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regeneration of cartilage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905661/artificial-cartilage-bio-matrix-formed-of-hyaluronic-acid-and-mg2-polyphosphate
#1
X Wang, M Ackermann, E Tolba, M Neufurth, F Wurm, Q Feng, S Wang, H C Schröder, W E Müller
Here we show that inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a polyanionic metabolic regulator consisting of multiple phosphate residues linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds, is present in the synovial fluid. In a biomimetic approach, to enhance cartilage synthesis and regeneration, we prepared amorphous polyP microparticles with Mg2+ as counterions. The particles were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analyses. Similar particles were obtained after addition of Mg2+ ions to a solution containing hyaluronic acid, as a major component of the synovial fluid, and soluble Na-polyP...
November 29, 2016: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903929/a-comparison-of-outcomes-of-particulated-juvenile-articular-cartilage-and-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate-for-articular-cartilage-lesions-of-the-talus
#2
Nathan S Lanham, John J Carroll, Minton T Cooper, Venkat Perumal, Joseph S Park
Background Articular cartilage lesions of the talus remain a challenging clinical problem because of the lack of natural regeneration and limited treatment options. Microfracture is often the first-line therapy, however lesions larger than 1.5 cm(2) have been shown to not do as well with this treatment method. Methods The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate concentrate/collagen scaffold (ICBMA) and particulated juvenile articular cartilage (PJAC) for larger articular cartilage lesions of the talus...
November 30, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900891/chondrogenesis-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-for-future-microtia-repair-using-co-culture-technique
#3
Bee See Goh, Siti Nurhadis Che Omar, Muhammad Azhan Ubaidah, Lokman Saim, Shamsul Sulaiman, Kien Hui Chua
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these result showed HADSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes-like cells, dependent on signaling induced by TGF-β3 and chondrocytes. This is a promising result and showed that HADSCs is a potential source for future microtia repair. The technique of co-culture is a positive way forward to assist the microtia tissue. OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons...
November 30, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892651/fumarate-copolymer-chitosan-cross-linked-scaffold-directed-to-osteochondrogenic-tissue-engineering
#4
María Laura Lastra, María Silvina Molinuevo, Ana María Cortizo, María Susana Cortizo
Natural and synthetic cross-linked polymers allow the improvement of cytocompatibility and mechanical properties of the individual polymers. In osteochondral lesions of big size it will be required the use of scaffolds to repair the lesion. In this work a borax cross-linked scaffold based on fumarate-vinyl acetate copolymer and chitosan directed to osteochondrondral tissue engineering is developed. The cross-linked scaffolds and physical blends of the polymers are analyzed in based on their morphology, glass transition temperature, and mechanical properties...
November 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890816/pathophysiology-of-hemophilic-arthropathy-and-potential-targets-for-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Astrid E Pulles, Simon C Mastbergen, Roger E G Schutgens, Floris P J G Lafeber, Lize F D van Vulpen
Hemophilia is a congenital clotting factor deficiency characterized by spontaneous and trauma-related bleeding. Spontaneous bleeding shows a predilection for joints, and repeated hemarthroses lead to a disabling condition called hemophilic arthropathy. Treatment of this condition consists of preventing joint bleeding on the one hand and orthopedic surgery as a last resort on the other. Up till now, there is no disease modifying therapy available to fill the gap between these extremes. This review provides an overview of the pathogenesis of hemophilic arthropathy in order to identify potential targets for therapy...
November 24, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886065/dual-function-of-glucosamine-in-gelatin-hyaluronic-acid-cryogel-to-modulate-scaffold-mechanical-properties-and-to-maintain-chondrogenic-phenotype-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#6
Chih-Hao Chen, Chang-Yi Kuo, Yan-Jie Wang, Jyh-Ping Chen
Glucosamine (GlcN) fulfills many of the requirements as an ideal component in scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering. The incorporation of GlcN in a gelatin/hyaluronic acid (GH) cryogel scaffold could provide biological cues in maintaining the phenotype of chondrocytes. Nonetheless, substituting gelatin with GlcN may also decrease the crosslinking density and modulate the mechanical properties of the cryogel scaffold, which may be beneficial as physical cues for chondrocytes in the scaffold. Thus, we prepared cryogel scaffolds containing 9% GlcN (GH-GlcN9) and 16% GlcN (GH-GlcN16) by carbodiimide-mediated crosslinking reactions at -16 °C...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885900/recreating-composition-structure-functionalities-of-tissues-at-nanoscale-for-regenerative-medicine
#7
Emine Alarçin, Xiaofei Guan, Sara Saheb Kashaf, Khairat Elbaradie, Huazhe Yang, Hae Lin Jang, Ali Khademhosseini
Nanotechnology offers significant potential in regenerative medicine, specifically with the ability to mimic tissue architecture at the nanoscale. In this perspective, we highlight key achievements in the nanotechnology field for successfully mimicking the composition and structure of different tissues, and the development of bio-inspired nanotechnologies and functional nanomaterials to improve tissue regeneration. Numerous nanomaterials fabricated by electrospinning, nanolithography and self-assembly have been successfully applied to regenerate bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessel, heart and bladder tissue...
November 25, 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885831/a-bioinspired-ultraporous-nanofiber-hydrogel-mimic-of-the-cartilage-extracellular-matrix
#8
Florian A Formica, Ece Öztürk, Samuel C Hess, Wendelin J Stark, Katharina Maniura-Weber, Markus Rottmar, Marcy Zenobi-Wong
A true biomimetic of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) could greatly contribute to our ability to regenerate this tissue in a mechanically demanding, often inflamed environment. Articular cartilage is a composite tissue made of cells and fibrillar proteins embedded in a hydrophilic polymeric meshwork. Here, a polyanionic functionalized alginate is used to mimic the glycosaminoglycan component of the native ECM. To create the fibrillar component, cryoelectrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) on a -78 °C mandrel, subsequently treated by O2 plasma, is used to create a stable, ultraporous and hydrophillic nanofiber network...
November 25, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885189/-tissue-regenerative-therapies-based-on-regulatory-mechanisms-underlying-bone-and-cartilage-development
#9
Shinsuke Ohba
Regenerative medicine is an approach that maximizes the natural healing ability by modulating regeneration-inducing signals within appropriate cells in combination with scaffolds. Tissue repair processes and developmental processes largely share common molecular mechanisms. Being inspired by the mechanisms, a large number of studies have been carried out on development of efficient systems for bone and cartilage regeneration. It would be the next step in this field to achieve the stability of regenerated tissues by modulating signals and intracellular molecules that are involved in the maintenance and metabolism of the tissues...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883051/lipid-coated-microbubbles-and-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-enhance-chondrogenesis-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-3d-printed-scaffolds
#10
Mitra Aliabouzar, Lijie Grace Zhang, Kausik Sarkar
Lipid-coated microbubbles are used to enhance ultrasound imaging and drug delivery. Here we apply these microbubbles along with low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) for the first time to enhance proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in a 3D printed poly-(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel scaffold. The hMSC proliferation increased up to 40% after 5 days of culture in the presence of 0.5% (v/v) microbubbles and LIPUS in contrast to 18% with LIPUS alone...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881439/optimisation-of-high-quality-total-ribonucleic-acid-isolation-from-cartilaginous-tissues-for-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-analysis
#11
M Peeters, C L Huang, L A Vonk, Z F Lu, R A Bank, M N Helder, B Zandieh Doulabi
OBJECTIVES: Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues...
November 2016: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875945/3d-printing-articular-cartilage-recapitulating-the-complexity-of-native-tissue
#12
Ting Guo, Josephine Lembong, Lijie Grace Zhang, John P Fisher
In the past few decades, the field of tissue engineering combined with rapid prototyping (RP) techniques has been successful in creating biological substitutes that mimic tissues. Its applications in regenerative medicine have drawn efforts in research from various scientific fields, diagnostics, and clinical translation to therapies. While some areas of therapeutics are well developed, such as skin replacement, many others such as cartilage repair can still greatly benefit from tissue engineering and RP due to the low success and / or inefficiency of current existing, often surgical treatments...
November 22, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871993/msc-exosome-as-a-cell-free-msc-therapy-for-cartilage-regeneration-implications-for-osteoarthritis-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Wei Seong Toh, Ruenn Chai Lai, James Hoi Po Hui, Sai Kiang Lim
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated efficacy in cartilage repair in animal and clinical studies. The efficacy of MSC-based therapies which was previously predicated on the chondrogenic potential of MSC is increasingly attributed to the paracrine secretion, particularly exosomes. Exosomes are thought to function primarily as intercellular communication vehicles to transfer bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNAs and microRNAs) and proteins between cells to elicit biological responses in recipient cells...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870078/cartilage-extracellular-matrix-as-a-biomaterial-for-cartilage-regeneration
#14
Emi A Kiyotake, Emily C Beck, Michael S Detamore
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues possesses the model characteristics that biomaterials for tissue engineering strive to mimic; however, owing to the intricate hierarchical nature of the ECM, it has yet to be fully characterized and synthetically fabricated. Cartilage repair remains a challenge because the intrinsic properties that enable its durability and long-lasting function also impede regeneration. In the last decade, cartilage ECM has emerged as a promising biomaterial for regenerating cartilage, partly because of its potentially chondroinductive nature...
November 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867499/lessons-on-skeletal-cell-plasticity-from-studying-jawbone-regeneration-in-zebrafish
#15
REVIEW
Sandeep Paul, J Gage Crump
Three major mesenchymal cell types have important roles in determining the shapes of vertebrate animals: bone-producing osteoblasts, cartilage-producing chondrocytes, and fat-producing adipocytes. Although often considered discrete cell types, accumulating evidence is revealing mesenchymal cells of intermediate identities and interconversion of cell types. Such plasticity is particularly evident during adult skeletal repair. In this Review, we highlight recent work in zebrafish showing a role for hybrid cartilage-bone cells in large-scale regeneration of the adult jawbone, as well as their origins in the periosteum...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861869/s100b%C3%A2-%C3%A2-a1-celisa-a-novel-potency-assay-and-screening-tool-for-redifferentiation-stimuli-of-human-articular-chondrocytes
#16
Jose Diaz-Romero, Sibylle Kürsener, Sandro Kohl, Dobrila Nesic
During monolayer expansion, a necessary step in autologous chondrocyte implantation, human articular chondrocytes (HAC) dedifferentiate and lose their capacity to produce stable hyaline cartilage. Determining HAC potency and learning how to trigger their redifferentiation would improve cell-based cartilage regeneration therapies. We previously identified S100B and S100A1 proteins as markers of HAC redifferentiation potential. Here, we aimed to: (i) demonstrate a correlation between S100B + A1-positive HAC in monolayer culture and their neochondrogenesis capacity in pellet culture; (ii) develop an S100B + A1 cell-based ELISA, and (iii) prove that S100B + A1 induction in HAC increases their chondrogenic capacity...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859991/signaling-networks-in-joint-development
#17
REVIEW
Joanna E Salva, Amy E Merrill
Here we review studies identifying regulatory networks responsible for synovial, cartilaginous, and fibrous joint development. Synovial joints, characterized by the fluid-filled synovial space between the bones, are found in high-mobility regions and are the most common type of joint. Cartilaginous joints unite adjacent bones through either a hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage intermediate. Fibrous joints, which include the cranial sutures, form a direct union between bones through fibrous connective tissue...
November 18, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853940/novel-role-of-ccn3-that-maintains-the-differentiated-phenotype-of-articular-cartilage
#18
Danilo Janune, Tarek Abd El Kader, Eriko Aoyama, Takashi Nishida, Yasuhiko Tabata, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Knowledge of the microenvironment of articular cartilage in health and disease is the key to accomplishing fundamental disease-modifying treatments for osteoarthritis. The proteins comprising the CCN Family are matricellular proteins with a remarkable relevance within the context of cartilage metabolism. CCN2 displays a great capability for regenerating articular cartilage, and CCN3 has been shown to activate the expression of genes related to articular chondrocytes and to repress genes related to endochondral ossification in epiphyseal chondrocytes...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853331/effects-of-platelet-rich-plasma-platelet-rich-fibrin-with-and-without-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-on-repairing-full-thickness-cartilage-defects-in-knees-of-rabbits
#19
Soghra Bahmanpour, Maryam Ghasemi, Mohsen Sadeghi-Naini, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to create biomaterial scaffolds like platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) containing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) as a chemokine to induce hyaline cartilage regeneration of rabbit knee in a full thickness defect. METHODS: We created a full thickness defect in the trochlear groove of thirty-six bilateral knees of eighteen mature male rabbits. The knees were randomly divided into six groups (group I: untreated control, group II: PRP, group III: PRF, group IV: Gelatin+SDF1, group V: PRP+SDF1, and group VI: PRF+SDF1)...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853243/axin2-expressing-cells-execute-regeneration-after-skeletal-injury
#20
R C Ransom, D J Hunter, S Hyman, G Singh, S C Ransom, E Z Shen, K C Perez, M Gillette, J Li, B Liu, J B Brunski, J A Helms
The mammalian skeleton performs a diverse range of vital functions, requiring mechanisms of regeneration that restore functional skeletal cell populations after injury. We hypothesized that the Wnt pathway specifies distinct functional subsets of skeletal cell types, and that lineage tracing of Wnt-responding cells (WRCs) using the Axin2 gene in mice identifies a population of long-lived skeletal cells on the periosteum of long bone. Ablation of these WRCs disrupts healing after injury, and three-dimensional finite element modeling of the regenerate delineates their essential role in functional bone regeneration...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
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