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error-related negativity

Alice Mado Proverbio, Eleonora Bellini
Literature has shown that playing a musical instrument is associated with the formation of multimodal audio visuomotor representations that are strongly instrument-specific. Here, we investigated the effect of increased motor practice on perceptual sensitivity in 32 professional musicians of comparable expertise but with different amounts of instrumental practice with piano (10,000 vs. 3,000 estimated hours). Stimuli consisted of images of pianists' hands and piano arpeggio sounds. In half of the cases, the piano fingering and piano sounds were congruent, while they were incongruent in the other cases...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
Tyson V Barker, Sonya V Troller-Renfree, Lindsay C Bowman, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased social motivation and a heightened concern of peer evaluation. However, little research has examined social influences on neural functioning in adolescence. One psychophysiological measure of motivation, the error-related negativity (ERN), is an ERP following an error. In adults, the ERN is enhanced by contextual factors that influence motivation, such as social observation and evaluation. The current study examined relations among age and neural responses in social contexts in adolescence...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
Yongju Yu, Chenggang Jiang, Haiyan Xu, Qian Yang, Jiawen Li, Yuanyuan Xu, Wenjun Xiang, Li Peng, Botao Liu, Fang Lv, Min Li
Background: It has been observed that trait anxiety easily leads to conflict maladaptation under conflict circumstances. However, it remains unclear whether the precise neural mechanisms underlying the effects of high trait anxiety (HTA) on cognitive control are consistent in high trait anxious individuals, with and without anxiety disorders. Methods: The present study recruited 29 healthy volunteers with low trait anxiety (LTA), 37 healthy volunteers with HTA, and 23 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Changquan Long, Qian Sun, Shiwei Jia, Peng Li, Antao Chen
People are strongly motivated to pursue social equality during social interactions. Previous studies have shown that outcome equality influences the neural activities of monetary feedback processing in socioeconomic games; however, it remains unclear whether perception of opportunity equality affects outcome evaluation even when outcomes are maintained equal. The current study investigated the electrophysiological activities of outcome evaluation in different instructed opportunity equality conditions with event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Robert Steinhauser, Marco Steinhauser
Task preparation in dual-tasking is more complex than preparation for single tasks and involves additional factors such as task prioritization. Utilizing event-related potentials, we sought to disentangle preparatory processes involving preparation on the subtask level and the superordinate dual-task level. Participants worked on a psychological refractory period paradigm in which two temporally overlapping tasks have to be completed in a specified order. Whereas dual-task-related preparation was measured by comparing task-order switches and repetitions, subtask preparation was isolated through error precursors for the individual subtasks...
April 19, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Rachel Buxton, Megan F McKenna, Mary Clapp, Erik Meyer, Erik Stabenau, Lisa M Angeloni, Kevin Crooks, George Wittemyer
Passive acoustic monitoring has the potential to be a powerful approach for assessing biodiversity across large spatial and temporal scales. However, extracting meaningful information from recordings can be prohibitively time consuming. Acoustic indices offer a relatively rapid method for processing acoustic data and are increasingly used to characterize biological communities. We examine the ability of acoustic indices to predict the diversity and abundance of biological sounds within recordings. First we reviewed the acoustic index literature and found that over 60 indices have been applied to a range of objectives with varying success...
April 20, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Paul Conroy, Christina Sotiropoulou Drosopoulou, Gina F Humphreys, Ajay D Halai, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
One-third of stroke survivors experience deficits in word retrieval as a core characteristic of their aphasia, which is frustrating, socially limiting and disabling for their professional and everyday lives. The, as yet, undiscovered 'holy grail' of clinical practice is to establish a treatment that not only improves item naming, but also generalizes to patients' connected speech. Speech production in healthy participants is a remarkable feat of cognitive processing being both rapid (at least 120 words per minute) and accurate (∼one error per 1000 words)...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Alma Veenstra, Kyriakos Antoniou, Napoleon Katsos, Mikhail Kissine
We propose that attraction errors in agreement production (e.g., the key to the cabinets are missing) are related to two components of executive control: working memory and inhibitory control. We tested 138 children aged 10 to 12, an age when children are expected to produce high rates of errors. To increase the potential of individual variation in executive control skills, participants came from monolingual, bilingual, and bidialectal language backgrounds. Attraction errors were elicited with a picture description task in Dutch and executive control was measured with a digit span task, Corsi blocks task, switching task, and attentional networks task...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The impact of uncertain threat on affective bias: Individual differences in response to ambiguity" by Maital Neta, Julie Cantelon, Zachary Haga, Caroline R. Mahoney, Holly A. Taylor and F. Caroline Davis ( Emotion , 2017[Dec], Vol 17[8], 1137-1143). In this article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed under the Creative Commons CC-BY license due to production-related error. The correct copyright should be "In the public domain." The online version of this article has been corrected...
April 2018: Emotion
Bartłomiej Niespodziński, Andrzej Kochanowicz, Jan Mieszkowski, Elżbieta Piskorska, Małgorzata Żychowska
The aims of this study were (1) to assess the relationship between joint position (JPS) and force sense (FS) and muscle strength (MS) and (2) to evaluate the impact of long-term gymnastic training on particular proprioception aspects and their correlations. 17 elite adult gymnasts and 24 untrained, matched controls performed an active reproduction (AR) and passive reproduction (PR) task and a force reproduction (FR) task at the elbow joint. Intergroup differences and the relationship between JPS, FS, and MS were evaluated...
2018: BioMed Research International
Maja Brydevall, Daniel Bennett, Carsten Murawski, Stefan Bode
In a dynamic world, accurate beliefs about the environment are vital for survival, and individuals should therefore regularly seek out new information with which to update their beliefs. This aspect of behaviour is not well captured by standard theories of decision making, and the neural mechanisms of information seeking remain unclear. One recent theory posits that valuation of information results from representation of informative stimuli within canonical neural reward-processing circuits, even if that information lacks instrumental use...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexandria Meyer, Brady Nelson, Greg Perlman, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov
OBJECTIVE: An increased neural response to making mistakes has emerged as a potential biomarker of anxiety across development. The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential elicited when people make mistakes on simple laboratory-based reaction time tasks that has been associated with risk for anxiety. This study examined whether the ERN prospectively predicted the first onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) over 1.5 years in adolescent girls. METHODS: The sample included 457 girls between the ages of 13...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology" by Guy Kahane, Jim A. C. Everett, Brian D. Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S. Faber, Molly J. Crockett and Julian Savulescu ( Psychological Review , Advanced Online Publication, Dec 21, 2017, np). The copyright attribution was incorrectly listed, and the Creative Commons CC-BY license disclaimer was incorrectly omitted from the author note. The correct copyright is "© 2017 The Author(s)" and the omitted disclaimer is presented in the erratum...
March 2018: Psychological Review
Haiyang Zhang, Chunhua Yin, Yang Jiang, David van der Spoel
Thermodynamic and kinetic properties are of critical importance for the applicability of computational models to biomolecules such as proteins. Here we present an extensive evaluation of the Amber ff99SB-ILDN force field for modeling hydration and diffusion of amino acids with three-site (SPC, SPC/E, SPC/Eb, and TIP3P), four-site (TIP4P, TIP4P-Ew, and TIP4P/2005), and five-site (TIP5P and TIP5P-Ew) water models. Hydration free energies (HFEs) of neutral amino acid side chain analogues have little dependence on the water models with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of ~1 kcal/mol from experimental observations...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Bifeng Hu, Ruiying Zhao, Songchao Chen, Yue Zhou, Bin Jin, Yan Li, Zhou Shi
Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were collected at 1040 sampling sites in a coastal industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The single pollution index (PI) and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI) were calculated for every surface sample (0-20 cm) to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Katharina Kircanski, Lauren K White, Wan-Ling Tseng, Jillian Lee Wiggins, Heather R Frank, Stefanie Sequeira, Susan Zhang, Rany Abend, Kenneth E Towbin, Argyris Stringaris, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A Brotman
Importance: Comorbidity is ubiquitous in psychiatry, but it is unclear how to differentiate neural mechanisms of co-occurring symptoms. Pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Threat orienting is pertinent to both phenotypes and is an ideal context in which to examine their unique and common neural mechanisms. Objectives: To decompose the unique and shared variances of pediatric irritability and anxiety symptoms and to determine neural correlates of these differentiated phenotypes during threat orienting...
April 6, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Rebecca J Brooker
The development self-regulation has been called a primary task of childhood. One system of self-regulation, self-monitoring, is indexed at the level of neural activity as early as preschool as the error-related negativity (ERN). However, how context elicits developmental changes in neural processes of self-monitoring like the ERN is not well understood. Here, socioeconomic status (SES) and parenting were tested as environmental influences on ERN development between ages 3 and 4 (N = 119). Results showed the expected increases in ERN between ages 3 and 4 only when both maternal sensitivity and SES were high...
April 3, 2018: Child Development
Silvia Deandrea, Enrica Tidone, Aldo Bellini, Luigi Bisanti, Nico Gerardo Leonardo, Anna Rita Silvestri, Dario Consonni
Background: A multidisciplinary working group applied the Healthcare Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (HFMEA) approach to the flow of kits and specimens for the first-level test of a colorectal cancer screening programme using immunochemical faecal occult blood tests. Methods: HFMEA comprised four steps: (1) identification and mapping of the process steps (subprocesses); (2) analysis of failure modes and calculation of the risk priority numbers (RPNs); (3) identification of corrective actions; and (4) follow-up and evaluation of corrective actions...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Kathryn L O'Connor, C Dain Allred, Kenneth L Cameron, Darren E Campbell, Christopher J D'Lauro, Megan N Houston, Brian R Johnson, Tim F Kelly, Gerald McGinty, Patrick G O'Donnell, Karen Y Peck, Steven J Svoboda, Paul Pasquina, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, Steven P Broglio
Introduction: The prevalence and possible long-term consequences of concussion remain an increasing concern to the U.S. military, particularly as it pertains to maintaining a medically ready force. Baseline testing is being used both in the civilian and military domains to assess concussion injury and recovery. Accurate interpretation of these baseline assessments requires one to consider other influencing factors not related to concussion. To date, there is limited understanding, especially within the military, of what factors influence normative test performance...
March 28, 2018: Military Medicine
Gregory S Berlin, Han-Joo Lee
Response inhibition (RI) has been putatively linked to the symptoms of OCD. Despite the enticing link between RI and OCD, there are points in the relationship that require clarification. We examined the RI-OCD relationship taking into account a) the potentially differential pattern of RI-OCD relationship between obsessions and compulsions, and b) the potentially confounding effect of negative affect, particularly in regards to depression. Additionally, we investigated how error-monitoring processes in the inhibitory context account for OCD symptoms...
January 2018: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
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