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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647439/testing-the-effects-of-expression-intensity-and-age-on-emotional-face-processing-in-asd
#1
Rhiannon J Luyster, Johanna Bick, Alissa Westerlund, Charles A Nelson
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly show global deficits in the processing of facial emotion, including impairments in emotion recognition and slowed processing of emotional faces. Growing evidence has suggested that these challenges may increase with age, perhaps due to minimal improvement with age in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we explored the role of age, emotion type and emotion intensity in face processing for individuals with and without ASD. Twelve- and 18 to 22- year-old children with and without ASD participated...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647115/when-noise-is-beneficial-for-sensory-encoding-noise-adaptation-can-improve-face-processing
#2
Claudia Menzel, Gregor U Hayn-Leichsenring, Christoph Redies, Kornél Németh, Gyula Kovács
The presence of noise usually impairs the processing of a stimulus. Here, we studied the effects of noise on face processing and show, for the first time, that adaptation to noise patterns has beneficial effects on face perception. We used noiseless faces that were either surrounded by random noise or presented on a uniform background as stimuli. In addition, the faces were either preceded by noise adaptors or not. Moreover, we varied the statistics of the noise so that its spectral slope either matched that of the faces or it was steeper or shallower...
June 21, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646675/conformational-regulation-of-crispr-associated-nucleases
#3
REVIEW
Ryan N Jackson, Paul Bg van Erp, Samuel H Sternberg, Blake Wiedenheft
Adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea rely on small CRISPR-derived RNAs (crRNAs) to guide specialized nucleases to foreign nucleic acids. The activation of these nucleases is controlled by a series of molecular checkpoints that ensure precise cleavage of nucleic acid targets, while minimizing toxic off-target cleavage events. In this review, we highlight recent advances in understanding regulatory mechanisms responsible for controlling the activation of these nucleases and identify emerging regulatory themes conserved across diverse CRISPR systems...
June 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646665/the-n400-in-processing-repeated-name-and-pronoun-anaphors-in-sentences-and-discourse
#4
Amit Almor, Veena A Nair, Timothy W Boiteau, Jennifer M C Vendemia
We report two EEG/ERP experiments that examined processing of repeated name (e.g., Bill; Experiment 1) and pronoun (e.g., he; Experiment 2) subject anaphors to single antecedents (e.g., Bill) and to antecedents embedded in a conjunction (e.g., Bill and Mary) within sentences and discourses. Experiment 1 replicated previous reports of repeated references to single antecedents eliciting greater N400 negativity than repeated references to conjoined antecedents within sentences, and extended these results to cross-sentence (discourse) references...
June 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645867/psychophysical-and-electrophysiological-evidence-for-enhanced-pain-facilitation-and-unaltered-pain-inhibition-in-acute-low-back-pain-patients
#5
Pascal Henri Vuilleumier, Federico Gabriel Arguissain, José Alberto Biurrun Manresa, Alban Ymer Neziri, Arto Christian Nirkko, Ole Kæseler Andersen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Michele Curatolo
The aim of this case-control study was to examine differences in neural correlates of pain facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms between acute low back pain patients and healthy individuals. Pressure pain tolerance (PPT), electrical pain detection thresholds (EDT), pain ratings to repetitive suprathreshold electrical stimulation (SES) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were assessed in 18 patients with acute low back pain (LBP) and 18 healthy controls (CTRL). Furthermore, event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to repetitive SES were obtained from high-density electroencephalography...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643115/new-erp-methods-tailored-onto-single-subject-neuroanatomical-variability
#6
Massimo Girelli
Gebodh and coworkers present an innovative method for strengthening the reliability with which event-related potential (ERP) components are recorded. By tailoring the experimental design to the neuroanatomical singularity of each observer, this method provides more robust and cleaner data.
June 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642695/concealed-around-the-ear-eeg-captures-cognitive-processing-in-a-visual-simon-task
#7
Marlene Pacharra, Stefan Debener, Edmund Wascher
In theory, miniaturized systems such as the around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids) enable mobile monitoring of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in a variety of real life situations without interfering with the natural setting. However, the research benefit of such cEEGrid recordings critically depends on their validity. To investigate whether visual and motor processing are reflected in the cEEGrid-EEG, a direct comparison of EEG that was concurrently recorded with the cEEGrids and with a high-density cap setup was conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642686/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-trns-shapes-the-processing-of-rapidly-changing-auditory-information
#8
Katharina S Rufener, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642083/colorectal-surgery-and-enhanced-recovery-impact-of-a-simulation-based-care-pathway-training-curriculum
#9
L Beyer-Berjot, P Pucher, V Patel, D A Hashimoto, P Ziprin, S Berdah, A Darzi, R Aggarwal
BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine whether a simulation-based care pathway approach (CPA) curriculum could improve compliance for enhanced recovery programs (ERP), and residents' participation in laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS). Indeed, trainee surgeons have limited access to LCS as primary operator, and ERP have improved patients' outcomes in colorectal surgery (CS). METHODS: All residents of our department were trained in a simulation-based CPA: perioperative training consisted in virtual patients built according to guidelines in both ERP and CS, whilst intraoperative training involved a virtual reality simulator curriculum...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641220/predicting-semantic-features-in-chinese-evidence-from-erps
#10
Nayoung Kwon, Patrick Sturt, Pan Liu
This article reports two ERP studies that exploited the classifier system of Mandarin Chinese to investigate semantic prediction. In Mandarin, in certain contexts, a noun has to be preceded by a classifier, which has to match the noun in semantically-defined features. In both experiments, an N400 effect was elicited in response to a classifier that mismatched an up-coming predictable noun, relative to a matching classifier. Among the mismatching classifiers, the N400 effect was graded, being smaller for classifiers that were semantically related to the predicted word, relative to classifiers that were semantically unrelated to the predicted word...
June 19, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640971/enhanced-recovery-programme-following-laparoscopic-colorectal-resection-for-elderly-patients
#11
Wei Gen Zeng, Meng Jia Liu, Zhi Xiang Zhou, Zhen Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of an enhanced recovery programme (ERP) in patients aged ≥75 years who undergo laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. METHODS: Patients were divided into two groups according to perioperative management: the ERP group (Group A, n = 94) and the conventional perioperative care group (Group B, n = 157). The postoperative outcomes were compared between two groups. RESULTS: There were no differences in terms of age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, operative time or blood loss between two groups...
June 22, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634201/phosphoproteomic-profiling-reveals-alk-and-met-as-novel-actionable-targets-across-synovial-sarcoma-subtypes
#12
Emmy D G Fleuren, Myrella Vlenterie, Winette van der Graaf, Melissa H S Hillebrandt-Roeffen, James Blackburn, Xiuquan Ma, Howard Chan, Mandy C Magias, Anke van Erp, Laurens van Houdt, Sabri Cebeci, Amy van de Ven, Uta E Flucke, Erin E Heyer, David M Thomas, Christopher J Lord, Kieren D Marini, Vijesh Vaghjiani, Tim Mercer, Jason E Cain, Jianmin Wu, Yvonne M H Versleijen-Jonkers, Roger J Daly
Despite intensive multi-modal treatment of sarcomas, a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors arising from connective tissue, survival remains poor. Candidate-based targeted treatments have demonstrated limited clinical success, urging an unbiased and comprehensive analysis of oncogenic signaling networks to reveal therapeutic targets and personalized treatment strategies. Here we applied mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic profiling to the largest and most heterogeneous set of sarcoma cell lines characterized to date and identified novel tyrosine phosphorylation patterns, enhanced tyrosine kinases in specific subtypes, and potential driver kinases...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633887/visual-integration-of-fear-and-anger-emotional-cues-by-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-and-neurotypical-peers-an-eeg-study
#13
Evie Malaia, Debbie Cockerham, Katherine Rublein
Communication deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often related to inefficient interpretation of emotional cues, which are conveyed visually through both facial expressions and body language (Apicella et al., 2012). The present study examined ASD behavioral and ERP responses to emotional expressions of anger and fear, as conveyed by the face and body. Behavioral results showed significantly faster response times for the ASD than for the typically developing (TD) group when processing fear, but not anger, in isolated face expressions, isolated body expressions, and in the integration of the two...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633550/right-fronto-temporal-eeg-can-differentiate-the-affective-responses-to-award-winning-advertisements
#14
Regina W Y Wang, Shy-Peih Huarng, Shang-Wen Chuang
Affective engineering aims to improve service/product design by translating the customer's psychological feelings. Award-winning advertisements (AAs) were selected on the basis of the professional standards that consider creativity as a prerequisite. However, it is unknown if AA is related to satisfactory advertising performance among customers or only to the experts' viewpoints towards the advertisements. This issue in the field of affective engineering and design merits in-depth evaluation. We recruited 30 subjects and performed an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment while watching AAs and non-AAs (NAAs)...
April 28, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632743/in-silico-assessment-of-the-effects-of-quinidine-disopyramide-and-e-4031-on-short-qt-syndrome-variant-1-in-the-human-ventricles
#15
Cunjin Luo, Kuanquan Wang, Henggui Zhang
AIMS: Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is an inherited disorder associated with abnormally abbreviated QT intervals and an increased incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. SQT1 variant (linked to the rapid delayed rectifier potassium channel current, IKr) of SQTS, results from an inactivation-attenuated, gain-of-function mutation (N588K) in the KCNH2-encoded potassium channels. Pro-arrhythmogenic effects of SQT1 have been well characterized, but less is known about the possible pharmacological antiarrhythmic treatment of SQT1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629974/the-effects-of-changes-in-object-location-on-object-identity-detection-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#16
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Noa Fogelson, Ling Li
Object identity and location are bound together to form a unique integration that is maintained and processed in visual working memory (VWM). Changes in task-irrelevant object location have been shown to impair the retrieval of memorial representations and the detection of object identity changes. However, the neural correlates of this cognitive process remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying brain activation during object color change detection and the modulatory effects of changes in object location and VWM load...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628797/attenuated-error-related-potentials-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-executive-dysfunctions
#17
Caroline Seer, Max Joop, Florian Lange, Christian Lange, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Bruno Kopp
OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunctions affect up to 50% of the patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Executive dysfunctions have been identified as negative prognostic factor and can affect quality of life in patients and their caregivers. Assessment of executive dysfunction may be impeded by the patients' motor impairments. Event-related potentials (ERP) have been proposed as a tool to overcome these assessment difficulties. The error(-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) is an ERP which can be recorded with minimal motor requirements for the patient...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627809/ivabradine-reduces-digitalis-induced-ventricular-arrhythmias
#18
Gerrit Frommeyer, Jan Weller, Christian Ellermann, Nils Bögeholz, Patrick Leitz, Dirk G Dechering, Simon Kochhäuser, Kristina Wasmer, Lars Eckardt
The I(f) channel inhibitor ivabradine is recommended for treatment of heart failure but also affects potassium currents and thereby prolongs ventricular repolarization. The aim of the present study was to examine the electrophysiological effects of ivabradine on digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Thirteen rabbit hearts were isolated and Langendorff-perfused. After obtaining baseline data, the digitalis glycoside ouabain was infused (0.2μM). Monophasic action potentials and ECG showed a significant abbreviation of QT interval (-34ms,p<0...
June 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626812/electrocortical-reactivity-during-self-referential-processing-in-female-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#19
Randy P Auerbach, Naomi Tarlow, Erin Bondy, Jeremy G Stewart, Blaise Aguirre, Cynthia Kaplan, Wenhui Yang, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is debilitating, and theoretical models have postulated that cognitive-affective biases contribute to the onset and maintenance of BPD symptoms. Despite advances, our understanding of BPD pathophysiology in youth is limited. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify cognitive-affective processes that underlie negative self-referential processing in BPD youth. METHODS: Healthy females (n = 33) and females with BPD (n = 26) 13 to 22 years of age completed a self-referential encoding task while 128-channel electroencephalography data were recorded to examine early (i...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625955/experiment-of-vitreous-liquefaction-induced-by-c3f8
#20
Jing Wang, Qiuming Li
To investigate the effect and safety of vitreous liquefaction induced by C3F8 (an inert gas) injected into vitreous cavit of rabbit eyes. 24 rabbits (48 eyes) were randomly divided into four groups, named group A, group B, group C and group D, with 6 rabbits in each group. The right eye in each rabbit was taken as the experimental eye while the left as the control eye. The experimental eyes in group A were injected with 0.1mL disinfectant air; the experimental eyes in group B, group C and group D were all injected with C3F8 0...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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