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Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hanna Schneegans, Klaus Hoenig, Martin Ruchsow, Manfred Spitzer, Bernhard J Connemann, Markus Kiefer
Deficits in inhibitory function are assumed to underlie psychopathology in bipolar disorder (BD), especially in states of mania. A subdomain of inhibition, semantic inhibition (SI), referring to the suppression of irrelevant word meanings, may underlie formal thought disorder, such as flights of ideas. In the present study, we investigated SI in patients with BD during semantic ambiguity resolution using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. We presented 14 patients with BD with current manic, hypomanic, or mixed clinical states and 28 healthy controls sequentially with word triplets containing either a homonym (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ashley Haubert, Matt Walsh, Rachel Boyd, Megan Morris, Megan Wiedbusch, Mike Krusmark, Glenn Gunzelmann
Cognitive fatigue emerges in wide-ranging tasks and domains, but traditional vigilance tasks provide a well-studied context in which to explore the mechanisms underlying it. Though a variety of experimental methodologies have been used to investigate cognitive fatigue in vigilance, relatively little research has utilized electroencephalography (EEG), specifically event-related potentials (ERPs), to explore the nature of cognitive fatigue, also known as the vigilance decrement. Moreover, much of the research that has been done on vigilance and ERPs uses non-traditional vigilance paradigms, limiting generalizability to the established body of behavioral results and corresponding theories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Helen Uusberg, Krista Peet, Andero Uusberg, Kirsti Akkermann
Appearance-related attention biases are thought to contribute to body image disturbances. We investigated how preoccupation with body image is associated with attention biases to body size, focusing on the role of social comparison processes and automaticity. Thirty-six women varying on self-reported preoccupation compared their actual body size to size-modified images of either themselves or a figure-matched peer. Amplification of earlier (N170, P2) and later (P3, LPP) ERP components recorded under low vs...
March 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
Dominique De Clercq, Barbara Broux, Lisse Vera, Annelies Decloedt, Gunther van Loon
BACKGROUND: In human and veterinary medicine, monophasic action potential (MAP) analysis and determination of local refractory periods by contact electrode technique gives valuable information about local cardiac electrophysiological properties. It is used to investigate dysrhythmias and the impact of drugs on the myocardium. Precise measurement of total MAP duration is difficult, therefore the MAP duration is usually determined at a repolarization level of 90% (APD90). Until now, no studies are published about the feasibility of this technique in the standing non-sedated horse...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Sara Tze Kwan Li, Janet Hui-Wen Hsiao
Music notation and English word reading both involve mapping horizontally arranged visual components to components in sound, in contrast to reading in logographic languages such as Chinese. Accordingly, music-reading expertise may influence English word processing more than Chinese character processing. Here we showed that musicians named English words significantly faster than non-musicians when words were presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere (RH) or the center position, suggesting an advantage of RH processing due to music reading experience...
March 17, 2018: Cognition
Huixia Zhou, Bibing Dai, Sonja Rossi, Juan Li
Background: Depressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Elvira Khachatryan, Benjamin Wittevrongel, Kim De Keyser, Miet De Letter, Marc M Van Hulle
Half of the global population can be considered bilingual. Nevertheless when faced with patients with aphasia, clinicians and therapists usually ignore the patient's second language (L2) albeit its interference in first language (L1) processing has been shown. The excellent temporal resolution by which each individual linguistic component can be gaged during word-processing, promoted the event-related potential (ERP) technique for studying language processing in healthy bilinguals and monolingual aphasia patients...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stefano Lasaponara, Marianna D'Onofrio, Mario Pinto, Alessio Dragone, Dario Menicagli, Domenica Bueti, Marzia De Lucia, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Fabrizio Doricchi
Studies with Event Related Potentials (ERPs) have highlighted deficits in the early phases of orienting to left visual targets in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect (N+). However, brain responses associated with preparatory orienting of attention, with target novelty and with the detection of a match/mismatch between expected and actual targets (contextual updating), have not been explored in N+. Here in a study in healthy humans and brain damaged patients of both sexes we demonstrate that frontal activity that reflects supra-modal mechanisms of attentional orienting (ADAN) is entirely spared in N+...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ali Hashemi, Matthew V Pachai, Patrick J Bennett, Allison B Sekuler
Recent studies have shown that horizontal facial structure is important for face identification (Dakin and Watt, 2009; Goffaux and Dakin, 2010). Also, sensitivity to horizontal structure is associated with the size of the face inversion effect (Pachai et al., 2013). However, it is unclear how the N170 and N250, two components of visual event-related potentials ERPs that have been implicated in face perception, are modulated by oriented facial structure in an upright face identification task. Here, we recorded ERPs and behavioural accuracy from adult observers performing a 1-of-6 face identification task in conditions that parametrically manipulated the orientation structure of upright faces...
March 16, 2018: Vision Research
Annika Andersson, Lisa D Sanders, Donna Coch, Christina M Karns, Helen J Neville
During early literacy skills development, rhyming is an important indicator of the phonological precursors required for reading. To determine if neural signatures of rhyming are apparent in early childhood, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3- to 5-year-old, preliterate children (N = 62) in an auditory prime-target nonword rhyming paradigm (e.g., bly-gry, blane-vox). Overall, nonrhyming targets elicited a larger negativity (N450) than rhyming targets over posterior regions. In contrast, rhyming targets elicited a larger negativity than nonrhyming targets over fronto-lateral sites...
March 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Morgwn Paris, Yatin Mahajan, Jeesun Kim, Tanya Meade
BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional prosody processing have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). While recent neural studies have explored impaired processing of facial expressions, little is known about deficits in emotional speech processing, or the specific stages of processing at which they occur. This study examined if pre-attentive detection and attention to emotional speech is impaired in BD, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: The EEG data was collected from 14 individuals with BD and 14 healthy control (HC) participants while the auditory stimuli was presented via a passive three-stimulus oddball sequence which included emotionally (neutral, happy, sad) spoken syllables and acoustically matched nonvocal tones...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Anna Dalecki, Sarah P Loughran, Adam Verrender, Catriona A Burdon, Nigel A S Taylor, Rodney J Croft
OBJECTIVE: To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80-200 ms) sensory and later (180-600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). METHODS: Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF)...
February 27, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Erik M Benau, Laura C DeLoretta, Stephen T Moelter
In the present study, healthy undergraduates were asked to identify if a visual stimulus appeared on screen for the same duration as a memorized target (2 s) while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. Trials consisted of very short (1.25 s), short (1.6 s), target (2 s), long (2.5 s) or very long (3.125 s) durations, and a yes or no response was required on each trial. We examined behavioral response as signal detection (d') and response bias via a Generalized Accuracy Coefficient (GAC)...
March 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Caitlin M Hudac, Trent D DesChamps, Anne B Arnett, Brianna E Cairney, Ruqian Ma, Sara Jane Webb, Raphael A Bernier
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties processing and encoding sensory information in daily life. Cognitive response to environmental change in control individuals is naturally dynamic, meaning it habituates or reduces over time as one becomes accustomed to the deviance. The origin of atypical response to deviance in ASD may relate to differences in this dynamic habituation. The current study of 133 children and young adults with and without ASD examined classic electrophysiological responses (MMN and P3a), as well as temporal patterns of habituation (i...
March 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Mattia Portinari, Simona Ascanelli, Simone Targa, Elisabete Maria Dos Santos Valgode, Barbara Bonvento, Emidia Vagnoni, Stefano Camerani, Marco Verri, Carlo Alberto Volta, Carlo V Feo
BACKGROUND: The enhanced recovery program for perioperative care of the surgical patient reduces postoperative metabolic response and organ dysfunction, accelerating functional recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the impact on postoperative recovery and cost-effectiveness of implementing a colorectal enhanced recovery program in an Italian academic centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective series of consecutive patients (N = 100) undergoing elective colorectal resection completing a standardized enhanced recovery program in 2013-2015 (ERP group) was compared to patients (N = 100) operated at the same institution in 2010-2011 (Pre-ERP group) before introducing the program...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Kurt F Heiss, Mehul V Raval
For over 20 years enhanced recovery protocols (ERPs) have been used to decrease the physiologic stress and inflammation of surgery using evidence-based principles. ERPs include optimizing patient preparation, creating less trauma using minimally invasive anesthetic and surgical techniques, and regular audit of outcomes. A critical aspect of ERPs is patient engagement in all phases of care, which facilitates effective team function and focused oversight of patient flow through the system. Counseling extends beyond traditional review of surgical risks and benefits, by creating clear daily patient goals, establishing pain management plans, optimizing nutrition, and defining criteria for discharge...
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Zude Zhu, Xiaopu Hou, Yiming Yang
Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lucie Angel, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Sandrine Vanneste, Moïse Ledoux, Valérie Gissot, Caroline Hommet, Fréderic Andersson, Laurent Barantin, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Jérémy Pasco, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Jean-Pierre Remenieras
Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Brain functioning associated with attentional abilities was assessed by measuring the P3b ERP component elicited through an auditory oddball paradigm...
March 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Kazunari Ikeda
If a representation of an auditory attention channel was present in the auditory cortices but not in the subcortical structures, it would be predicted that the early event-related brain potential (ERP) would disagree with the late ERP in selective attention effects. To examine this idea, the present study recorded the auditory brain stem response (ABR) as an early ERP and also the negative difference, the processing negativity and the irrelevant positive difference waves as late ERPs during dichotic listening...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
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