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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930543/eeg-and-erp-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-critical-review
#1
Andras Horvath, Anna Szucs, Gabor Csukly, Anna Sakovics, Gabor Stefanics, Anita Kamondi
Here we critically review studies that used electroencephalography (EEG) or event-related potential (ERP) indices as a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. In the first part we overview studies that relied on visual inspection of EEG traces and spectral characteristics of EEG. Second, we survey analysis methods motivated by dynamical systems theory (DST) as well as more recent network connectivity approaches. In the third part we review studies of sleep.  Next, we compare the utility of early and late ERP components in dementia research...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929499/occipital-alpha-power-reveals-fast-attentional-inhibition-of-incongruent-distractors
#2
Clio Janssens, Esther De Loof, C Nico Boehler, Gilles Pourtois, Tom Verguts
Recent associative models of cognitive control hypothesize that cognitive control can be learned (optimized) for task-specific settings via associations between perceptual, motor, and control representations, and, once learned, control can be implemented rapidly. Midfrontal brain areas signal the need for control, and control is subsequently implemented by biasing sensory representations, boosting or suppressing activity in brain areas processing task-relevant or task-irrelevant information. To assess the timescale of this process, we employed EEG...
September 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928686/on-the-nature-of-clitics-and-their-sensitivity-to-number-attraction-effects
#3
Mikel Santesteban, Adam Zawiszewski, Kepa Erdocia, Itziar Laka
Pronominal dependencies have been shown to be more resilient to attraction effects than subject-verb agreement. We use this phenomenon to investigate whether antecedent-clitic dependencies in Spanish are computed like agreement or like pronominal dependencies. In Experiment 1, an acceptability judgment self-paced reading task was used. Accuracy data yielded reliable attraction effects in both grammatical and ungrammatical sentences, only in singular (but not plural) clitics. Reading times did not show reliable attraction effects...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927724/empirical-evidence-for-the-relationship-between-cognitive-workload-and-attentional-reserve
#4
Kyle J Jaquess, Rodolphe J Gentili, Li-Chuan Lo, Hyuk Oh, Jing Zhang, Jeremy C Rietschel, Matthew W Miller, Ying Ying Tan, Bradley D Hatfield
While the concepts of cognitive workload and attentional reserve have been thought to have an inverse relationship for some time, such a relationship has never been empirically tested. This was the purpose of the present study. Aspects of the electroencephalogram were used to assess both cognitive workload and attentional reserve. Specifically, spectral measures of cortical activation were used to assess cognitive workload, while amplitudes of the event-related potential from the presentation of unattended "novel" sounds were used to assess attentional reserve...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926001/ketamine-differential-neurophysiological-dynamics-in-functional-networks-in-the-rat-brain
#5
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, W H I M Drinkenburg
Recently, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has emerged as a fast-onset mechanism to achieve antidepressant activity, whereas its psychomimetic, dissociative and amnestic effects have been well documented to pharmacologically model schizophrenia features in rodents. Sleep-wake architecture, neuronal oscillations and network connectivity are key mechanisms supporting brain plasticity and cognition, which are disrupted in mood disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In rats, we investigated the dynamic effects of acute and chronic subcutaneous administration of ketamine (2...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924197/how-do-the-hierarchical-levels-of-premises-affect-category-based-induction-diverging-effects-from-the-p300-and-n400
#6
Yi Lei, Xiuling Liang, Chongde Lin
Although a number of studies have explored the time course of category-based induction, little is known about how the hierarchical levels (superordinate, basic, subordinate) of premises affect category-based induction. The EEG data were recorded when nineteen healthy human participants were performing a simplified category-based induction task. The ERP results showed that: in the subordinate conclusion condition, the basic premise elicited a larger N400, versus the superordinate promise; in the basic conclusion condition, the superordinate promise elicited a larger P300 relative to both the basic premise and subordinate premise; in the superordinate conclusion condition, however, no difference was found between different promise...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922545/neural-responses-to-linguistic-stimuli-in-children-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Kayla H Finch, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
Atypical neural responses to language have been found in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in their unaffected siblings. However, given that language difficulties are often seen in these children, it is difficult to interpret whether these neural differences are a result of the diagnosis of ASD or impairments in their language abilities. In this current study, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from four groups of 36-month-olds: low-risk control (LRC), high-risk for ASD defined as having an older sibling with ASD (HRA) but who do not have ASD or milder autism-like symptoms (HRA-Typ), HRA children who do not have ASD but exhibit milder autism-like symptoms (HRA-Atyp), and HRA children diagnosed with ASD (ASD)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920772/endogenous-attention-to-object-features-modulates-the-erp-c1-component
#8
Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
Converging neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence supports the notion that selective attention can modulate neural activity not only in V1 (BA17) - as early as 40-60 ms post-stimulus - but also at subcortical level (thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN). V1 modulation has been documented both in space-based and (especially) object-based selection conditions, most of all in endogenous orienting paradigms. It seems then that an attentional modulation of ERP C1 response - reflecting V1 modulation - would not be especially favoured by exogenous cuing as far as object-based attention is concerned...
September 18, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919245/n1-responses-to-images-of-hands-in-occipito-temporal-event-related-potentials
#9
Miguel Granja Espírito Santo, Octavian Sorin Maxim, Martin Schürmann
Hands, much like faces, convey social information, instructions and intentions to an observer. While the neural processes of face perception have been widely studied, it was only recently that fMRI identified occipito-temporal areas sensitive to static images of hands as body parts. To complement these studies with fine-grained timing information, we measured event-related EEG potentials (ERPs) from 33 subjects who were presented with static images of hands versus faces, whole bodies, and inanimate objects as controls...
September 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916861/predictors-of-adherence-to-enhanced-recovery-pathway-elements-after-laparoscopic-colorectal-surgery
#10
Juan Mata, Julio F Fiore, Nicolo Pecorelli, Barry L Stein, Sender Liberman, Patrick Charlebois, Liane S Feldman
INTRODUCTION: Enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) include a bundle of evidence-based preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative interventions that together reduce morbidity and length of stay after colorectal surgery. Increased adherence with the bundle is associated with better postoperative outcomes, but adherence is lowest in the postoperative period. Identifying risk factors for lower adherence may help design quality improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to estimate the extent to which patient, procedural, and organizational factors predict adherence to postoperative ERP elements in laparoscopic colorectal surgery...
September 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916440/white-matter-microstructure-within-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-modulates-the-degree-of-response-conflict-indexed-by-n2-in-healthy-adults
#11
Shudan Gao, Peng Liu, Jialu Guo, Yuanqiang Zhu, Peng Liu, Jinbo Sun, Xuejuan Yang, Wei Qin
Response conflict can be induced by priming multiple responses competing for control of action in trials. The N2 is one functionally-related cognitive control index for response conflict. And yet the underlying whiter matter neural substrates of inter-individual difference in conflict N2 remain unclear. So the aim of present study was to address the white matter microstructure of the N2 responsible for conflict by directly relating the amplitude cost of the event-related potential (ERP) N2 component to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in healthy subjects...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915366/structural-encoding-processes-contribute-to-individual-differences-in-face-and-object-cognition-inferences-from-psychometric-test-performance-and-event-related-brain-potentials
#12
Hadiseh Nowparast Rostami, Werner Sommer, Changsong Zhou, Oliver Wilhelm, Andrea Hildebrandt
The enhanced N1 component in event-related potentials (ERP) to face stimuli, termed N170, is considered to indicate the structural encoding of faces. Previously, individual differences in the latency of the N170 have been related to face and object cognition abilities. By orthogonally manipulating content domain (faces vs objects) and task demands (easy/speed vs difficult/accuracy) in both psychometric and EEG tasks, we investigated the uniqueness of the processes underlying face cognition as compared with object cognition and the extent to which the N1/N170 component can explain individual differences in face and object cognition abilities...
August 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915254/mirror-normal-difference-in-the-late-phase-of-mental-rotation-an-erp-study
#13
Cheng Quan, Chunyong Li, Jiguo Xue, Jingwei Yue, Chenggang Zhang
Mirror-normal letter discriminations are thought to require mental rotation in order to transform the rotated alphanumeric character into its canonical orientation. Moreover, out-of-plane rotation is likely to occur after in-plane rotation to fully normalize the mirror version before the final mirror-normal judgment. The so-called rotation-related negativity, which varies with orientation, is found in both ERPonset (averaged with respect to stimulus onset) and ERPRT (averaged with respect to response time), representing the involvement of mental rotation in both time windows...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904379/a-screening-mechanism-differentiating-true-from-false-pain-during-empathy
#14
Ya-Bin Sun, Xiao-Xiao Lin, Wen Ye, Ning Wang, Jin-Yan Wang, Fei Luo
Empathizing with another's suffering is important in social interactions. Empathic behavior is selectively elicited from genuine, meaningful pain but not from fake, meaningless scenarios. However, the brain's screening mechanism of false information from meaningful events and the time course for the screening process remains unclear. Using EEG combined with principle components analysis (PCA) techniques, here we compared temporal neurodynamics between the observation of pain and no-pain pictures as well as between true (painful expressions and needle-penetrated arms) and false (needle-penetrated faces with neutral expressions) pain pictures...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900411/can-we-retrieve-the-information-which-was-intentionally-forgotten-electrophysiological-correlates-of-strategic-retrieval-in-directed-forgetting
#15
Xinrui Mao, Mengxi Tian, Yi Liu, Bingcan Li, Yan Jin, Yanhong Wu, Chunyan Guo
Retrieval inhibition hypothesis of directed forgetting effects assumed TBF (to-be-forgotten) items were not retrieved intentionally, while selective rehearsal hypothesis assumed the memory representation of retrieved TBF (to-be-forgotten) items was weaker than TBR (to-be-remembered) items. Previous studies indicated that directed forgetting effects of item-cueing method resulted from selective rehearsal at encoding, but the mechanism of retrieval inhibition that affected directed forgetting of TBF (to-be-forgotten) items was not clear...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899636/target-and-distractor-processing-and-the-influence-of-load-on-the-allocation-of-attention-to-task-irrelevant-threat
#16
P M Bretherton, M W Eysenck, A Richards, A Holmes
This study investigated the characteristics of two distinct mechanisms of attention - stimulus enhancement and stimulus suppression - using an event-related potential (ERP) approach. Across three experiments, participants viewed sparse visual search arrays containing one target and one distractor. The main results of Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that whereas neural signals for stimuli that are not inherently salient could be directly suppressed without prior attentional enhancement, this was not the case for stimuli with motivational relevance (human faces)...
September 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898720/not-so-secret-agents-event-related-potentials-to-semantic-roles-in-visual-event-comprehension
#17
Neil Cohn, Martin Paczynski, Marta Kutas
Research across domains has suggested that agents, the doers of actions, have a processing advantage over patients, the receivers of actions. We hypothesized that agents as "event builders" for discrete actions (e.g., throwing a ball, punching) build on cues embedded in their preparatory postures (e.g., reaching back an arm to throw or punch) that lead to (predictable) culminating actions, and that these cues afford frontloading of event structure processing. To test this hypothesis, we compared event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to averbal comic panels depicting preparatory agents (ex...
September 9, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893633/enhanced-recovery-open-versus-laparoscopic-left-donor-nephrectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Ahmed M Mansour, Ahmed R El-Nahas, Bedeir Ali-El-Dein, Ahmed Abdelfattah, Ahmed Hamed, Ahmed Abdel-Rahman, Ibrahim Eraky, Ahmed A Shokeir
OBJECTIVE: To compare recovery outcomes between laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) and open donor nephrectomy (ODN) within a specified Enhanced Recovery Program (ERP) for left kidney donations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phase III randomized trial was conducted between January 2013 and June 2015, eligible left side donors were randomized to laparoscopic or open donor nephrectomy in a 1:1 ratio with recovery optimized within a standardized ERP. The primary outcome was patient-reported measure of physical fatigue, as measured by the physical fatigue domain of the translated Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory 20 (MFI-20)...
September 8, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893596/sustained-engagement-of-attention-is-associated-with-increased-negative-self-referent-processing-in-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Justin Dainer-Best, Logan T Trujillo, David M Schnyer, Christopher G Beevers
This study investigated the link between self-reference and attentional engagement in adults with (n=22) and without (HC; n=24) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants completed the Self-Referent Encoding Task (SRET). MDD participants endorsed significantly fewer positive words and more negative words as self-descriptive than HC participants. A whole-scalp data analysis technique revealed that the MDD participants had larger difference wave (negative words minus positive words) ERP amplitudes from 380 to 1000ms across posterior sites, which positively correlated with number of negative words endorsed...
September 8, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892157/adaptability-and-specificity-of-inhibition-processes-in-distractor-induced-blindness
#20
Gesche N Winther, Michael Niedeggen
In a rapid serial visual presentation task, inhibition processes cumulatively impair processing of a target possessing distractor properties. This phenomenon-known as distractor-induced blindness-has thus far only been elicited using dynamic visual features, such as motion and orientation changes. In three ERP experiments, we used a visual object feature-color-to test for the adaptability and specificity of the effect. In Experiment I, participants responded to a color change (target) in the periphery whose onset was signaled by a central cue...
September 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
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