediction accuracy relies on the reliability and credibility of the seismic attributes. However, effective selection method for useful seismic attributes is still a challenge. This paper presents a novel selection method of seismic attributes for reservoir prediction based on the gray relational degree (GRD) and support vector machine (SVM). The proposed method has a two-hierarchical structure. In the first hierarchy, the primary selection of seismic attributes is achieved by calculating the GRD between seismic attributes and reservoir parameters, and the GRD between the seismic attributes...
2018: PloS One
Sabine Keller, Kelly Stelmaszczyk, Stéphane Kolly, Yves de Roten, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Franz Caspar, Martin Drapeau, Ueli Kramer
Biased thinking is a common feature of patients presenting with borderline personality disorder (BPD). For the treatment of BPD, it was shown that the individualizing of the treatment, by using the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (MOTR), had a beneficial short-term effect on process and outcome. So far, it remains unclear what the role of early change in biased thinking is in these treatments. The present study aims to assess whether there is a link between the MOTR, change in biased thinking, and outcome...
January 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
M Simó, A Gurtubay-Antolin, L Vaquero, J Bruna, A Rodríguez-Fornells
No previous event-related potentials (ERPs) study has explored the error-related negativity (ERN) - an ERP component indexing performance monitoring - associated to cancer and chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment in a lung cancer population. The aim of this study was to examine differences in performance monitoring in a small-cell lung cancer group (SCLC, C +) 1-month following chemotherapy and two control groups: a non-small cell lung cancer patient group (NSCLC, C -) prior to chemotherapy and a healthy control group (HC)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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