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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471567/targeting-hepatitis-d
#1
Mario Rizzetto
New therapeutic strategies to treat chronic hepatitis D are directed to deprive the hepatitis D virus (HDV) of functions necessary to complete its life cycle that are provided by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and by the host. Current options are (1) the block by the synthetic peptide Myrcludex B of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) entry into cells through the inhibition of the sodium taurocholate cotransporting receptor; (2) the inhibition with lonafarnib of the farnesylation of the large HD antigen, required for virion assembly; (3) the presumed reduction by the nucleic acid polymer REP 2139 of the release of the HBsAg and subviral HBV particles necessary for HD virion morphogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471285/effects-of-docosahexanoic-acid-supplementation-on-inflammatory-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-gene-expression-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-cart-a-sub-study-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#2
Pere Domingo, José Miguel Gallego-Escuredo, Irene Fernández, Joan Villarroya, Ferran Torres, María Del Mar Gutierrez, María Gracia Mateo, Francesc Villarroya, Francesc Vidal, Marta Giralt, Joan Carles Domingo
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids have the potential to decrease inflammation and modify gene transcription. Whether docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation can modify systemic inflammatory and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression in HIV-infected patients is unknown. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 84 antiretroviral-treated patients who had fasting TG levels from 2.26 to 5.65 mmol/l and received DHA or placebo for 48 weeks was performed (ClinicalTrials...
February 19, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471211/exogenous-nanosilica-improves-germination-and-growth-of-cucumber-by-maintaining-k-na-ratio-under-elevated-na-stress
#3
Abdullah Alsaeedi, Hassan El-Ramady, Tarek Alshaal, Mohamed El-Garawani, Nevien Elhawat, Awadh Al-Otaibi
The current work was aimed to elucidate the role of engineered nanosilica (SiNPs) particles to mitigate the damaging impacts of Na+ -derived salinity on cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Beit Alpha variety by conducting in vitro experiments applying various Na+ concentrations i.e. 0, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg L-1 . By treating seeds and seedlings, respectively, of cucumber with SiNPs (0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm) and subsequent determination some germination and vegetative parameters as well as chemical analysis of seedlings, we verified that SiNPs succeeded to alleviate the detrimental effects of high Na+ salinity by increasing germination parameters and vegetative growth of cucumber seedlings...
February 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471131/aerobic-and-strength-training-induce-changes-in-oxidative-stress-parameters-and-elicit-modifications-of-various-cellular-components-in-skeletal-muscle-of-aged-rats
#4
Thais Ceresér Vilela, Pauline Souza Effting, Giulia Dos Santos Pedroso, Hemelin Farias, Lara Paganini, Helen Sorato Rebelo, Renata Tiescoski Nesi, Vanessa Moraes de Andrade, Ricardo Aurino de Pinho
Skeletal muscle aging is associated with loss of mass, function, and strength-a condition known as sarcopenia. It has been reported that sarcopenia can be attenuated by physical exercise. Therefore, we investigated whether 2 different physical exercise protocols could modulate and induce changes in oxidative and inflammatory parameters, as well as in BDNF and DNA repair enzyme levels in skeletal muscle tissue of aged rats. Aging Wistar rats performed treadmill or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 times a week for 8 weeks...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471062/constitutive-stimulatory-g-protein-activity-in-limb-mesenchyme-impairs-bone-growth
#5
Anara Karaca, Vijayram Reddy Malladi, Yan Zu, Olta Tafaj, Elena Paltrinieri, Joy Y Wu, Qing He, Murat Bastepe
GNAS mutations leading to constitutively active stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (Gsα) cause different tumors, fibrous dysplasia of bone, and McCune-Albright syndrome, which are typically not associated with short stature. Enhanced signaling of the parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor, which couples to multiple G proteins including Gsα, leads to short bones with delayed endochondral ossification. It has remained unknown whether constitutive Gsα activity also impairs bone growth...
February 19, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471019/hsp90-co-chaperone-p23-contributes-to-dopaminergic-mitochondrial-stress-via-stabilization-of-phd2-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Anand Rane, Subramanian Rajagopalan, Manuj Ahuja, Bobby Thomas, Shankar J Chinta, Julie K Andersen
The heat shock factor 90 (hsp90) complex has long been associated with neuropathological phenotypes linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) and its inhibition is neuroprotective in disease models. Hsp90 is conventionally believed to act by suppressing induction of hsp70. Here, we report a novel hsp70-independent mechanism by which Hsp90 may also contribute to PD-associated neuropathology. We previously reported that inhibition of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) in conjunction with increases in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) results in protection of vulnerable dopaminergic substantia nigra pars compacta (DAergic SNpc) neurons in in vitro and in vivo models of PD...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471006/astilbin-ameliorates-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxicity-through-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#7
Si-Wei Wang, Yi Xu, Yuan-Yuan Weng, Xue-Yu Fan, Yong-Feng Bai, Xiao-Yan Zheng, Li-Jun Lou, Feng Zhang
Oxidative stress and inflammation are considered to be the main pathogenesis of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Astilbin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation function, has been used to treat heavy metal induced kidney injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of astilbin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that astilbin markedly inhibited cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis and recovered cell growth. Astilbin significantly decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and alleviated ROS-induced activation of p53, MAPKs and AKT signaling cascades, which in turn attenuated cisplatin-induced HEK-293 cell apoptosis...
February 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470981/ghot-of-the-ghot-ghos-toxin-antitoxin-system-damages-lipid-membranes-by-forming-transient-pores
#8
Jun-Seob Kim, Allen B Schantz, Sooyeon Song, Manish Kumar, Thomas K Wood
GhoT is a bacterial toxin of the type V toxin/antitoxin system that allows Escherichia coli to reduce its metabolism in response to oxidative and bile stress. GhoT functions by increasing membrane permeability and reducing both ATP levels and the proton motive force. However, how GhoT damages the inner membrane has not been elucidated. Here we investigated how GhoT damages membranes by studying its interaction with lipid bilayers and determined that GhoT does not cause macroscopic disruption of the lipid bilayer to increase membrane permeability to the dye carboxyfluorescein...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470929/interferon-alpha-2a-for-the-treatment-of-post-infectious-uveitis-secondary-to-presumed-intraocular-tuberculosis
#9
Alessandro Invernizzi, Franca Iannaccone, Sylvia Marchi, Valentina Mastrofilippo, Marco Coassin, Luigi Fontana, Carlo Salvarani, Peter McCluskey, Luca Cimino
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of interferon (IFN) alpha-2a in post-infectious uveitis secondary to presumed intraocular tuberculosis (IOTB). METHODS: Patients with chronic uveitis secondary to presumed IOTB who, after completing an antitubercular treatment, showed poor response to treatments or recurred after tapering oral corticosteroids to ≤7.5 mg/day were enrolled. All patients were treated with IFN alpha-2a subcutaneous injections. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and inflammatory signs were compared between baseline and follow-up visits up to six months...
February 22, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470627/value-of-hepatocellular-phase-imaging-after-intravenous-gadoxetate-disodium-for-assessing-hepatic-metastases-from-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-comparison-with-other-mri-pulse-sequences-and-with-extracellular-agent
#10
Sree Harsha Tirumani, Jyothi P Jagannathan, Marta Braschi-Amirfarzan, Lei Qin, Patricia Balthazar, Nikhil H Ramaiya, Atul B Shinagare
OBJECTIVE: To compare hepatocellular phase imaging after intravenous gadoxetate disodium with other MRI pulse sequences and with extracellular agent for assessing hepatic metastases from gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, we included 30 patients (15 women, mean age: 58 years, range 44-77 years) with GEP-NEN metastatic to the liver, who underwent MRI with gadoxetate disodium...
February 22, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470392/gja4-connexin-37-mutations-correlate-with-secondary-lymphedema-following-surgery-in-breast-cancer-patients
#11
Mahrooyeh Hadizadeh, Seiied Mojtaba Mohaddes Ardebili, Mansoor Salehi, Chris Young, Fariborz Mokarian, James McClellan, Qin Xu, Mohammad Kazemi, Elham Moazam, Behzad Mahaki, Maziar Ashrafian Bonab
Lymphedema is a condition resulting from mutations in various genes essential for lymphatic development and function, which leads to obstruction of the lymphatic system. Secondary lymphedema is a progressive and incurable condition, most often manifesting after surgery for breast cancer. Although its causation appears complex, various lines of evidence indicate that genetic predisposition may play a role. Previous studies show that mutations in connexin 47 are associated with secondary lymphedema. We have tested the hypothesis that connexin 37 gene mutations in humans are associated with secondary lymphedema following breast cancer surgery...
February 22, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470357/validation-of-the-alpha-fetoprotein-model-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-recurrence-after-transplantation-in-an-asian-population
#12
Jinsoo Rhu, Jong Man Kim, Gyu Seong Choi, Choon Hyuck David Kwon, Jae-Won Joh
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to validate the alpha-fetoprotein model for predicting recurrence after liver transplantation in Korean hepatocellular carcinoma patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma at Samsung Medical Center between 2007 and 2015 were included. Recurrence, overall survival, and disease-specific survival of patients divided by both the Milan criteria and the alpha-fetoprotein model were compared using Kaplan-Meier log-rank test...
February 20, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470145/portal-vein-stenosis-preconditioning-of-living-donor-liver-in-swine-early-mechanisms-of-liver-regeneration-and-gain-of-hepatic-functional-mass
#13
Pauline Brige, Geraldine Hery, Anais Palen, Théophile Guilbaud, Christophe Buffat, Anais Moyon, Jean Hardwigsen, Eric Guedj, Benjamin Guillet, Vincent Vidal, Guillaume Gorincour, Sophie Chopinet, Emilie Gregoire
In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality risk for the donor in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we previously identified 20% left portal vein (LPV) stenosis as the effective preconditioning to induce cell proliferation in the contralateral lobe without the downstream ipsilateral atrophy. We report, here, the pathways involved in the first hours after the preconditioning and investigate the changes in liver volume and function. Fourteen pigs entered this study. Five of them were used to study the genetic, cellular and molecular mechanisms set up in the early hours after the establishment of our preconditioning...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470143/tumor-pik3ca-genotype-and-prognosis-in-early-stage-breast-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#14
Dimitrios Zardavas, Luc Te Marvelde, Roger L Milne, Debora Fumagalli, George Fountzilas, Vassiliki Kotoula, Evangelia Razis, George Papaxoinis, Heikki Joensuu, Mary Ellen Moynahan, Bryan T Hennessy, Ivan Bieche, Lao H Saal, Olle Stal, Barry Iacopetta, Jeanette Dupont Jensen, Sandra O'Toole, Elena Lopez-Knowles, Mattia Barbaraeschi, Shinzaburo Noguchi, Hatem A Azim, Enrique Lerma, Thomas Bachelot, Qing Wang, Gizeh Perez-Tenorio, Cornelis J H Can de Velde, Daniel W Rea, Vicky Sabine, John M S Bartlett, Christos Sotiriou, Stefan Michiels, Sherene Loi
Purpose Phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha ( PIK3CA) mutations are frequently observed in primary breast cancer. We evaluated their prognostic relevance by performing a pooled analysis of individual patient data. Patients and Methods Associations between PIK3CA status and clinicopathologic characteristics were tested by applying Cox regression models adjusted for age, tumor size, nodes, grade, estrogen receptor (ER) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, treatment, and study...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469948/sensory-acceptability-of-iron-fortified-red-lentil-lens-culinaris-medik-dal
#15
Rajib Podder, Shaan M Khan, Bunyamin Tar'an, Robert T Tyler, Carol J Henry, Chowdhury Jalal, Phyllis J Shand, Albert Vandenberg
Panelists in Saskatoon, Canada (n = 45) and Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 98) participated in sensory evaluations of the sensory properties of both cooked and uncooked dehulled red lentil dal fortified with FeSO4 ·7H2 O, NaFeEDTA or FeSO4 ·H2 O at fortificant Fe concentrations of 800, 1,600 (both cooked and uncooked), or 2,800 ppm. Appearance, odor, and overall acceptability of cooked and uncooked samples were rated using a 9-point hedonic scale (1 = dislike extremely to 9 = like extremely). Taste and texture were rated for the cooked samples prepared as typical south Asian lentil meals...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469675/lessons-from-the-past-some-histories-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-before-its-discovery
#16
A Perciaccante, P Charlier, C Negri, A Coralli, O Appenzeller, R Bianucci
A1AT deficiency- a genetically inherited autosomal codominant disease with more than 120 identified alleles- was first identified by Laurell and Eriksson in 1963. The most common hereditary disorder in adults, A1AT causes an increased risk of developing pulmonary emphysema and liver disease. In A1AT patients, lung disease generally presents at a younger age than "usual" chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it may be misdiagnosed as asthma. Because A1AT deficiency patients can show the same clinical features as non-deficient COPD (including increased evidence of bronchiectasis, frequent exacerbations, impaired health status and a degree of reversibility of airflow obstruction), the World Health Organization recommend to test every patient with a diagnosis of COPD or adult-onset asthma for A1AT deficiency...
February 2018: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469206/impact-of-sacubitril-valsartan-combination-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-and-sleep-apnoea-syndrome-the-entresto-sas-study-design
#17
Dany Jaffuel, Nicolas Molinari, Philippe Berdague, Atul Pathak, Michel Galinier, Marion Dupuis, Jean-Etienne Ricci, Jean-Pierre Mallet, Arnaud Bourdin, François Roubille
AIMS: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent co-morbidity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and can play a detrimental role in the pathophysiology course of CHF. However, the best way to manage SDB in CHF remains a matter of debate. Sacubitril-valsartan has been included in the 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines as an alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors to further reduce the risk of progression of CHF, CHF hospitalization, and death in ambulatory patients...
February 22, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468851/isolates-from-alpinia-officinarum-hance-attenuate-lps-induced-inflammation-in-hepg2-evidence-from-in-silico-and-in-vitro-studies
#18
Abdullah A Elgazar, Nabil M Selim, Nabil M Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed A El-Magd, Hala M El Hefnawy
In an attempt to connect the legacy of centuries of invaluable knowledge from traditional medicine and the current understanding to the molecular mechanism of diseases, we took the advantage of the emergence of in silico screening as a promising tool for identification of potential leads from libraries of natural products. Traditional Chinese Medicine database was subjected to structure based virtual screening for identification of anti-inflammatory compounds using the 3D crystal structure of p38 alpha mitogen activated protein kinase...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468790/predictors-of-parental-discretionary-choice-provision-using-the-health-action-process-approach-framework-development-and-validation-of-a-self-reported-questionnaire-for-parents-of-4-7-year-olds
#19
Brittany J Johnson, Dorota Zarnowiecki, Gilly A Hendrie, Rebecca K Golley
AIM: Children's intake of discretionary choices is excessive. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring parents' attitudes and beliefs towards limiting provision of discretionary choices, using the Health Action Process Approach model. METHODS: The questionnaire items were informed by the Health Action Process Approach model, which extends the Theory of Planned Behaviour to include both motivational (intention) and volitional (post-intention) factors that influence behaviour change...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468778/behavioral-preference-in-sequential-decision-making-and-its-association-with-anxiety
#20
Dandan Zhang, Ruolei Gu
In daily life, people often make consecutive decisions before the ultimate goal is reached (i.e., sequential decision-making). However, this kind of decision-making has been largely overlooked in the literature. The current study investigated whether behavioral preference would change during sequential decisions, and the neural processes underlying the potential changes. For this purpose, we revised the classic balloon analogue risk task and recorded the electroencephalograph (EEG) signals associated with each step of decision-making...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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