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error-related negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334960/neural-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-in-unmedicated-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#1
Marcus Rothkirch, Jonas Tonn, Stephan Köhler, Philipp Sterzer
According to current concepts, major depressive disorder is strongly related to dysfunctional neural processing of motivational information, entailing impairments in reinforcement learning. While computational modelling can reveal the precise nature of neural learning signals, it has not been used to study learning-related neural dysfunctions in unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder so far. We thus aimed at comparing the neural coding of reward and punishment prediction errors, representing indicators of neural learning-related processes, between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334345/effects-of-age-and-gender-on-recall-and-recognition-discriminability
#2
Lisa V Graves, Charles C Moreno, Michelle Seewald, Heather M Holden, Emily J Van Etten, Vedang Uttarwar, Carrie R McDonald, Lisa Delano-Wood, Mark W Bondi, Steven Paul Woods, Dean C Delis, Paul E Gilbert
Objective: Recall and recognition memory abilities are known to decline with increasing age, yet much of the evidence stems from studies that used simple measures of total target recall or recognition. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) includes a new measure of recall discriminability that is analogous to recognition discriminability. These discriminability measures yield more thorough assessments of recall and recognition by accounting for intrusion and false positive errors, respectively...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320691/microsoft-kinect-based-continuous-performance-test-an-objective-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-assessment
#4
David Delgado-Gomez, Inmaculada Peñuelas-Calvo, Antonio Eduardo Masó-Besga, Silvia Vallejo-Oñate, Itziar Baltasar Tello, Elsa Arrua Duarte, María Constanza Vera Varela, Juan Carballo, Enrique Baca-García
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in mental medical care is finding out new instruments for an accurate and objective evaluation of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early ADHD identification, severity assessment, and prompt treatment are essential to avoid the negative effects associated with this mental condition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to develop a novel ADHD assessment instrument based on Microsoft Kinect, which identifies ADHD cardinal symptoms in order to provide a more accurate evaluation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319132/measuring-subglacial-bedform-orientation-length-and-longitudinal-asymmetry-method-assessment
#5
Marco G Jorge, Tracy A Brennand
Geospatial analysis software provides a range of tools that can be used to measure landform morphometry. Often, a metric can be computed with different techniques that may give different results. This study is an assessment of 5 different methods for measuring longitudinal, or streamlined, subglacial bedform morphometry: orientation, length and longitudinal asymmetry, all of which require defining a longitudinal axis. The methods use the standard deviational ellipse (not previously applied in this context), the longest straight line fitting inside the bedform footprint (2 approaches), the minimum-size footprint-bounding rectangle, and Euler's approximation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302922/covariation-of-peptide-abundances-accurately-reflects-protein-concentration-differences
#6
Bo Zhang, Mohammad Pirmoradian, Roman Zubarev, Lukas Käll
Most implementations of mass spectrometry-based proteomics involve enzymatic digestion of proteins, expanding the analysis to multiple proteolytic peptides for each protein. Currently, there is no consensus of how to summarize peptides' abundances to protein concentrations, and such efforts are complicated by the fact that error control is normally applied to the identification process, and do not directly control errors linking peptide abundance measures to protein concentration. Peptides resulting from suboptimal digestion or being partially modified are not representative of the protein concentration...
March 16, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295409/working-memory-capacity-and-task-goals-modulate-error-related-erps
#7
James R Coleman, Jason M Watson, David L Strayer
The present study investigated individual differences in information processing following errant behavior. Participants were initially classified as high or as low working memory capacity using the Operation Span Task. In a subsequent session, they then performed a high congruency version of the flanker task under both speed and accuracy stress. We recorded ERPs and behavioral measures of accuracy and response time in the flanker task with a primary focus on processing following an error. The error-related negativity was larger for the high working memory capacity group than for the low working memory capacity group...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285744/dynamic-time-warping-compared-to-established-methods-for-validation-of-musculoskeletal-models
#8
Martin Gaspar, Bastian Welke, Frank Seehaus, Christof Hurschler, Michael Schwarze
By means of Multi-Body musculoskeletal simulation, important variables such as internal joint forces and moments can be estimated which cannot be measured directly. Validation can ensued by qualitative or by quantitative methods. Especially when comparing time-dependent signals, many methods do not perform well and validation is often limited to qualitative approaches. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capabilities of the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm for comparing time series, which can quantify phase as well as amplitude errors...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285495/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-c-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Maria Kalafateli, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus that has the potential to cause inflammation of the liver. The traditional definition of acute HCV infection is the first six months following infection with the virus. Another commonly used definition of acute HCV infection is the absence of HCV antibody and subsequent seroconversion (presence of HCV antibody in a person who was previously negative for HCV antibody). Approximately 40% to 95% of people with acute HCV infection develop chronic HCV infection, that is, have persistent HCV RNA in their blood...
March 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285038/peri-implant-distribution-of-polyethylene-debris-in-postmortem-retrieved-knee-arthroplasties-can-polyethylene-debris-explain-loss-of-cement-bone-interlock-in-successful-total-knee-arthroplasties
#10
Karen I Cyndari, Jacklyn R Goodheart, Mark A Miller, Megan E Oest, Timothy A Damron, Kenneth A Mann
BACKGROUND: Loss of mechanical interlock between cement and bone with in vivo service has been recently quantified for functioning, nonrevised, cemented total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The cause of interlocking trabecular resorption is not known. The goal of this study is to quantify the distribution of PE debris at the cement-bone interface and determine if polyethylene (PE) debris is locally associated with loss of interlock. METHODS: Fresh, nonrevised, postmortem-retrieved TKAs (n = 8) were obtained en bloc...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284803/error-detection-across-the-adult-lifespan-electrophysiological-evidence-for-age-related-deficits
#11
Eva Niessen, Gereon R Fink, Heide E M Hoffmann, Peter H Weiss, Jutta Stahl
With increasing age, cognitive control processes steadily decline. Prior research suggests that healthy older adults have a generally intact performance monitoring system, but show specific deficits in error awareness, i.e., the ability to detect committed errors. We examined the neural processing of errors across the adult lifespan (69 participants; age range 20-72 years) by analysing the error (-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) and the error positivity (Pe) using an adapted version of the Go/Nogo task. At a stable overall error rate, higher age was associated with a greater proportion of undetected errors...
March 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280883/inhibitory-control-and-response-monitoring-are-not-systematically-related-to-weekly-alcohol-consumption-in-the-general-population
#12
Ragnhild Bø, Nils Inge Landrø
BACKGROUND: In alcohol use disorder, deficits in cognitive control (i.e., inhibition and response monitoring) might underlie the loss of self-control and, thereby, failure to adjust alcohol consumption in response to associated negative consequences. According to the continuum hypothesis, the magnitude of these deficits should be related in a stair-case manner, with the greatest deficits among its heaviest consumers. The current study aims at investigating this association in the general population...
March 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274787/nutritional-status-of-rural-older-adults-is-linked-to-physical-and-emotional-health
#13
Seung Eun Jung, Alex J Bishop, Minjung Kim, Janice Hermann, Giyeon Kim, Jeannine Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Although nutritional status is influenced by multidimensional aspects encompassing physical and emotional well-being, there is limited research on this complex relationship. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between indicators of physical health (perceived health status and self-care capacity) and emotional well-being (depressive affect and loneliness) on rural older adults' nutritional status. DESIGN: The cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2007, to June 1, 2008...
March 5, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266057/effect-of-axial-length-on-full-field-and-multifocal-electroretinograms
#14
Ramya Sachidanandam, Priya Ravi, Parveen Sen
PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the effect of axial length on full-field electroretinogram (ffERG) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in young Indian subjects. METHODS: One hundred subjects (44 male) with refractive errors from +0.50 to -18.00 DS and no myopic retinopathy underwent axial length measurement. ffERG was measured, which included scotopic and photopic responses according to International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) guidelines...
March 7, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264689/rapid-diagnostic-tests-failing-to-detect-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-eritrea-an-investigation-of-reported-false-negative-rdt-results
#15
Araia Berhane, Mulugeta Russom, Iyassu Bahta, Filmon Hagos, Michael Ghirmai, Selam Uqubay
BACKGROUND: Relatively large number of false-negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results for microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum cases were reported from five of the six administrative regions of Eritrea in 2015. This activated the Ministry of Health to conduct an initial exploratory investigation. The main objective of the investigation was to confirm the sensitivity of the RDTs in the field in microscopically confirmed malaria cases, identify the possible causes of the failure and recommend further actions to be taken...
March 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264661/trial-sequential-analysis-in-systematic-reviews-with-meta-analysis
#16
Jørn Wetterslev, Janus Christian Jakobsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Most meta-analyses in systematic reviews, including Cochrane ones, do not have sufficient statistical power to detect or refute even large intervention effects. This is why a meta-analysis ought to be regarded as an interim analysis on its way towards a required information size. The results of the meta-analyses should relate the total number of randomised participants to the estimated required meta-analytic information size accounting for statistical diversity. When the number of participants and the corresponding number of trials in a meta-analysis are insufficient, the use of the traditional 95% confidence interval or the 5% statistical significance threshold will lead to too many false positive conclusions (type I errors) and too many false negative conclusions (type II errors)...
March 6, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264483/evolutionary%C3%A2-developments%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-interpreting%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-gluten-induced%C3%A2-mucosal%C3%A2-celiac%C3%A2-lesion-%C3%A2-an%C3%A2-archimedian%C3%A2-heuristic
#17
REVIEW
Michael N Marsh, Calvin J Heal
The evolving history of the small intestinal biopsy and its interpretation-and misinterpretations-are described in this paper. Certain interpretative errors in the technical approaches to histological assessment are highlighted-even though we may never be rid of them. For example, mucosal "flattening" does not reduce individual villi to their cores, as still seems to be widely believed. Neither is the mucosa undergoing an atrophic process-since it can recover structurally. Rather, the intestinal mucosa manifests a vast hypertrophic response resulting in the formation of large plateaus formed from partially reduced villi and their amalgamation with the now increased height and width of the inter-villous ridges: this is associated with considerable increases in crypt volumes...
February 28, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261556/relationships-between-dietary-intake-and-cognitive-function-in-healthy-korean-children-and-adolescents
#18
Jin Young Kim, Seung Wan Kang
BACKGROUND: It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. METHODS: Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded...
January 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261071/trial-by-trial-modulation-of-associative-memory-formation-by-reward-prediction-error-and-reward-anticipation-as-revealed-by-a-biologically-plausible-computational-model
#19
Kristoffer C Aberg, Julia Müller, Sophie Schwartz
Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260649/higher-serum-interleukin-17a-levels-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-predicting-early-disease-progression-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-treated-with-sorafenib
#20
Hyo Jung Cho, Soon Sun Kim, Ji Sun Nam, Min Jung Oh, Dae Ryong Kang, Jai Keun Kim, Jei Hee Lee, Bohyun Kim, Min Jae Yang, Jae Chul Hwang, Sun Gyo Lim, Sung Jae Shin, Kee Myung Lee, Byung Moo Yoo, Kwang Jae Lee, Sung Won Cho, Jae Youn Cheong
BACKGROUND: Although sorafenib is the only available drug with proven efficacy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the clinical efficacy of sorafenib is variable and unpredictable. The aim of the current study was to identify potential serum biomarkers predicting cancer progression and overall survival (OS) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related advanced HCC treated with sorafenib. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with HBV-related advanced HCC (modified Union for International Cancer Control [UICC] stage IVa or IVb) treated with sorafenib for more than 4weeks were retrospectively enrolled...
March 2, 2017: Cytokine
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